Relationship between latency and period for 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced membrane responses in the Calliphora salivary gland.
ABSTRACT: Following stimulation with a calcium-mobilizing agonist there is often a distinct latency (L) preceding the onset of the first calcium spike. In the continued presence of the agonist, repetitive spikes appear separated by a variable period (P). The relationship between L and P has been investigated in an insect salivary gland responding to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Both L and P were found to decrease as the concentration of 5-HT was increased over its physiological range of 1-10 nM. Lowering the concentration of external calcium from 1 x 10(-3) M to 1 x 10(-5) M increased both P and L. However, the effect on L was apparent only at low levels of 5-HT. Reducing the content of the internal stores by repeated stimulation in a calcium-free medium resulted in a progressive prolongation of L. On the other hand, the effect of L decreased when glands were stimulated repetitively in normal calcium-containing medium. All these results are consistent with a hypothesis that calcium plays a critical role in determining the kinetics of calcium release during both L and P. An important component seems to be the entry of external calcium, which sets the stage for calcium release by loading up the internal stores. As these stores fill up with calcium, the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors will initiate a calcium spike once they become sensitized to the ambient level of Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:D-Ins(1,4,5)P3 is now recognized as an intracellular messenger that mediates the actions of many cell-surface receptors on intracellular Ca2+ pools, but its complex and rapid metabolism in intact cells has confused interpretation of its possible roles in oscillatory changes in intracellular [Ca2+] and in controlling Ca2+ entry at the plasma membrane. We now report the actions and metabolic stability of a synthetic analogue of Ins(1,4,5)P3, DL-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphorothioate [DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3]. In permeabilized hepatocytes, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 and synthetic DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 stimulated Ca2+ release from the same intracellular stores, though the concentration required for half-maximal release was 3-fold higher for DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3. Since L-Ins(1,4,5)P3 neither antagonized the effects of D-Ins(1,4,5)P3 nor itself stimulated appreciable Ca2+ release, the activity of the racemic mixture of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and presumably also of Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3, is attributable to the D-isomer. Under conditions where there was negligible metabolism of D-[3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3, both DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 and DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 elicited rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and the stores remained empty during prolonged stimulation. When cells were incubated at high density, both compounds stimulated rapid Ca2+ release, but while the stores soon refilled as Ins(1,4,5)P3 was degraded to Ins(1,4)P2, there was no refilling of the pools after stimulation with DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3. When DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 or DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 was treated with a crude preparation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase and ATP, and the Ca2+-releasing activity of the products subsequently assayed, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3 was completely inactivated by phosphorylation, but there was no loss of activity of the phosphorothioate analogue. In additional experiments, DL-Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 (10 microM) did not affect the rate of phosphorylation of D-[3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 (1 microM). We conclude that Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 is a full agonist and only 3-fold less potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 in mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores, but unlike the natural messenger it is resistant to both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We propose that this stable analogue will allow the direct actions of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to be resolved from those that require its metabolism.
Project description:Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase is a key enzyme in the regulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Overexpression of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase inhibited agonist-evoked and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-evoked Ca2+ entry in Xenopus oocytes, but did not inhibit Ca2+ entry evoked by thapsigargin or non-metabolizable Ins(1,4,5)P3 analogues. The data suggest that Ins(1,4,5)P3 alone plays the crucial role in the activation of capacitative Ca2+ entry by emptying intracellular stores.
Project description:It has been demonstrated previously that thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) induces changes in inositol polyphosphates in the GH3 and GH4C1 strains of rat pituitary cells within 2.5-5.0 s. TRH also causes a rapid rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells which is due largely to redistribution of cellular calcium stores. Therefore, it has been concluded that TRH acts to release sequestered calcium in these cells via enhanced generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. If this conclusion were correct, TRH-enhanced accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 should occur at least as rapidly as the increase in [Ca2+]i. We have shown previously that the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by TRH occurs within about 400 ms; thus, it was important to investigate the subsecond time-course of changes in inositol phosphates caused by TRH. Using a rapid mixing device, we have measured changes in inositol polyphosphates on a subsecond time scale in GH4C1 cells prelabelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. Although TRH did alter inositol polyphosphate metabolism within 500 ms, the changes observed did not reveal a statistically significant increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 within time intervals of less than 1000 ms. Thus, we have been unable to demonstrate that a TRH-induced rise in Ins(1,4,5)P3 precedes or occurs concomitantly with the rise in [Ca2+]i in GH4C1 cells. Although these results do not disprove the current view that Ins(1,4,5)P3 mediates the action of TRH on intracellular calcium redistribution, we conclude that caution should be exercised in this, and possibly other cell systems, in accepting the dogma that all of the rapid, agonist-induced redistributions of intracellular calcium are mediated by Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:The functional interactions of a Jurkat cell-derived calcium influx factor (CIF) with Ins(1,4,5)P3 were examined by microinjection and voltage-clamp recording of current responses in Xenopus oocytes. CIF, which stimulates Ca2+ entry directly on microinjection, was active at dilutions at which it had no direct effect by augmenting both initial rapid Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca2+ discharge-activated currents and later sustained Ca2+ entry-activated currents. Augmented initial membrane currents were 3-5-fold greater in peak amplitude than currents evoked by injection of the same dose of Ins(1,4,5)P3 alone. The augmented initial response was not decreased by removal of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that there is potentiation of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated discharge from intracellular Ca2+ stores. However, the augmentation of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated discharge cannot be due to an enhanced production of endogenous Ins(1,4,5)P3 because maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3-activated currents saturate (approx. 500 nA) with supramaximal levels of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (10-50 microM). Depletion of Ca2+ stores, by pretreatment with thapsigargin or by prior injection with the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor antagonist heparin, abolished membrane currents elicited by Ins(1,4,5)P3/CIF co-injection, further suggesting that the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor was the target for the initial-current potentiating actions of CIF. In this regard, CIF also induced augmented initial currents with co-injection of either Ins(2,4,5)P3 or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The augmentation of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated currents by CIF was bell-shaped with regard to Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration, reminiscent of the regulatory influence of Ca2+ on Ins(1,4,5)P3 responses. Co-injection of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and CIF also augmented (2-3-fold) later current responses arising from sustained Ca2+ entry. The augmented late-current responses were not due to enhanced Ca2+ store depletion because supramaximal levels of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (50 microM) or injection of the poorly metabolized Ins(1,4,5)P3 analogue, Ins(2,4,5)P3, cannot activate the same magnitude of Ca(2+)-entry-dependent currents. These results suggest that CIF at low levels interacts with Ins(1,4,5)P3 to sensitize two pathways of Ca2+ signalling: initial discharge and later Ca2+ entry. Thus under physiological conditions CIF might be more potent as a co-messenger than as a direct Ca2+ entry signal and might provide a novel type of direct feedback regulation between the stores-activated influx pathway and the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Moreover these results suggest that CIF modulation of the receptor for Ins(1,4,5)P3 may underlie control of both augmentation of discharge and Ca2+ entry, as has been predicted from the conformational coupling model of Ca2+ entry.
Project description:An explanation of the complex effects of hormones on intracellular Ca2+ requires that the intracellular actions of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and the relationships between intracellular Ca2+ stores are fully understood. We have examined the kinetics of 45Ca2+ efflux from pre-loaded intracellular stores after stimulation with Ins(1,4,5)P3 or the stable phosphorothioate analogue, Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3, by simultaneous addition of one of them with glucose/hexokinase to rapidly deplete the medium of ATP. Under these conditions, a maximal concentration of either Ins(1,4,5)P3 or Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 evoked rapid efflux of about half of the accumulated 45Ca2+, and thereafter the efflux was the same as occurred under control conditions. Submaximal concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 or Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 caused a smaller rapid initial efflux of 45Ca2+, after which the efflux was similar whatever the concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P3 or Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 present. The failure of submaximal concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,4,5)P3[S]3 to mobilize fully the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ stores despite prolonged incubation was not due either to inactivation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 or to desensitization of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. The results suggest that the size of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 sensitive Ca2+ stores depends upon the concentration of Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:The mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores by Ins(1,4,5)P3 in suspensions of permeabilized rat hepatocytes was potentiated by preincubating intact cells with adenosine 3':5'-cyclic phosphorothioate (cpt-cAMP), or by addition of the catalytic subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) after cell permeabilization. This action of PKA involved both an enhancement in Ins(1,4,5)P3 sensitivity and an increase in the size of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-releasable Ca2+ pool. Inclusion of the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid in the permeabilization medium augmented the effects of PKA. Treatment with PKA catalytic subunit also increased the rate of ATP-dependent Ca2+ sequestration. To determine whether the effects of PKA on the Ca(2+)-release mechanism were secondary to alterations in the Ca2+ load of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores, a method was developed using Mn2+ as a Ca2+ surrogate to examine the permeability properties of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-gated channels independent of Ca2+ fluxes. This approach utilized the ability of Mn2+ to quench the fluorescence of fura-2 compartmentalized within intracellular Ca2+ stores in an Ins(1,4,5)P3-dependent manner, with thapsigargin added to block the ATP-activated Ca2+ pump and to ensure that the Ca2+ stores were fully depleted of Ca2+. The initial rate and extent of Mn2+ quenching of compartmentalized fura-2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner by Ins(1,4,5)P3. PKA activation increased both the initial rate and the extent of Mn2+ quenching at sub-maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 doses, but there was no effect on the quench rate in the presence of saturating Ins(1,4,5)P3. However, the amount of compartmentalized fura-2 that could be quenched by Mn2+ in the presence of maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 was increased by PKA. These data suggest two distinct actions of PKA on the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ stores. (1) Modification of the ion-permeability properties of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor/channel through an increase in the sensitivity to Ins(1,4,5)P3 for channel opening. (2) A recruitment of Ca2+ stores from the Ins(1,4,5)P3-insensitive pool. Both actions were independent of the Ca(2+)-loading state of the stores. Imaging studies of single permeabilized hepatocytes showed that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores were distributed throughout the cell and PKA enhanced the rate of Ins(1,4,5)P3-stimulated Mn2+ quench in individual cells, without modifying the subcellular distribution of Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores.
Project description:In single bovine adrenal chromaffin cells loaded with fura-2, histamine, angiotensin II (AII) and caffeine elicited large transient increases of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) in the absence of external Ca2+, with peak amplitudes averaging 726 +/- 138 (n = 14), 710 +/- 102 (n = 21) and 830 +/- 100 nM (n = 30) respectively. A substantial portion of the agonist-induced rise in [Ca2+]i depended on Ca2+ release from caffeine-sensitive stores, as pretreatment with caffeine diminished subsequent agonist responses by 90-95%. Conversely, pretreatment with histamine or AII decreased subsequent caffeine responses by 100% and 90% respectively. The effects of caffeine most likely resulted from activation of a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release (CICR) process, whereas histamine and AII initially acted through generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. The relationship of Ins(1,4,5)P3- and caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ pools was studied by using alpha-toxin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. Evidence was found for three non-mitochondrial, ATP-dependent, Ca2+ pools: one exclusively sensitive to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (pool 1), a second sensitive to both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and caffeine (pool 2), and a third exclusively sensitive to caffeine (pool 3). The existence of pools 1 and 3, and the ability of agonists such as histamine to discharge pool 3 completely, supports a two-pool model in which a caffeine-sensitive CICR mechanism plays a major role in the generation of agonist-induced Ca2+ spikes in bovine chromaffin cells.
Project description:Ins(2,4,5)P3, a metabolically stable analogue of Ins(1,4,5)P3, is widely used in analyses of Ca2+ signalling pathways, but its utility depends upon it faithfully mimicking the effects of the natural messenger, Ins(1,4,5)P3, at InsP3 receptors. To compare the kinetics of InsP3-evoked 45Ca2+ mobilization, Ins(1,4,5)P3- and Ins(2,4,5)P3-stimulated 45Ca2+ release from the intracellular stores of permeabilized rat hepatocytes was measured using rapid superfusion. Both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(2,4,5)P3 caused concentration-dependent increases in the rate of 45Ca2+ efflux, which accelerated towards a peak and then abruptly switched to a bi-exponentially decaying release rate. However, the peak rate of 45Ca2+ mobilization evoked by maximal concentrations of Ins(2,4,5)P3 was only 65+/-3% (n = 3) of that evoked by Ins(1,4,5)P3. Furthermore, Ins(2,4,5)P3 inhibited the peak rate of 45Ca2+ efflux evoked by Ins(1,4,5)P3. These results indicate that Ins(2,4,5)P3 is a partial agonist at hepatic Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. Additionally, responses to Ins(2,4,5)P3 were less positively cooperative [Hill coefficient (h) = 1.9+/-0.3] than were those to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (h = 3.0+/-0.2) and the kinetics of termination of 45Ca2+ mobilization were slower. The lesser efficacy of Ins(2,4,5)P3 may account for the lower cooperativity in the responses it evokes, the slower inactivation of InsP3 receptors and the characteristic patterns of Ca2+ spiking it evokes in intact cells.
Project description:In several cell types, including hepatocytes, submaximal concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 stimulate an initial rapid mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores that is followed by either no further Ca2+ release or very much slower release. Further additions of Ins(1,4,5)P3 then evoke further Ca2+ mobilization. Such 'incremental' responses [Meyer & Stryer (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 3841-3845] could result from all-or-nothing emptying of stores that differ in their sensitivities to Ins(1,4,5)P3 or from partial emptying of stores that are more uniformly sensitive, but unable to release all of their Ca2+ because the response to Ins(1,4,5)P3 rapidly attenuates. By measuring unidirectional 45Ca2+ efflux from intracellular stores stimulated with Ins(1,4,5)P3 under conditions where they continue to sequester 40Ca2+, we provide evidence suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P3 stimulates all-or-nothing emptying of stores that differ in their sensitivities to Ins(1,4,5)P3, a quantal response pattern.
Project description:Ca2+ release from intracellular stores occurs via two families of intracellular channels, each with their own specific agonist: Ins(1, 4,5)P3 for the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) for the ryanodine receptor. We now report that cADPR inhibited Ins(1, 4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release in permeabilized A7r5 cells with an IC50 of 20 microM, and in permeabilized 16HBE14o- bronchial mucosal cells with an IC50 of 35 microM. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase in specific [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. 8-Amino-cADPR, but not 8-bromo-cADPR, antagonized this effect of cADPR. The inhibition was prevented by a whole series of inositol phosphates (10 microM) that did not affect Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, and by micromolar concentrations of PPi and various nucleotide di- or triphosphates. We propose that cADPR must interact with a novel regulatory site on the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor or on an associated protein. This site is neither the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain, which prefers Ins(1,4,5)P3 and only binds nucleotides and PPi in the millimolar range, nor the stimulatory adenine nucleotide binding site.