Activation of AT1 angiotensin receptors induces DNA synthesis in a rat intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cell line.
ABSTRACT: Proliferation of the rat intestinal epithelial cell-line, RIE-1, has previously been shown to be stimulated by certain polypeptide growth factors acting via receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. In this study, we show that the octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (AII), apparently acting through the AT1 G-protein-coupled receptor, is also a mitogen for RIE-1 cells. Maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation occurred at an AII concentration of 10-100 nM, with half-maximal stimulation at 1 nM. The mitogenic response to AII was completely inhibited by the AT1 angiotensin-receptor antagonist, DuP753, but not by the AT2-receptor antagonist, PD123319. The early signalling responses activated by AII in RIE-1 cells include increased production of inositol phosphates, a transient increase in the intracellular concentration of free calcium, an activation of protein kinase C, and a rapid change in the pattern of cellular protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. These results implicate an activation of the inositol lipid signalling pathway via the AT1 receptor subtype in the AII-stimulated mitogenic response of this normal epithelial cell line.
Project description:Angiotensin II (AII)- and Arg8-vasopressin (AVP)-regulated gene expression in vascular cells has been reported to contribute to vascular homeostasis and hypertrophy. In this report, AVP-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2 mRNA in rat microvessel endothelial (RME) cells was identified using differential mRNA display. Further characterization of vasoactive peptide effects on PAI expression revealed that AII stimulated a 44.8 +/- 25.2-fold and a 12.4 +/- 3.2-fold increase in PAI-2 mRNA in RME cells and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC), respectively. AII also stimulated a 10- and 48-fold increase in PAI-1 mRNA in RME cells and RASMC, respectively. These AII effects were inhibited by either Sar1, Ile8-angiotensin or the AT1 antagonist DuP 735, but were not significantly altered in the presence of the AT2 antagonist PD123319. AII stimulation of RASMC and RME cells also significantly increased both PAI-1 protein and PAI activity released to the culture medium. Inhibition of protein kinase C completely blocked PMA-stimulated induction of PAI-2 mRNA in both cell types and inhibited the AII-stimulated increase in RASMC by 98.6 +/- 2.8%. In contrast, protein kinase C inhibition only partially decreased the AII-stimulated PAI-2 expression in RME cells by 68.8 +/- 11.1%, suggesting that a protein kinase C-independent mechanism contributes to a 6.9 +/- 1.5-fold AII induction of PAI-2 expression in endothelial cells. AII and PMA also stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in RME cells, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially blocked their induction of PAI-2 mRNA. These findings suggest that AII may regulate plasminogen activation in the vasculature by inducing both PAI-1 and PAI-2 expression.
Project description:We have investigated whether angiotensin II (AII) is able to induce insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation and its association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in the rat heart in vivo. The phosphorylation state of IRS-1 following infusion of insulin or AII via the vena cava was assessed after immunoprecipitation with an anti-peptide antibody to IRS-1 followed by immunoblotting with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and an anti-PI 3-kinase antibody. Densitometry indicated a 5.6 +/- 1.3-fold increase in IRS-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with AII and a 12.8 +/- 3.1-fold increase after insulin. The effect was maximal at an AII concentration of 10(-8) M and occurred 1 min after infusion. There was also a 6.1 +/- 1.2-fold increase in IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase in response to AII. In the isolated perfused heart the result was similar, showing a direct effect of AII on this pathway. When the animals were pretreated for 1 h with DuP 753, a non-peptide AII-receptor 1 (AT1 receptor) antagonist, there was a marked reduction in the AII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, suggesting that phosphorylation is initially mediated by the AT1 receptor. We conclude that AII stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its association with PI 3-kinase. This pathway thus represents an additional signalling mechanism stimulated by AII in the rat heart in vivo.
Project description:Angiotensin II exerts a mitogenic effect in several in vitro models, but a direct effect on erythroid progenitors has not been documented. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist, ameliorate posttransplant erythrocytosis, without altering serum erythropoietin levels. We studied erythroid differentiation and the effect of angiotensin II on proliferation of erythroid progenitors by culturing CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells in liquid serum-free medium favoring growth of erythroid precursors. Aliquots of cells were collected every third day, and were used for RNA preparation. AT1 mRNA was detected after 6 d. In these same samples, erythroid-specific mRNA (erythropoietin receptor) was also detected. AT1 protein was detected in 7-d-old burst-forming units-erythroid colonies by Western blotting. The CD34+ cell liquid cultures were used to incubate erythroid precursors with angiotensin II from days 6-9. After incubation, cells were transferred to semisolid medium and cultured with erythropoietin. Angiotensin II increased proliferation of early erythroid progenitors, defined as increased numbers of burst-forming units-erythroid colonies. Losartan completely abolished this stimulatory effect of angiotensin II. Moreover, we observed increased numbers of erythroid progenitors in the peripheral blood of posttransplant erythrocytosis patients. Thus, activation of AT1 with angiotensin II enhances erythropoietin-stimulated erythroid proliferation in vitro. A putative defect in the angiotensin II/AT1 pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttransplant erythrocytosis.
Project description:The physiological role of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor subtype is not fully characterized. We studied whether AT2 receptor could antagonize AT1 mediated superoxide formation in endothelial cells. In quiescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) superoxide formation was measured after long-term incubation (6 h) with angiotensin II in the presence or absence of its receptor blocker candesartan (AT1) or PD123319 (AT2) using the cytochrome c assay. In separate experiments, the effects of AT2 mediated effects on activities of cellular phosphates including the src homology 2 domain containing phosphatases (SHP-1) was studied. The basal superoxide formation (0.19+/-0.03 nmol superoxide mg protein(-1) min(-1)) in HUVEC was increased by 37.1% after exposure to angiotensin II (100 nM,) which was due to an activation of a NAD(P)H oxidase. This was abolished by candesartan (1 microM) as well as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. In contrast, blockade of AT2 receptors by PD123319 enhanced the superoxide formation by 73.7% in intact cells. Stimulation of AT2 went along with an increased activity of tyrosine phosphatases in total cell lysates (29.8%) and, in particular, a marked stimulation of src homology 2 domain containing phosphatases (SHP-1, by 293.4%). The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, in turn, prevented the AT2 mediated effects on superoxide formation. The expression of both angiotensin II receptor subtypes AT1 and AT2 was confirmed by RT - PCR analysis. It is concluded that AT2 functionally antagonizes the AT1 induced endothelial superoxide formation by a pathway involving tyrosine phosphatases.
Project description:1. We have recently demonstrated that chronic infusion of Angiotensin II into apoE-/- mice promotes the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. To determine the involvement of specific Angiotensin II receptors in this response, we co-infused Angiotensin II (1000 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for 28 days) with losartan (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or PD123319 (3 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) to antagonize AT1 and AT2 receptors, respectively. 2. Infusion of Angiotensin II promoted the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms in 70% of mature female apoE-/- mice. The formation of aortic aneurysms was totally inhibited by co-infusion of Angiotensin II with losartan (30 mg kg(-1) day(-1); P=0.003). In contrast, the co-infusion of Angiotensin II with PD123319 resulted in a marked increase in the incidence and severity of aortic aneurysms. 3. To determine whether AT2 antagonism also promoted Angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis, Angiotensin II was infused into young female apoE-/- mice that had little spontaneous atherosclerosis. In these mice, co-infusion of PD123319 led to a dramatic increase in the extent of atherosclerosis. This increase was associated with no change in plasma lipid concentrations and only transient and modest increases in blood pressure during co-infusion with PD123319. 4. While antagonism of AT1 receptors totally prevented the formation of aneurysms, antagonism of AT2 receptors promoted a large increase in the severity of Angiotensin II-induced vascular pathology.
Project description:The renin-angiotensin system contributes to pathological processes in a variety of organs. In the pancreas, blocking the angiotensin II (AII) type 1 receptor (AT1) attenuates pancreatic fibrogenesis in animal models of pancreatitis. Because the role of the AII type 2 receptor (AT2) in modulating pancreatic injury is unknown we investigated the role of AT2 in pancreatic injury and fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by repetitive cerulein administration in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or AT2-deficient (AT2-/-) mice and assessed by morphology and gene expression at 10 days. There was no difference between WT and AT2-/- mice in the degree of acute pancreatic injury as assessed by amylase release at 9 and 12 h and by histological examination of the pancreas at 12 h. In contrast, parenchymal atrophy and fibrosis were more pronounced in AT2-/- mice compared with WT mice at 10 days. Fibrosis was accompanied by activation of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) evaluated by Western blot analysis for alpha-smooth muscle actin and by immunocytochemistry; PSC activation was further increased in AT2-/- mice compared with WT mice. The level of pancreatic transforming growth factor-beta1 mRNA and protein after repetitive cerulein treatment was higher in AT2-/- mice than in WT mice. Our results demonstrate that, in contrast to AT1 receptor signaling, AT2 receptor signaling modulates protective antifibrogenic effects in a mouse model of cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrogenesis. We propose that the effects of AII on injury-induced pancreatic fibrosis may be determined by the balance between AT1 and AT2 receptor signaling.
Project description:The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of N-glycosylation in the expression and pharmacological properties of the the rat AT1a angiotensin II (AII) receptor. Glycosylation-site suppression was carried out by site-directed mutagenesis (Asn-->Gln) of Asn176 and Asn188 (located on the second extracellular loop) and by the removal of Asn4 at the N-terminal end combined with the replacement of the first four amino acids by a 10 amino acid peptide epitope (c-Myc). We generated seven possible N-glycosylation-site-defective mutants, all tagged at their C-terminal ends with the c-Myc epitope. This double-tagging strategy, associated with photoaffinity labelling, allowed evaluation of the molecular masses and immunocytochemical cellular localization of the various receptors transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. We showed that: (i) each of the three N-glycosylation sites are utilized in COS-7 cells; (ii) the mutant with three defective N-glycosylation sites was not (or was very inefficiently) expressed at the plasma membrane and accumulated inside the cell at the perinuclear zone; (iii) the preservation of two sites allowed normal receptor delivery to the plasma membrane, the presence of only Asn176 ensuring a behaviour similar to that of the wild-type receptor; and (iv) all expressed receptors displayed unchanged pharmacological properties (Kd for 125I-sarcosine1-AII; sarcosine1-AII-induced inositol phosphate production). These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation is required for the AT1 receptor expression. They are discussed in the light of current knowledge of membrane-protein maturation and future prospects of receptor overexpression for structural studies.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms involved in the Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] effect on sodium renal excretion remain to be determined. In a previous study, we showed that Ang-(1-7) has a biphasic effect on the proximal tubule Na+-ATPase activity, with the stimulatory effect mediated by the AT1 receptor. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the Na+-ATPase by Ang-(1-7). All experiments were carried out in the presence of 0.1 nM losartan to block the AT1 receptor-mediated stimulation. In this condition, Ang-(1-7) at 0.1 nM inhibited the Na+-ATPase activity of the proximal tubule by 54%. This effect was reversed by 10 nM PD123319, a specific antagonist of the AT2 receptor, and by 1 muM GDP[beta-S] (guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate), an inhibitor of G protein. Ang-(1-7) at 0.1 M induced [35S]GTP[S] (guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate) binding and 1 mug/ml pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G(i/o) protein, reversed the Ang-(1-7) effect. Furthermore, it was observed that the inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7) on the Na+-ATPase activity was completely reversed by 0.1 microM LY83583, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, and by 2 muM KT5823, a PKG (protein kinase G) inhibitor, and was mimicked by 10 nM d-cGMP (dibutyryl cGMP). Ang-(1-7) increased the PKG activity by 152% and this effect was abolished by 10 nM PD123319 and 0.1 microM LY83583. Taken together, these data indicate that Ang-(1-7) inhibits the proximal tubule Na+-ATPase by interaction with the AT2 receptor that subsequently activates the G(i/o) protein/cGMP/PKG pathway.
Project description:A hallmark of cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is the rapid down-regulation of several lineage-restricted genes that define their in vivo differentiated phenotype. Identifying factors that maintain an SMC differentiated phenotype has important implications in understanding the molecular underpinnings governing SMC differentiation and their subversion to an altered phenotype in various disease settings. Here, we show that several G-protein coupled receptors [alpha-thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid and angiotensin II (AII)] increase the expression of smooth muscle calponin (SM-Calp) in rat and human SMC. The increase in SM-Calp protein appears to be selective for G-protein-coupled receptors as epidermal growth factor was without effect. Studies using AII showed a 30-fold increase in SM-Calp protein, which was dose- and time-dependent and mediated by the angiotensin receptor-1 (AT1 receptor). The increase in SM-Calp protein with AII was attributable to transcriptional activation of SM-Calp based on increases in steady-state SM-Calp mRNA, increases in SM-Calp promoter activity and complete abrogation of protein induction with actinomycin D. To examine the potential role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2), protein kinase B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase C in AII-induced SM-Calp, inhibitors to each of the signalling pathways were used. None of these signalling molecules appears to be crucial for AII-induced SM-Calp expression, although Erk1/2 may be partially involved. These results identify SM-Calp as a target of AII-mediated signalling, and suggest that the SMC response to AII may incorporate a novel activity of SM-Calp.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>AT2 receptors have an unclear function on development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), although a pharmacological approach using the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 has implicated a role. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of AT2 receptors in AngII-induced AAAs using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches. We also defined effects of AT2 receptors in AngII-induced atherosclerosis and thoracic aortic aneurysms.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Male AT2 receptor wild type (AT2 +/y) and deficient (AT2 -/y) mice in an LDL receptor -/- background were fed a saturated-fat enriched diet, and infused with either saline or AngII (500 ng/kg/min). AT2 receptor deficiency had no significant effect on systolic blood pressure during AngII-infusion. While AngII infusion induced AAAs, AT2 receptor deficiency did not significantly affect either maximal width of the suprarenal aorta or incidence of AAAs. The AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 (3 mg/kg/day) and AngII were co-infused into male LDL receptor -/- mice that were either AT2 +/y or -/y. PD123319 had no significant effect on systolic blood pressure in either wild type or AT2 receptor deficient mice. Consistent with our previous findings, PD123319 increased AngII-induced AAAs. However, this effect of PD123319 occurred irrespective of AT2 receptor genotype. Neither AT2 receptor deficiency nor PD123319 had any significant effect on AngII-induced thoracic aortic aneurysms or atherosclerosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>AT2 receptor deficiency does not affect AngII-induced AAAs, thoracic aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PD123319 augments AngII-induced AAAs through an AT2 receptor-independent mechanism.