Purification and characterization of a calcium-independent acidic phospholipase A2 from rat lung.
ABSTRACT: Several phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities have been identified in rat lung homogenate and shown to be important in metabolism of lung phospholipids. One PLA2 activity is Ca(2+)-independent, active in vitro at pH 4, and inhibited by a substrate analogue, 1-hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33). Purification of this rat lung PLA2 by approx. 550-fold was carried out by sequential column chromatographies using DE-52, Sephacryl-100, heparin-Sepharose, and phenyl-Sepharose columns. The purified activity had an acidic pH optimum, was Ca(2+)-independent, was inhibited by MJ33 in a dose-dependent manner (50% inhibition at 3 mol%), was unaffected by treatment with p-bromophenacyl bromide or mercaptoethanol, and had a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence. The apparent molecular mass was 15 kDa on gel electrophoresis and activity was recovered in part by renaturation of protein from the gel. The properties of this enzyme suggest a new class of PLA2.
Project description:1-Hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33) is a fluorinated phospholipid analog that inhibits the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6). Prdx6 PLA2 activity is required for activation of NADPH oxidase 2 and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, MJ33 inhibited agonist-stimulated production of ROS by the isolated perfused mouse lung, lung microvascular endothelial cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. MJ33 (0.02-0.5 µmol MJ33/kg body weight) in mixed unilamellar liposomes was administered to C57BL/6 mice by either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. routes. Lung MJ33 content, measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, showed uptake of 67-87% of the injected dose for i.t. and 23-42% for i.v. administration at 4 hours postinjection. PLA2 activity of lung homogenates was markedly inhibited (>85%) at 4 hours postadministration. Both MJ33 content and PLA2 activity gradually returned to near control levels over the subsequent 24-72 hours. Mice treated with MJ33 at 12.5-25 µmol/kg did not show changes (compared with control) in clinical symptomatology, body weight, hematocrit, and histology of lung, liver, and kidney during a 30- to 50-day observation period. Thus, the toxic dose of MJ33 was >25 µmol/kg, whereas the PLA2 inhibitory dose was approximately 0.02 µmol/kg, indicating a high margin of safety. MJ33 administered to mice prior to lung isolation markedly reduced ROS production and tissue lipid and protein oxidation during ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thus, MJ33 could be useful as a therapeutic agent to prevent ROS-mediated tissue injury associated with lung inflammation or in harvested lungs prior to transplantation.
Project description:We have shown previously that radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine (PC) in liposomes or natural surfactant is removed from the alveolar space and metabolically recycled in a process that is stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). In this study, we evaluated the effect of a transition-state phospholipid analogue (MJ33; 1-hexadecyl-3-trifluoroethylglycero-sn-2-phosphomethanol) that competitively inhibited acidic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity (pH 4.0) of lung homogenate by more than 97%, but had no effect on PLA2 activity at pH 8.5. MJ33 incorporated into unilamellar liposomes (dipalmitoyl PC/egg PC/cholesterol/phosphatidylglycerol, molar proportions 10:5:3:2) or co-sonicated with biosynthesized natural surfactant was instilled into the trachea of the anaesthetized rat; lungs were then removed for 2 h perfusion in the absence or presence of 0.1 mM-8-bromo cAMP. Total uptake for phospholipid was unchanged in the presence of the inhibitor MJ33. Degradation of labelled PC during 2 h perfusion in the absence of MJ33 was approx. 26% of that instilled for choline-labelled liposomal PC, 16% for liposomal PC labelled in the second fatty-acyl position, and 33% for choline-labelled natural surfactant. Degradation of PC was decreased by approx. 25-40% for each substrate in the presence of MJ33. Inhibition of lipid degradation depended on the mole fraction of MJ33 in the liposomes and was maximal at 1 mol%. These studies demonstrate a significant role for acidic Ca(2+)-independent PLA2 in the degradation of internalized alveolar PC, but further indicate that this enzyme accounts for a minor fraction of total lung PC metabolism.
Project description:Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a Ca2+-independent intracellular phospholipase A2 (called aiPLA2) that is localized to cytosol, lysosomes, and lysosomal-related organelles. Activity is minimal at cytosolic pH but is increased significantly with enzyme phosphorylation, at acidic pH, and in the presence of oxidized phospholipid substrate; maximal activity with phosphorylated aiPLA2 is ?2 µmol/min/mg protein. Prdx6 is a "moonlighting" protein that also expresses glutathione peroxidase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl transferase activities. The catalytic site for aiPLA2 activity is an S32-H26-D140 triad; S32-H26 is also the phospholipid binding site. Activity is inhibited by a serine "protease" inhibitor (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate), an analog of the PLA2 transition state [1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33)], and by two naturally occurring proteins (surfactant protein A and p67phox), but not by bromoenol lactone. aiPLA2 activity has important physiological roles in the turnover (synthesis and degradation) of lung surfactant phospholipids, in the repair of peroxidized cell membranes, and in the activation of NADPH oxidase type 2 (NOX2). The enzyme has been implicated in acute lung injury, carcinogenesis, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, male infertility, and sundry other conditions, although its specific roles have not been well defined. Protein mutations and animal models are now available to further investigate the roles of Prdx6-aiPLA2 activity in normal and pathological physiology.
Project description:Do peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) control reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during human sperm capacitation?PRDXs are necessary to control the levels of ROS generated during capacitation allowing spermatozoa to achieve fertilizing ability.Sperm capacitation is an oxidative event that requires low and controlled amounts of ROS to trigger phosphorylation events. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that not only act as scavengers but also control ROS action in somatic cells. Spermatozoa from infertile men have lower levels of PRDXs (particularly of PRDX6), which are thiol-oxidized and therefore inactive.Semen samples were obtained from a cohort of 20 healthy nonsmoker volunteers aged 22-30 years old over a period of 1 year.Sperm from healthy donors was capacitated with fetal cord serum ultrafiltrate (FCSu) in the absence or presence of thiostrepton (TSP), inhibitor of 2-Cys PRDXs or 1-Hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol lithium (MJ33), inhibitor of calcium independent-phospholipase A2 (Ca2+-iPLA2) activity of PRDX6, added at different times of incubation. Capacitation was also induced by the dibutyryl cAMP+3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine system. Sperm viability and motility were determined by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and computer-assisted semen analysis system, respectively. Capacitation was determined by the ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction triggered by lysophosphatidylcholine. Percentages of acrosome reaction were obtained using the FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin assay. Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues and of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin labeling.TSP and MJ33 prevented sperm capacitation and its associated actin polymerization in spermatozoa incubated with 10% FCSu (capacitation inducer) compared to non-capacitated controls (P < 0.05) without altering sperm viability. PKA substrates and tyrosine phosphorylations were prevented in FCSu-treated spermatozoa in a differential fashion depending on the type and the time of addition of the inhibitor used compared to non-capacitated controls (P < 0.05). TSP and MJ33 promoted an increase of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa (P < 0.01) and these levels were higher in those spermatozoa incubated with the inhibitors and FCSu compared to those capacitated spermatozoa incubated without the inhibitors (P < 0.0001). Inhibition of 2-Cys PRDXs by TSP generated an oxidative stress in spermatozoa, affecting their viability compared to controls (P < 0.05). This oxidative stress was prevented by nuclephile D-penicillamine (PEN). MJ33 also promoted an increase of lipid peroxidation and impaired sperm viability compared to non-treated controls (P < 0.05) but its effect was not circumvented by PEN, suggesting that not only peroxidase but also Ca2+-iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 are necessary to guarantee viability in human spermatozoa.Not applicable.We focused on the global effect of PRDXs inhibitors on human sperm capacitation and in two of its associated phosphorylation events. Thus, other phosphorylation events and mechanisms necessary for capacitation may also be affected.PRDXs are the major antioxidant system in ejaculated spermatozoa and are necessary to allow spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability (capacitation and acrosome reaction).This research was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP 133661) and the Fonds de Recherché en Santé Quebec (FRSQS #22151) to C.O. The authors have nothing to disclose.
Project description:A simple approach to synthesize phospholipids to modulate drug release and track lipid-based particulate drug-carriers is described. We synthesized two ether lipids, 1 1-O-hexadecyl-2-pentadenoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (C(31)PC) and 2 1-O-hexadecyl-2-pentadenoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphomethanol (C(31)PM), and examined their ability to alter enzymatically triggered release of 6-carboxyfluorescein from liposomes incubated in TRIS buffer or fetal bovine serum solutions. Further, we demonstrated that odd-chain lipids, for example, C(31)PC, could be identified in rat plasma without interference of endogenous lipids. This approach can be adapted to synthesize a variety of lipids for use in developing and optimizing multifunctional drug-carriers.
Project description:The production of arachidonic acid (AA), which is involved in mitogenic signalling by epidermal growth factor (EGF), is most directly accomplished by the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We demonstrate that EGF treatment of intact NEF cells rapidly activates a cytosolic PLA2, as measured in cell-free extracts by the release of radiolabelled AA from exogenously added 1-stearoyl-2-[1-14C]arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine. Activation of PLA2 by EGF resulted in an enhanced Vmax. and no change in Km. The PLA2 activity was eluted in a single peak at 0.4 M-NaCl from a Mono Q anion-exchange column, and migrated with an approximate molecular mass of 70 kDa on a Superose 12 gel-filtration column. The EGF-activated PLA2 activity co-migrated with the basal PLA2 activity upon gel filtration, and persisted after partial purification, which indicates that the activation is due to a stable modification of the enzyme. The EGF-stimulated PLA2 is Ca(2+)-dependent, with maximal activity at micromolar concentrations of Ca2+, has a pH optimum at 9, associates with the particulate cell fraction in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, and is selective for arachidonoyl at the sn-2 position. These data demonstrate the EGF-induced activation of a PLA2, which is similar to a recently cloned high-molecular-mass AA-selective cytosolic PLA2, thus providing a link between EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activation and AA metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This paper describes the isolation and characterization of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) from fetal cotyledonary tissue (FCT) and maternal caruncular tissue (MCT) collected from fallow deer (Dama dama) pregnant females. Proteins issued from FCT and MCT were submitted to affinity chromatographies by using Vicia villosa agarose (VVA) or anti-bovine PAG-2 (R#438) coupled to Sepharose 4B gel. Finally, they were characterized by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal microsequencing. RESULTS: Four distinct fallow deer PAG (fdPAG) sequences were identified and submitted to Swiss-Prot database. Comparison of fdPAG with PAG sequences identified in other ruminant species exhibited 64 to 83% identity. Additionally, alpha-fetoprotein was identified in fetal and maternal tissues. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of VVA and bovine PAG-2 affinity chromatographies for the isolation of PAG molecules expressed in deer placenta. This is the first report giving four specific amino acid sequences of PAG isolated from feto-maternal junction (FCT and MCT) in the Cervidae family.
Project description:Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitors suppressed simultaneously, in a dose-dependent manner, the activation of NADPH oxidase and the release of 3H-labelled arachidonic acid ([3H]AA) stimulated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan (OZ) in human neutrophils. In spite of total inhibition of superoxide production in the presence of the PLA2 inhibitors, 10 microM bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) or 20 microM quinacrine, a maximal phosphorylation of p47 and translocation of p47 and p67 to the neutrophil membranes induced by PMA or OZ was observed. Addition of 10 microM free AA, which by itself did not stimulate superoxide generation, restored oxidase activity in neutrophils treated with PLA2 inhibitors. These findings indicate that phosphorylation and translocation of the cytosolic factors to the membranes are not sufficient for generating superoxide; a functional PLA2 is also needed to stimulate the oxidase activity. The inhibition of PLA2 activity did not prevent the phosphorylation of p47, suggesting that the location of PLA2 is downstream of and does not activate protein kinase C.
Project description:The invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase, EC 188.8.131.52) of the rumen holotrich ciliate Isotricha prostoma has been purified. This is the first report of an enzyme purification from a known species of rumen protozoon. Cells were disrupted by ultrasonic treatment and the enzyme was purified from the cell-free extract by three successive liquid column chromatographies (Sepharose CL4B/octyl-Sepharose CL4B, DE52 DEAE-cellulose and concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B). This resulted in a 160-fold purification and a 15% yield. The major form of the purified enzyme was a tetramer with Mr about 350,000 that was readily dissociated by electrophoresis. The invertase was heterogeneous, as five types of monomers were shown by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis after denaturation. Part of this heterogeneity was due to different glycosylated forms of one of the polypeptides present in the purified enzyme. Isotricha prostoma invertase exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5-6.0 and 50 degrees C. The kinetic properties of the purified enzyme were very similar to those of invertases from other sources such as yeast or plants (substrate and product inhibition, transferase activity).
Project description:Hydroxymethylbilane synthase from human erythrocytes was purified 47,000-fold to greater than 95% homogeneity and 7.5% yield by a simple and rapid procedure using heat treatment (80 degrees C, in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, to convert one of two chromatographically separable forms into the other), DEAE-cellulose and Cibacron Blue F3G-A-Sepharose chromatographies and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purified enzyme was similar to the enzyme purified from other species in showing hyperbolic dependence of velocity on substrate concentration, a non-linear progress curve for uroporphyrinogen appearance, and was monomeric, having an Mr of 44,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and h.p.l.c. and an Mr of 45,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a sharp pH profile for Vmax, and various folates were shown to accelerate neither the enzymic formation of hydroxymethylbilane nor ring-closure of hydroxymethylbilane.