Ca2+/H+ exchange in acidic vacuoles of Trypanosoma brucei.
ABSTRACT: The use of digitonin to permeabilize the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes allowed the identification of a non-mitochondrial nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. The proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) was able to cause Ca2+ release from this compartment, which was also sensitive to sodium orthovanadate. Preincubation of the cells with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 greatly reduced the nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. Bafilomycin A1 inhibited the initial rate of ATP-dependent non-mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and stimulated the initial rate of nigericin-induced Ca2+ release by permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes. ATP-dependent and bafilomycin A1- and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl)-sensitive Acridine Orange uptake was demonstrated in permeabilized cells. Under these conditions Acridine Orange was concentrated in abundant cytoplasmic round vacuoles by a process inhibited by bafilomycin A1, NBD-Cl, nigericin, and Ca2+. Vanadate or EGTA significantly increased Acridine Orange uptake, while Ca2+ released Acridine Orange from these preparations, thus suggesting that the dye and Ca2+ were being accumulated in the same acidic vacuole. Acridine Orange uptake was reversed by nigericin, bafilomycin A1 and NH4Cl. The results are consistent with the presence of a Ca2+/H(+)-ATPase system pumping Ca2+ into an acidic vacuole, that we tentatively named the acidocalcisome.
Project description:The use of digitonin to permeabilize the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma cruzi allowed the identification of a non-mitochondrial nigericin- or bafilomycin A1-sensitive Ca(2+)-uptake mechanism. Proton uptake, as detected by ATP-dependent Acridine Orange accumulation, was also demonstrated in these permeabilized cells. Under these conditions Acridine Orange was concentrated in abundant cytoplasmic round vacuoles. This latter process was inhibited (and reversed) by bafilomycin A1, nigericin and NH4Cl in different stages of T. cruzi. Ca2+ released Acridine Orange from permeabilized cells, suggesting that the dye and Ca2+ were being accumulated in the same acidic compartment and that Ca2+ was taken up in exchange for protons. Addition of bafilomycin A1 (5 microM), nigericin (1 microM) or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP; 1 microM) to fura 2-loaded epimastigotes increased their intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Although this effect was more noticeable in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, it was also observed in its absence. Addition of NH4Cl (10-40 mM) to different stages of T. cruzi, in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ to preclude Ca2+ entry, increased both [Ca2+]i in fura 2-loaded cells, and intracellular pH (pHi) in 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF)-loaded cells. Treatment of the cells with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin under similar conditions (nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+) resulted in an increase in [Ca2+]i and a significantly higher increase in [Ca2+]i after addition of NH4Cl, nigericin or bafilomycin A1, all agents which increase the pH of acidic compartments and make ionomycin more effective as a Ca(2+)-releasing ionophore. Similar results were obtained when the order of additions was reversed. Taking into account the relative importance of the ionomycin-releasable and the ionomycin plus NH4Cl-releasable Ca2+ pools, it is apparent that most of the Ca2+ stored in different stages of T. cruzi is present in the acidic compartment thus identified. Taken together, these results are consistent with the presence of a Ca2+/H+ exchange system in an acidic vacuole, which we have named the 'acidocalcisome' and which appears to be a unique organelle present in trypanosomatids.
Project description:The hypothesis that changes in cytosolic pH effect the release from intracellular compartments of stored calcium in Trypanosoma brucei was addressed by the use of procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes of T. brucei loaded with the fluorescent reagents 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) to measure intracellular pH (pHi), or fura 2 to measure intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i). Experiments were performed in EGTA-containing buffers, so increases in [Ca2+]i reflected release of stored calcium rather than Ca2+ entry. Nigericin reduced pHi and increased [Ca2+]i in loaded cells, whilst propionate reduced pHi, but did not affect [Ca2+]i, and NH4Cl increased both variables, so there appears to be no correlation between pHi and [Ca2+]i. Treatment of the cells with the calcium ionophore ionomycin under similar conditions (nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+) resulted in an increase of [Ca2+]i which was greatly increased by addition of either NH4Cl, nigericin or the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Similar results were obtained when the order of additions was reversed or when digitonin-permeabilized cells were used with the Ca2+ indicator arsenazo III. The results suggest that more Ca2+ is stored in this acidic compartment in procyclic than in bloodstream forms. Taking into account the relative importance of the ionomycin-releasable and the ionomycin-plus-NH4Cl-releasable Ca2+ pools, it is apparent that a significant amount of the Ca2+ stored in T. brucei trypomastigotes is present in the acidic compartment thus identified.
Project description:Acidocalcisomes are acidic vacuoles present in trypanosomatids that contain a considerable fraction of intracellular Ca2+. They possess a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase for H+ uptake, a Ca2+/H+ countertransporting ATPase for Ca2+ uptake and a Ca2+/nH+ antiporter for Ca2+ release. Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes acidocalcisomes possess, in addition, an Na+/H+ antiporter that may participate in Ca2+ release from these organelles. In this work we show that the hydrophobic antioxidant 3,5-dibutyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT), at concentrations in the range 1-20 microM, inhibits Na+-induced Ca2+ release from the acidocalcisomes of digitonin-permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect supports the notion that Ca2+ release from this compartment is regulated by the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the presence of BHT, Ca2+ release could still be obtained by nigericin-mediated alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes, clearly demonstrating that the action of BHT is not at the level of the Ca2+/nH+ antiporter but on that of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the same range of concentrations and depending on the preincubation time, BHT had an stimulatory or an inhibitory effect on the vacuolar H+-ATPase present in T. brucei acidocalcisomes. Since these effects of BHT were obtained at concentrations which are commonly used for its antioxidant properties, these results indicate that care should be exercised when attributing effects of BHT to only these properties.
Project description:Inorganic pyrophosphate promoted the acidification of an intracellular compartment in permeabilized promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, as measured by Acridine Orange uptake. The proton gradient generated by pyrophosphate was collapsed by addition of nigericin or NH4Cl. Pyrophosphate-driven proton translocation was stimulated by potassium ions, and inhibited by NaF, the pyrophosphate analogues imidodiphosphate and aminomethylenediphosphonate (AMDP), dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and the thiol reagents p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide, all at concentrations similar to those that inhibit the plant vacuolar proton-pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase). The proton translocation activity had a pH optimum in the range 7.0-7.5, and was unaffected by bafilomycin A1 (40 nM), concanamycin A (5 nM), sodium o-vanadate (500 microM) and KNO3 (200 mM). AMDP-sensitive pyrophosphate hydrolysis was also detected in promastigotes, and potassium ions also stimulated this activity. Sodium ions disrupted pH gradients established in the presence of ATP but not in the presence of pyrophosphate, and sequential addition of ATP and pyrophosphate resulted in partially additive Acridine Orange accumulation, suggesting that the vacuolar H+-PPase is in a different intracellular compartment from the vacuolar H+-ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger of L. donovani promastigotes. Separation of promastigote extracts on Percoll gradients yielded a dense fraction that contained H+-PPase activity but lacked ATPase activity and markers for mitochondria, glycosomes and lysosomes. The organelles in this fraction appeared by electron microscopy to consist of electron-dense vacuoles. In summary, these results indicate that, in contrast to plant vacuoles, vacuolar H+-PPase and vacuolar ATPase activities are present in different compartments in L. donovani promastigotes.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura 2 to investigate the transport mechanisms involved in maintaining their intracellular Ca2+ homoeostasis. The mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor oligomycin and the endoplasmic-reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), thus indicating the requirement for ATP and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum in maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homoeostasis. The effect of thapsigargin was more accentuated in the presence of extracellular Ca2+, clearly showing that, as occurs with other eukaryotic cells, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ pools led to an increase in the uptake of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium. In addition to these results, we found evidence that, in contrast with what occurs in mammalian cells, T. gondii tachyzoites possess a significant amount of Ca2+ stored in an acidic compartment, termed the acidocalcisome, as indicated by: (1) the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of H(+)-ATPases), nigericin (a K+/H+ exchanger) or the weak base NH4Cl, in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ to preclude Ca2+ entry; and (2) the effect of ionomycin, a Ca(2+)-releasing ionophore that cannot take Ca2+ out of acidic organelles and that was more effective after alkalinization of these compartments by addition of bafilomycin A1, nigericin or NH4Cl. Considering the relative importance of the ionomycin-releasable and the ionomycin + NH4Cl-releasable Ca2+ pools, it is apparent that T. gondii tachyzoites contain a significant amount of Ca2+ stored in acidocalcisomes.
Project description:Most physiological agonists increase cytosolic free [Ca2+]c (cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration) to regulate a variety of cellular processes. How different stimuli evoke distinct spatiotemporal Ca2+ responses remains unclear, and the presence of separate intracellular Ca2+ stores might be of great functional relevance. Ca2+ accumulation into intracellular compartments mainly depends on the activity of Ca2+- and H+-ATPases. Platelets present two separate Ca2+ stores differentiated by the distinct sensitivity to thapsigargin and TBHQ [2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone]. Although one store has long been identified as the dense tubular system, the nature of the TBHQ-sensitive store remains uncertain. Treatment of platelets with GPN (glycylphenylalanine-2-naphthylamide) impaired Ca2+ release by TBHQ and reduced that evoked by thrombin. In contrast, GPN did not modify Ca2+ mobilization stimulated by ADP or AVP ([arginine]vasopressin). Treatment with nigericin, a proton carrier, and bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H+-ATPase, to dissipate the proton gradient into acidic organelles induces a transient increase in [Ca2+]c that was abolished by previous treatment with the SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) 3 inhibitor TBHQ. Depleted acidic stores after nigericin or bafilomycin A1 were refilled by SERCA 3. Thrombin, but not ADP or AVP, reduces the rise in [Ca2+]c evoked by nigericin and bafilomycin A1. Our results indicate that the TBHQ-sensitive store in human platelets is an acidic organelle whose Ca2+ accumulation is regulated by both Ca2+- and vacuolar H+-ATPases.
Project description:The presence of an ATP-driven H+ pump as measured by H+ uptake upon addition of ATP was not demonstrable in human placental brush-border membrane vesicles when used in their native form, owing to their right-side-out orientation. However, the presence of the H+ pump in these membranes became evident when the membrane vesicles were transiently exposed to 1% cholate, with subsequent removal of the detergent to re-form the vesicles. Apparently, cholate pretreatment reoriented the H+ pump from an inward-facing configuration to outward-facing. Consequently, H+ uptake in response to externally added ATP was easily demonstrable in these cholate-pretreated vesicles by using the delta pH indicator Acridine Orange. In addition, bafilomycin A1-sensitive ATPase activity was measurable in cholate-pretreated vesicles, but not in native intact vesicles, indicating reorientation of the H+ pump. The reoriented H+ pump was electrogenic because H+ uptake was stimulated by an inside-negative anion-diffusion potential or when the vesicles were voltage-clamped. ATP supported H+ uptake with an apparent Km of 260 microM. ITP and GTP supported the pump activity partially, whereas CTP and UTP did not. Mg2+ and Mn2+ were the most preferred bivalent cations. Co2+ and Zn2+ showed partial activity, whereas Ca2+ and Ba2+ showed little or no activity. The pump was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of bafilomycin A1 and micromolar concentrations of N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate, NN-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, but was relatively insensitive to oligomycin, vanadate and NaN3. The inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide was protectable by ATP. It is concluded that human placental brush-border membranes possess an ATP-driven H+ pump and that, on the basis of its characteristics, it belongs to the class of vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps.
Project description:Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium-storage compartments described from bacteria to humans and characterized by their high content in poly P (polyphosphate), a linear polymer of many tens to hundreds of Pi residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In the present paper we report that millimolar levels of short-chain poly P (in terms of Pi residues) and inorganic PPi are present in sea urchin extracts as detected using 31P-NMR, enzymatic determinations and agarose gel electrophoresis. Poly P was localized to granules randomly distributed in the sea urchin eggs, as shown by labelling with the poly-P-binding domain of Escherichia coli exopolyphosphatase. These granules were enriched using iodixanol centrifugation and shown to be acidic and to contain poly P, as determined by Acridine Orange and DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining respectively. These granules also contained large amounts of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and zinc, as detected by X-ray microanalysis, and bafilomycin A1-sensitive ATPase, pyrophosphatase and exopolyphosphatase activities, as well as Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchange activities, being therefore similar to acidocalcisomes described in other organisms. Calcium release from these granules induced by nigericin was associated with poly P hydrolysis. Although NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) released calcium from the granule fraction, this activity was not significantly enriched as compared with the NAADP-stimulated calcium release from homogenates and was not accompanied by poly P hydrolysis. GPN (glycyl-L-phenylalanine-naphthylamide) released calcium when added to sea urchin homogenates, but was unable to release calcium from acidocalcisome-enriched fractions, suggesting that these acidic stores are not the targets for NAADP.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) evokes release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the resulting Ca2+ signals are shaped by interactions with additional intracellular organelles. Bafilomycin A1, which prevents lysosomal Ca2+ uptake by inhibiting H+ pumping into lysosomes, increased the amplitude of the initial Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Carbachol alone and carbachol in combination with parathyroid hormone (PTH) evoke Ca2+ release from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores in HEK cells stably expressing human type 1 PTH receptors. Bafilomycin A1 similarly exaggerated the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol or carbachol with PTH, indicating that Ca2+ released from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores is sequestered by lysosomes. The Ca2+ signals resulting from store-operated Ca2+ entry, whether evoked by thapsigargin or carbachol, were unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Using Gd3+ (1 mM) to inhibit both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ extrusion, HEK cells were repetitively stimulated with carbachol to assess the effectiveness of Ca2+ recycling to the ER after IP3-evoked Ca2+ release. Blocking lysosomal Ca2+ uptake with bafilomycin A1 increased the amplitude of each carbachol-evoked Ca2+ signal without affecting the rate of Ca2+ recycling to the ER. This suggests that Ca2+ accumulated by lysosomes is rapidly returned to the ER. We conclude that lysosomes rapidly, reversibly and selectively accumulate the Ca2+ released by IP3 receptors residing within distinct Ca2+ stores, but not the Ca2+ entering cells via receptor-regulated, store-operated Ca2+ entry pathways.
Project description:Acidocalcisomes are acidic vacuoles present in trypanosomatids that contain a considerable fraction of intracellular Ca2+ [Vercesi, Moreno and Docampo (1994) Biochem. J. 304, 227-233; Scott, Moreno and Docampo (1995) Biochem. J. 310, 789-794; Docampo, Scott, Vercesi and Moreno (1995) Biochem. J. 310, 1005-1012]. The data presented here indicate that Na+ stimulates Ca2+ release from the acidocalcisomes of digitonin-permeabilized Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes in a dose-dependent fashion, this effect being enhanced by increasing pH of the medium from 7.0 to 7.8. The hypothesis that this Na+ effect was mediated by alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes via a Na+/H+ antiporter was supported by experiments showing that Na+ promotes release of Acridine Orange previously accumulated in these vacuoles. This putative antiporter did not transport Li+ and was not sensitive to the amiloride analogue 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride. Addition of the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin to intact cells loaded with fura 2, in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ to preclude Ca2+ entry, was followed by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was more accentuated in the presence of extracellular Na+. An increase in intracellular pH (pHi) of BCECF-loaded cells was detected after addition of monensin in the presence of extracellular Na+, whereas a dramatic decrease in pHi was detected in its absence, thus indicating the presence of a significant amount of releasable protons in the acidic compartments. These results are consistent with the presence of a Na+/H+ antiporter in the acidocalcisomes that could be involved in the regulation of pH1 and [Ca2+]1 in these parasites.