A novel ganglioside with a free amino group in bovine brain.
ABSTRACT: A novel ganglioside which binds cholera-toxin B-subunit was purified from bovine brain by an h.p.l.c. system using an Aquasil column subsequent to Q-Sepharose column chromatography. T.l.c./immunostaining showed that the isolated ganglioside had about 60% of the binding reactivity of the authentic ganglioside GM1 for cholera-toxin B-subunit. On h.p.l.c., this ganglioside migrated between ganglioside GD1a and GD1b, and was found to give positive reactions with ninhydrin and fluorescamine reagents which specifically react with amino groups. The presence of a free amino group was further confirmed by chemical re-N-acetylation. The N-acetylated product had an identical RF value on h.p.l.c. and similar reactivity with cholera-toxin B-subunit as the authentic GM1. H.p.t.l.c., t.l.c./immunostaining, negative-ion fast-atom-bombardment (f.a.b.)-m.s., and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the novel ganglioside unequivocally demonstrated that it has the basal structure of GM1 with de-N-acetylated neuraminic acid instead of N-acetylneuraminic acid. In the present study we report for the first time that a ganglioside derivative containing de-N-acetylated neuraminic acid, de-N-acetylated GM1, exists in natural brain tissues.
Project description:Balb/c 3T3 cells contain a large number [(0.8-1.6) x 10(6)] of high-affinity (half-maximal binding at 0.2 nM) binding sites for cholera toxin that are resistant to proteolysis, but are quantitatively extracted with chloroform/methanol. The following evidence rigorously establishes that the receptor is a ganglioside similar to, or identical with, ganglioside GM1 by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique on intact cells was inhibited by cholera toxin. (2) Ganglioside GM1 was specifically adsorbed from Nonidet P40 extracts of both surface- (galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique) and metabolically ([1-14C]palmitate) labelled cells in the presence of cholera toxin, anti-toxin and Staphylococcus aureus. (3) Ganglioside GM1 was the only ganglioside labelled when total cellular gangliosides separated on silica-gel sheets were overlayed with 125I-labelled cholera toxin, although GM3 and GD1a were the major gangliosides present. In contrast no evidence for a galactoprotein with receptor activity was obtained. Cholera toxin did not protect the terminal galactose residues of cell-surface glycoproteins from labelling by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique. No toxin-binding proteins could be identified in Nonidet P40 extracts of [35S]-methionine-labelled cells by immunochemical means. After sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis none of the major cellular galactoproteins identified by overlaying gels with 125I-labelled ricin were able to bind 125I-labelled cholera toxin. It is concluded that the cholera toxin receptor on Balb/c 3T3 cells is exclusively ganglioside GM1 (or a related species), and that cholera toxin can therefore be used to probe the function and organisation of gangliosides in these cells as previously outlined [Critchley, Ansell, Perkins, Dilks & Ingram (1979) J. Supramol. Struct. 12, 273-291].
Project description:GM1-ganglioside receptor binding by the B subunit of cholera toxin (CtxB) is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by triggering uptake and delivery of the toxin A subunit into cells. More recently, GM1 binding by isolated CtxB, or the related B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (EtxB), has been found to modulate leukocyte function, resulting in the down-regulation of proinflammatory immune responses that cause autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that GM1 binding, contrary to expectation, is not sufficient to initiate toxin action. We report the engineering and crystallographic structure of a mutant cholera toxin, with a His to Ala substitution in the B subunit at position 57. Whereas the mutant retained pentameric stability and high affinity binding to GM1-ganglioside, it had lost its immunomodulatory activity and, when part of the holotoxin complex, exhibited ablated toxicity. The implications of these findings on the mode of action of cholera toxin are discussed.
Project description:125I-labelled heat-labile toxin (from Escherichia coli) and 125I-labelled cholera toxin bound to immobilized ganglioside GM1 and Balb/c 3T3 cell membranes with identical specificities, i.e. each toxin inhibited binding of the other. Binding of both toxins to Balb/c 3T3 cell membranes was saturable, with 50% of maximal binding occurring at 0.3 nM for cholera toxin and 1.1 nM for heat-labile toxin, and the number of sites for each toxin was similar. The results suggest that both toxins recognize the same receptor, namely ganglioside GM1. In contrast, binding of 125I-heat-labile toxin to rabbit intestinal brush borders at 0 degree C was not inhibited by cholera toxin, although heat-labile toxin inhibited 125I-cholera toxin binding. In addition, there were 3-10-fold more binding sites for heat-labile toxin than for cholera toxin. At 37 degrees C cholera toxin, but more particularly its B-subunit, did significantly inhibit 125I-heat-labile toxin binding. Binding of 125I-cholera toxin was saturable, with 50% maximal of binding occurring at 1-2 nM, and was quantitatively inhibited by 10(-8) M unlabelled toxin or B-subunit. By contrast, binding of 125I-heat-labile toxin was non-saturable (up to 5 nM), and 2 X 10(-7) M unlabelled B-subunit was required to quantitatively inhibit binding. Neuraminidase treatment of brush borders increased 125I-cholera toxin but not heat-labile toxin binding. Extensive digestion of membranes with Streptomyces griseus proteinase or papain did not decrease the binding of either toxin. The additional binding sites for heat-labile toxin are not gangliosides. Thin-layer chromatograms of gangliosides which were overlayed with 125I-labelled toxins showed that binding of both toxins was largely restricted to ganglioside GM1. However, 125I-heat-labile toxin was able to bind to brush-border galactoproteins resolved by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose.
Project description:The influence of ceramide composition on the rate of GM1 association to HeLa cells has been investigated by incubating the cells in the presence of either native ganglioside or molecular species carrying highly homogeneous long chain base moieties, fractionated from native GM1. The GM1 ganglioside species carrying the unsaturated C18 long chain base moiety proved to have the fastest rate of association, whereas the saturated species carrying 20 carbon atoms had the slowest rate. After having increased the GM1 cell content (65-fold) by incubation with the various ganglioside species, the cells were incubated with cholera toxin and the time course of cyclic AMP accumulation was monitored. Remarkable differences among cells enriched with the various molecular species were found in the duration of the lag time preceding the accumulation of cyclic AMP, the shortest being displayed by the unsaturated C18 species. Moreover, the amount of cyclic AMP accumulated after a given time of incubation with cholera toxin was significantly higher when the C18:1-GM1 species was present than with native GM1. Fluorescence anisotropy experiments, carried out using the probe 1,3-diphenylhexatriene, show that the GM1 ganglioside ceramide moiety was also modifying the cell membrane fluidity of the host.
Project description:Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.
Project description:Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhoeal disease caused by the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Infection occurs after ingestion of the bacteria, which colonize the human small intestine and secrete their major virulence factor - the cholera toxin (CT). The GM1 ganglioside is considered the primary receptor of the CT, but recent studies suggest that also fucosylated receptors such as histo-blood group antigens are important for cellular uptake and toxicity. Recently, a special focus has been on the histo-blood group antigen Lewisx (Lex), however, where and how the CT binds to Lex remains unclear. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure (1.5?Å) of the receptor-binding B-subunits of the CT bound to the Lex trisaccharide, and complementary quantitative binding data for CT holotoxins. Lex, and also L-fucose alone, bind to the secondary binding site of the toxin, distinct from the GM1 binding site. In contrast, fucosyl-GM1 mainly binds to the primary binding site due to high-affinity interactions of its GM1 core. Lex is the first histo-blood group antigen of non-secretor phenotype structurally investigated in complex with CT. Together with the quantitative binding data, this allows unique insight into why individuals with non-secretor phenotype are more prone to severe cholera than so-called 'secretors'.
Project description:The AB5 toxins cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are notorious for their roles in diarrheal disease, but their effect on other intestinal bacteria remains unexplored. Another foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, can mimic the GM1 ganglioside receptor of CT and LT. Here we demonstrate that the toxin B-subunits (CTB and LTB) inhibit C. jejuni growth by binding to GM1-mimicking lipooligosaccharides and increasing permeability of the cell membrane. Furthermore, incubation of CTB or LTB with a C. jejuni isolate capable of altering its lipooligosaccharide structure selects for variants lacking the GM1 mimic. Examining the chicken GI tract with immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrates that GM1 reactive structures are abundant on epithelial cells and commensal bacteria, further emphasizing the relevance of this mimicry. Exposure of chickens to CTB or LTB causes shifts in the gut microbial composition, providing evidence for new toxin functions in bacterial gut competition.
Project description:The GM1/caveolin-1 lipid raft mediated endocytosis mechanism was explored for generation 5 and 7 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer polyplexes employing the Cos-7, 293A, C6, HeLa, KB, and HepG2 cell lines. Expression levels of GM1 and caveolin-1 were measured using dot blot and Western blot, respectively. The level of GM1 in the cell plasma membrane was adjusted by incubation with exogenous GM1 or ganglioside inhibitor PPMP, and the level of CAV-1 was adjusted by upregulation with the adenovirus vector expressed caveolin-1 (AdCav-1). Cholera toxin B subunit was employed as a positive control for uptake in all cases. No evidence was found for a GM1/caveolin-1 lipid raft mediated endocytosis mechanism for the generation 5 and 7 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer polyplexes.
Project description:Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are popular models of cell membranes. Owing to the importance of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in modulating structure and function of membranes and membrane proteins, methods to tune the GSL content in SLBs would be desirable. Glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) can selectively transfer GSLs between membrane compartments. Using the ganglioside GM1 as a model GSL, and two mass-sensitive and label-free characterization techniques-quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and ellipsometry-we demonstrate that GLTP is an efficient and robust biochemical tool to dynamically modulate the GSL content of SLBs up to 10 mol % GM1, and to quantitatively control the GSL content in the bulk-facing SLB leaflet. By exploiting what we believe to be a novel tool, we provide evidence that GM1 distributes highly asymmetrically in silica-supported lipid bilayers, with ?85% of the ganglioside being present in the bulk-facing membrane leaflet. We report also that the pentameric B-subunit of cholera toxin binds with close-to-maximal stoichiometry to GM1 in SLBs over a large range of GM1 concentrations. Furthermore, we quantify the liganding affinity of GLTP for GM1 in an SLB context to be 1.5 ?M.