Microsomal lipoamide reductase provides vitamin K epoxide reductase with reducing equivalents.
ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to search for the endogenous dithiol cofactor of the reductases of the vitamin K cycle. As a starting point, the redox-active lipophilic endogenous compounds lipoic acid and lipoamide were looked at. The study shows that microsomes contain NADH-dependent lipoamide reductase activity. Reduced lipoamide stimulates microsomal vitamin K epoxide reduction with kinetics comparable with those for the synthetic dithiol dithiothreitol (DTT). Reduced lipoic acid shows higher (4-fold) Km values. No reductase activity with lipoic acid was found to be present in microsomes or cytosol. The reduced-lipoamide-stimulated vitamin K epoxide reductase is as sensitive to warfarin and salicylate inhibition as is the DTT-stimulated one. Both vitamin K epoxide reductase and lipoamide reductase activity are recovered in the rough microsomes. NADH/lipoamide-stimulated vitamin K epoxide reduction is uncoupled by traces of Triton X-100, suggesting that microsomal lipoamide reductase and vitamin K epoxide reductase are associated. The results suggest that the vitamin K cycle obtains reducing equivalents from NADH through microsomal lipoamide reductase.
Project description:Gestational and postnatal changes of microsomal NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase and NADPH:cytochrome c reductase activities were examined in rat brain. The specific activity of NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase was high at 18-19 days of gestational age, decreased to a minimum at 4 to 6 days after birth and increased thereafter. An essentially similar developmental pattern was observed for the specific activity of NADPH:cytochrome c reductase. In contrast, the specific activities of these reductases in liver microsomes were low, did not display a peak during gestation and increased steadily to a maximum at 40-50 days after birth. The rate of incorporation of [2-14C]malonyl-CoA into palmitoyl-CoA in brain microsomes was found to be high in the foetus, sharply decreased to a minimum at the time of birth and increased thereafter. The activity of fatty acid elongation in liver microsomes was much less than that in brain during gestation and increased rapidly after birth to values at 50-60 days 20-fold greater than the foetal activity. NADH and NADPH were equally effective for brain microsomal fatty acid elongation. Regional distribution of cytochrome reductase activities and the activity of fatty acid elongation showed the lowest specific activity in cerebellum. These results suggest that brain microsomal electron transport may be correlated with the developmental alteration in fatty acid elongation.
Project description:The mshA::Tn5 mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis does not produce mycothiol (MSH) and was found to markedly overproduce both ergothioneine and an ~15-kDa protein determined to be organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr). An mshA(G32D) mutant lacking MSH overproduced ergothioneine but not Ohr. Comparison of the mutant phenotypes with those of the wild-type strain indicated the following: Ohr protects against organic hydroperoxide toxicity, whereas ergothioneine does not; an additional MSH-dependent organic hydroperoxide peroxidase exists; and elevated isoniazid resistance in the mutant is associated with both Ohr and the absence of MSH. Purified Ohr showed high activity with linoleic acid hydroperoxide, indicating lipid hydroperoxides as the likely physiologic targets. The reduction of oxidized Ohr by NADH was shown to be catalyzed by lipoamide dehydrogenase and either lipoamide or DlaT (SucB). Since free lipoamide and lipoic acid levels were shown to be undetectable in M. smegmatis, the bound lipoyl residues of DlaT are the likely source of the physiological dithiol reductant for Ohr. The pattern of occurrence of homologs of Ohr among bacteria suggests that the ohr gene has been distributed by lateral transfer. The finding of multiple Ohr homologs with various sequence identities in some bacterial genomes indicates that there may be multiple physiologic targets for Ohr proteins.
Project description:Cytochrome P-450 catalysing 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 was purified from pig kidney microsomes. The enzyme fraction contained 7 nmol of cytochrome P-450/mg of protein and showed only one protein band with an apparent Mr of 50,500 upon SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The purified cytochrome P-450 catalysed 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 up to 1,000 times more efficiently, and 25-hydroxylation of 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 up to 4000 times more efficiently, than the microsomes. The cytochrome P-450 required microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase for catalytic activity. Mitochondrial ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase could not replace microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. The enzyme preparation showed no detectable 25-hydroxylase activity towards vitamin D2 or 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity towards 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. CO inhibited the 25-hydroxylation by more than 85%. Mannitol, hydroquinone, catalase and superoxide dismutase did not affect the 25-hydroxylation. The possible role of the kidney microsomal cytochrome P-450 in the metabolism of vitamin D3 is discussed.
Project description:The relationship between the NADH:lipoamide reductase and NADH:quinone reductase reactions of pig heart lipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) was investigated. At pH 7.0 the catalytic constant of the quinone reductase reaction (kcat.) is 70 s-1 and the rate constant of the active-centre reduction by NADH (kcat./Km) is 9.2 x 10(5) M-1.s-1. These constants are almost an order lower than those for the lipoamide reductase reaction. The maximal quinone reductase activity is observed at pH 6.0-5.5. The use of [4(S)-2H]NADH as substrate decreases kcat./Km for the lipoamide reductase reaction and both kcat. and kcat./Km for the quinone reductase reaction. The kcat./Km values for quinones in this case are decreased 1.85-3.0-fold. NAD+ is a more effective inhibitor in the quinone reductase reaction than in the lipoamide reductase reaction. The pattern of inhibition reflects the shift of the reaction equilibrium. Various forms of the four-electron-reduced enzyme are believed to reduce quinones. Simple and 'hybrid ping-pong' mechanisms of this reaction are discussed. The logarithms of kcat./Km for quinones are hyperbolically dependent on their single-electron reduction potentials (E1(7]. A three-step mechanism for a mixed one-electron and two-electron reduction of quinones by lipoamide dehydrogenase is proposed.
Project description:1. Cystamine was reduced to the corresponding thiol by rat liver mitochondria, even in the presence of rotenone or antimycin A. 2. The reduction of disulphides was stimulated by the accumulation of NADH or by the addition of NADH to osmotically ;shocked' mitochondria. 3. Energy made available by oxidative phosphorylation was not essential for the reduction of disulphides. 4. Cystamine was not reduced during the oxidation of NADH by ultrasonically treated particles, which had lost their capacity for oxidation of alpha-oxo acids. 5. In intact mitochondria, arsenite and other inhibitors of vicinal dithiols caused a decrease in the capacity for reduction of disulphides concomitantly with an inhibition of the oxidation of alpha-oxo acids. 6. Isolated lipoamide dehydrogenase reduced cystamine at the expense of NADH, provided that lipoic acid was also present. 7. It is concluded that in mitochondria the reduction of cystamine and related disulphides is probably brought about by interaction with reduced lipoic acid, generated by the alpha-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes during the oxidation of alpha-oxo acids or by reaction of lipoamide dehydrogenase with NADH.
Project description:Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase purified from Jerusalem artichoke. These antibodies inhibited efficiently the NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of the purified enzyme, as well as of Jerusalem artichoke microsomes. Likewise, microsomal NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenases (cinnamate and laurate hydroxylases) were efficiently inhibited. The antibodies were only slightly inhibitory toward microsomal NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity, but lowered NADH-dependent cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase activities. The Jerusalem artichoke NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase is characterized by its high Mr (82,000) as compared with the enzyme from animals (76,000-78,000). Western blot analysis revealed cross-reactivity of the Jerusalem artichoke reductase antibodies with microsomes from plants belonging to different families (monocotyledons and dicotyledons). All of the proteins recognized by the antibodies had an Mr of approx. 82,000. No cross-reaction was observed with microsomes from rat liver or Locusta migratoria midgut. The cross-reactivity generally paralleled well the inhibition of reductase activity: the enzyme from most higher plants tested was inhibited by the antibodies; whereas Gingko biloba, Euglena gracilis, yeast, rat liver and insect midgut activities were insensitive to the antibodies. These results point to structural differences, particularly at the active site, between the reductases from higher plants and the enzymes from phylogenetically distant plants and from animals.
Project description:The effects of an oral administration of carbon tetrachloride on various liver microsomal and supernatant components were studied 1hr. and 2hr. after dosing. The modifications of such early changes resulting from a concomitant administration of promethazine together with the carbon tetrachloride were also investigated. The microsomal components studied were: cytochromes P-450 and b(5); inorganic pyrophosphatase; NADH- and NADPH-cytochrome c reductases; NADH- and NADPH-neotetrazolium reductases; a lipid-peroxidation system associated with the oxidation of NADPH and stimulated by ADP and Fe(2+). NAD- and NADP- DT-diaphorases were measured in the supernatant solution remaining after isolation of liver microsomes, and the distribution of RNA phosphorus between the microsomes and supernatant solution was also determined. Carbon tetrachloride produced a rapid fall in inorganic pyrophosphatase activity, a rather slower decrease in cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and small increases in the activities of NADH-cytochrome c reductase and neotetrazolium reductases. The activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, the NADPH-ADP/Fe(2+)-linked lipid-peroxidation system, DT-diaphorases and the content of cytochrome b(5) in the microsomes were unchanged. There was also a loss of RNA phosphorus from the microsomes into the supernatant solution. The RNA phosphorus redistribution, the decrease in inorganic pyrophosphatase and the increases in neotetrazolium reductase activities were at least partially prevented by a concomitant dosing with promethazine. However, the decrease in cytochrome P-450 was not affected by promethazine treatment. These early changes are discussed in terms of the liver necrosis produced by carbon tetrachloride and which is greatly retarded in its onset by the administration of promethazine.
Project description:Ellipticine is an anticancer agent that forms covalent DNA adducts after enzymatic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, mainly by CYP3A4. This process is one of the most important ellipticine DNA-damaging mechanisms for its antitumor action. Here, we investigated the efficiencies of human hepatic microsomes and human recombinant CYP3A4 expressed with its reductase, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase (POR), NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase and/or cytochrome b5 in Supersomes™ to oxidize this drug. We also evaluated the effectiveness of coenzymes of two of the microsomal reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase, to mediate ellipticine oxidation in these enzyme systems. Using HPLC analysis we detected up to five ellipticine metabolites, which were formed by human hepatic microsomes and human CYP3A4 in the presence of NADPH or NADH. Among ellipticine metabolites, 9-hydroxy-, 12-hydroxy-, and 13-hydroxyellipticine were formed by hepatic microsomes as the major metabolites, while 7-hydroxyellipticine and the ellipticine N2-oxide were the minor ones. Human CYP3A4 in Supersomes™ generated only three metabolic products, 9-hydroxy-, 12-hydroxy-, and 13-hydroxyellipticine. Using the 32P-postlabeling method two ellipticine-derived DNA adducts were generated by microsomes and the CYP3A4-Supersome system, both in the presence of NADPH and NADH. These adducts were derived from the reaction of 13-hydroxy- and 12-hydroxyellipticine with deoxyguanosine in DNA. In the presence of NADPH or NADH, cytochrome b5 stimulated the CYP3A4-mediated oxidation of ellipticine, but the stimulation effect differed for individual ellipticine metabolites. This heme protein also stimulated the formation of both ellipticine-DNA adducts. The results demonstrate that cytochrome b5 plays a dual role in the CYP3A4-catalyzed oxidation of ellipticine: (1) cytochrome b5 mediates CYP3A4 catalytic activities by donating the first and second electron to this enzyme in its catalytic cycle, indicating that NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase can substitute NADPH-dependent POR in this enzymatic reaction and (2) cytochrome b5 can act as an allosteric modifier of the CYP3A4 oxygenase.
Project description:The intracellular localization of the post-translationally inserted integral membrane protein, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, was investigated, using a quantitative radioimmunoblotting method to determine its concentration in rat liver subcellular fractions. Subcellular fractions enriched in rough or smooth microsomes, Golgi, lysosomes, plasma membrane and mitochondrial inner or outer membranes were characterized by marker enzyme analysis and electron microscopy. Reductase levels were determined both with the NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity assay, and by radioimmunoblotting, and the results of the two methods were compared. When measured as antigen, the reductase was relatively less concentrated in microsomal subfractions, and more concentrated in fractions containing outer mitochondrial membranes, lysosomes and plasma membrane than when measured as enzyme activity. Rough and smooth microsomes had 4-5-fold lower concentrations, on a phospholipid basis than did mitochondrial outer membranes. Fractions containing Golgi, lysosomes and plasma membrane had approximately 14-, approximately 16, and approximately 9-fold lower concentrations of antigen than did mitochondrial outer membranes, respectively, and much of the antigen in these fractions could be accounted for by cross-contamination. No enzyme activity or antigen was detected in mitochondrial inner membranes. Our results indicate that the enzyme activity data do not precisely reflect the true enzyme localization, and show an extremely uneven distribution of reductase among different cellular membranes.
Project description:The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a canonical lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd1p) as part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and a highly similar protein termed Irc15p (increased recombination centers 15). In contrast to Lpd1p, Irc15p lacks a pair of redox active cysteine residues required for the reduction of lipoamide and thus it is very unlikely that Irc15p performs a similar dithiol-disulfide exchange reaction as reported for lipoamide dehydrogenases. We expressed IRC15 in Escherichia coli and purified the produced protein to conduct a detailed biochemical characterization. Here, we show that Irc15p is a dimeric protein with one FAD per protomer. Photoreduction of the protein generates the fully reduced hydroquinone without the occurrence of a flavin semiquinone radical. Similarly, reduction with NADH or NADPH yields the flavin hydroquinone without the occurrence of intermediates as observed for lipoamide dehydrogenase. The redox potential of Irc15p was -313 ± 1 mV and is thus similar to lipoamide dehydrogenase. Reduced Irc15p is oxidized by several artificial electron acceptors such as potassium ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, and menadione. However, disulfides such as cystine, glutathione, and lipoamide were unable to react with reduced Irc15p. Limited proteolysis and SAXS-measurements revealed that the NADH-dependent formation of hydrogen peroxide caused a substantial structural change in the dimeric protein. Therefore, we hypothesize that Irc15p undergoes a conformational change in the presence of elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide, which is a putative biomarker of oxidative stress. This conformational change may in turn modulate the interaction of Irc15p with other key players involved in regulating microtubule dynamics.