Gene expression of enzymes regulating ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in regenerating rat liver.
ABSTRACT: Levels of mRNA for mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and actin were analysed during liver regeneration. mRNA levels for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase decreased rapidly, reaching a minimum 12 h after partial hepatectomy and returning to normal at 24-36 h. In contrast, CPT I, CPT II and FAS mRNAs increased throughout the period examined. Expression of actin increased significantly during regeneration. Levels of mRNA for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase also decreased as a result of surgical stress, although the effect of hepatectomy was much greater. We determined the levels of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase using specific antibodies. The amount of protein rapidly decreased, although less markedly than the corresponding mRNA levels. These results show that the decrease described in ketogenesis in partially hepatectomized rats correlated with the decrease in the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase, suggesting that this enzyme may also be a control point in ketogenesis in the regenerating liver, as it is in normal and diabetic rats.
Project description:In newborn-pig hepatocytes, the rate of oleate oxidation is extremely low, despite a very low malonyl-CoA concentration. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I to malonyl-CoA inhibition is high, as suggested by the very low concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50). The rates of oleate oxidation and ketogenesis are respectively 70 and 80% lower in mitochondria isolated from newborn-pig liver than from starved-adult-rat liver mitochondria. Using polarographic measurements, we showed that the oxidation of oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine is very low when the acetyl-CoA produced is channelled into the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway by addition of malonate. In contrast, the oxidation of the same substrates is high when the acetyl-CoA produced is directed towards the citric acid cycle by addition of malate. We demonstrate that the limitation of ketogenesis in newborn-pig liver is due to a very low amount and activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase as compared with rat liver mitochondria, and suggest that this could promote the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and/or beta-oxidation products that in turn would decrease the overall rate of fatty acid oxidation in newborn- and adult-pig livers.
Project description:We have explored the role of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase in regulating ketogenesis. We had previously cloned the cDNA for mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and have now studied the regulation in vivo of the expression of this gene in rat liver. The amount of processed mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase mRNA is rapidly changed in response to cyclic AMP, insulin, dexamethasone and refeeding, and is greatly increased by starvation, fat feeding and diabetes. We conclude that one point of ketogenic control is exercised at the level of genetic expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase.
Project description:Rats were subjected to laparotomy, or laparotomy and partial hepatectomy, at 0-48 h before administration of water or medium-chain-length triacylglycerol, having been starved post-operatively. Functional hepatectomies were performed at intervals after the intragastric load. Blood ketone-body concentrations after medium-chain triacylglycerol administration and/or functional hepatectomy of these rats were compared with values obtained in starved control rats. Decreased ketonaemia in response to medium-chain triacylglycerol was observed for up to 48 h after partial hepatectomy and at 1 and 2 h after laparotomy, but not at 24 or 48 h after laparotomy. Rates of ketone-body clearance after functional hepatectomy were unaffected by prior laparotomy or partial hepatectomy. Ketonaemia after medium-chain-triacylglycerol administration was only partially blocked by inhibition of CPT I (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I). The results demonstrate sustained effects of partial hepatectomy and short-term effects of surgical stress to decrease ketonaemia via inhibition of ketogenesis at site(s) distal to CPT I.
Project description:Cytosolic and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthases were first recognized as different chemical entities in 1975, when they were purified and characterized by Lane's group. Since then, the two enzymes have been studied extensively, one as a control site of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the other as an important control site of ketogenesis. This review describes some key developments over the last 25 years that have led to our current understanding of the physiology of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the HMG-CoA pathway and in ketogenesis in the liver and small intestine of suckling animals. The enzyme is regulated by two systems: succinylation and desuccinylation in the short term, and transcriptional regulation in the long term. Both control mechanisms are influenced by nutritional and hormonal factors, which explains the incidence of ketogenesis in diabetes and starvation, during intense lipolysis, and in the foetal-neonatal and suckling-weaning transitions. The DNA-binding properties of the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor and other transcription factors on the nuclear-receptor-responsive element of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter have revealed how ketogenesis can be regulated by fatty acids. Finally, the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the gonads and the correction of auxotrophy for mevalonate in cells deficient in cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme may play a role in cholesterogenesis in gonadal and other tissues.
Project description:The Flux Control Coefficients of mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) with respect to the overall rates of beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity were measured in hepatocytes isolated from rats in different metabolic states (fed, 24 h-starved, starved-refed and starved/insulin-treated). These conditions were chosen because there is controversy as to whether, when significant control ceases to be exerted by CPT I over the rate of fatty oxidation [Moir and Zammit (1994) Trends Biochem. Sci. 19, 313-317], this is transferred to one or more steps proximal to acylcarnitine synthesis (e.g. decreased delivery of fatty acids to the liver) or to the reaction catalysed by mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase [Hegardt (1995) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 23, 486-490]. Therefore isolated hepatocytes were used in the present study to exclude the involvement of changes in the rate of delivery of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) to the liver, such as occur in vivo, and to ascertain whether, under conditions of constant supply of NEFA, CPT I retains control over the relevant fluxes of fatty acid oxidation to ketones and carbon dioxide, or whether control is transferred to another (intrahepatocytic) site. The results clearly show that the Flux Control Coefficients of CPT I with respect to overall beta-oxidation and ketogenesis are very high under all conditions investigated, indicating that control is not lost to another intrahepatic site during the metabolic transitions studied. The control of CPT I over tricarboxylic acid cycle activity was always very low. The significance of these findings for the integration of fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism in the liver is discussed.
Project description:Hepatic mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) properties, beta-oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA and membrane polarization were measured in lean and obese Zucker rats. The Vmax. of the 'outer' carnitine palmitoyltransferase ('CPT-A') increased with starvation, with no change in the Km for either carnitine or palmitoyl-CoA. The Ki for malonyl-CoA increased with starvation in lean rats, but not in obese rats. The Vmax. of the 'inner' enzyme ('CPT-B'), as measured by using inverted submitochondrial vesicles, increased with starvation in obese rats only, with no change in the Km for either carnitine or palmitoyl-CoA. The Ki for malonyl-CoA was 2-5-fold higher in inverted vesicles than in intact mitochondria, and showed no alteration with starvation. The activities of both enzymes correlated positively with each other and with beta-oxidation, and inversely with membrane polarization. Malonyl-CoA had little effect on gross membrane fluidity in the Zucker rat, as reflected by diphenylhexatriene fluorescence polarization. The results indicate that both enzymes are related and respond similarly to alterations in membrane fluidity. Membrane fluidity may provide a mechanism for co-ordinated control of CPT activity on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Project description:We examined the potential of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to control the hepatic catabolism of palmitoyl-CoA in suckling and adult rats, using a conceptually simplified model of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. By applying top-down control analysis, we quantified the control exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux from palmitoyl-CoA to ketone bodies and carbon dioxide. Our results show that in both suckling and adult rat, CPT I exerts very significant control over the pathways under investigation. However, under the sets of conditions we studied, less control is exerted by CPT I over total carbon flux in mitochondria isolated from suckling rats than in those isolated from adult rats. Furthermore the flux control coefficient of CPT I changes with malonyl-CoA concentration and ATP turnover rate.
Project description:The effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on fatty acid and pyruvate metabolism were studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Parenchymal hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h with nanomolar concentrations of dexamethasone in either the absence or the presence of insulin (10 nM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 microM BcAMP). Dexamethasone (1-100 nM) increased the rate of formation of ketone bodies from 0.5 mM-palmitate in both the absence and the presence of BcAMP, but inhibited ketogenesis in the presence of insulin. Dexamethasone increased the proportion of the palmitate metabolized that was partitioned towards oxidation to ketone bodies, and decreased the cellular [glycerol 3-phosphate]. The latter suggests that the increased partitioning of palmitate to ketone bodies may be associated with decreased esterification to glycerolipid. The Vmax. of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and the affinity of CPT for palmitoyl-CoA were not affected by dexamethasone, indicating that the increased ketogenesis was not due to an increase in enzymic capacity for long-chain acylcarnitine formation. Dexamethasone and BcAMP, separately and in combination, increased gluconeogenesis. In the presence of insulin, however, dexamethasone inhibited gluconeogenesis. Changes in gluconeogenesis thus paralleled changes in ketogenesis. Dexamethasone decreased the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, despite increasing the rate of ketogenesis and presumably the mitochondrial production of reducing equivalents. The more oxidized mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox couple with dexamethasone is probably due either to an increased rate of electron transport or to increased transfer of mitochondrial reducing equivalents to the cytoplasm.
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I is expressed in the intestine of suckling rats; its mRNA increases very rapidly after birth, remains on a plateau until day 18 and decreases until weaning, when basal (adult) values are reached, which remain unchanged thereafter. CPT II mRNA values do not show any appreciable change in this period. CPT I and CPT II are expressed mainly in mucosa and, to a lesser extent, in the muscular part of the intestine. Intestinal expression of CPT I is maximal in duodenum and jejunum, whereas CPT II is expressed in a similar pattern throughout the whole intestine. Dam's milk may influence the intestinal expression of CPT I, since mRNA levels at birth are low but increase after the first lactation. Moreover, rats weaned at either day 18 or 21 decrease their mRNA levels. Apparently, CPT II gene expression is not influenced by the mother's milk. CPT I and CPT II are also expressed in the liver of suckling rats. Hepatic CPT I is maximal at day 3, and levels of CPT II mRNA do not change, in a similar fashion to that in intestine. The profile of expression of CPT I in liver and intestine strongly resembles that previously reported for mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase.
Project description:Fatty acid oxidation was studied in the presence of inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), in normal and in peroxisome-proliferated rat hepatocytes. The oxidation decreased in mitochondria, as expected, but in peroxisomes it increased. These two effects were seen, in variable proportions, with (+)-decanoylcarnitine, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA) and etomoxir. The decrease in mitochondrial oxidation (ketogenesis) affected saturated fatty acids with 12 or more carbon atoms, whereas the increase in peroxisomal oxidation (H2O2 production) affected saturated fatty acids with 8 or more carbon atoms. The peroxisomal increase was sensitive to chlorpromazine, a peroxisomal inhibitor. To study possible mechanisms, palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-carnitine acyltransferase activities were measured, in homogenates and in subcellular fractions from control and TDGA-treated cells. The palmitoylcarnitine acyltransferase was inhibited, as expected, but the octanoyltransferase activity also decreased. The CoA derivative of TDGA was synthesized and tentatively identified as being responsible for inhibition of the octanoylcarnitine acyltransferase. These results show that inhibitors of the mitochondrial CPT I may also inhibit the peroxisomal octanoyl transferase; they also support the hypothesis that the octanoyltransferase has the capacity to control or regulate peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation.