Localized chemical reactivity in DNA associated with the sequence-specific bisintercalation of echinomycin.
ABSTRACT: Four complementary footprinting and probing techniques utilizing DNAse I, methidiumpropyl EDTA (MPE).FeII, diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and KMnO4 as DNA-cleaving or DNA-modifying agents have been applied to investigate the sequence-specific binding to DNA of the antitumour antibiotic echinomycin. A 265 bp EcoRI-PvuII DNA restriction fragment excised from plasmid pBS was used as a substrate. Six regions of protection against DNAase I cleavage were located on the 265-mer: three sites encompass the sequences 5'-TCGA or 5'-GCGT and the three others contain 5'-GpG (CpC) dinucleotide sequences where the inhibition of DNAase I cutting by echinomycin is less pronounced. In contrast, MPE.FeII cleavage allows identification of only three echinomycin-binding sites on the 265-mer: two sites contain the sequence 5'-TCGA and one encompasses the sequence 5'-ACCA. Cleavage of DNA by MPE.FeII in the presence of echinomycin remains practically unaffected at the sequence 5'-GCGT, despite its identification by DNAase I as a strong site for binding the antibiotic, as well as at the two other sequences containing GpG steps. With both DNAase I and MPE.FeII, enhanced DNA cleavage is evident at AT-rich sequences in the presence of echinomycin. Enhanced reactivity towards KMnO4 and DEPC provides clear evidence for sequence-dependent conformational changes in DNA induced by the antibiotic. The experiments reveal that KMnO4 reacts most strongly with thymines located around, but not necessarily adjacent to, an echinomycin-binding site, whereas the carbethoxylation reactions caused by DEPC occur primarily at the adenine residues lying immediately 5' or 3' to the dinucleotide that denotes an echinomycin-binding site. The results reported here demonstrate that DEPC and KMnO4 serve as sensitive probes for different states of the DNA helix. It seems that the reaction with KMnO4 involves transient unstacking events, whereas the carbethoxylation reaction of DEPC requires larger-scale helix opening.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC1138139 | BioStudies | 1994-01-01