Regulation of protein synthesis and degradation in L8 myotubes. Effects of serum, insulin and insulin-like growth factors.
ABSTRACT: We have examined the regulation of protein turnover in rat skeletal myotubes from the L8 cell line. We measured protein synthesis by the rates of incorporation of radiolabelled tyrosine into protein in the presence of a flooding dose of non-radioactive tyrosine. We monitored degradation of proteins labelled with radioactive tyrosine by the release of acid-soluble radioactivity into medium containing excess nonradioactive tyrosine. Extracellular tyrosine pools and intracellular tyrosyl-tRNA equilibrate rapidly during measurements of protein synthesis, and very little reutilization of the radiolabelled tyrosine occurs during degradation measurements. Measured rates of protein synthesis and degradation are constant for several hours, and changes in myotube protein content can be accurately predicted by the measured rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Most of the myotube proteins labelled with radioactive tyrosine for 2 days are degraded, with half-lives (t1/2) of approx. 50 h. A small proportion (less than 2.5%) of the radiolabelled proteins are degraded more rapidly (t1/2 less than 10 h), and, at most, a small proportion (less than 15%) are degraded more slowly (t1/2 greater than 50 h). A variety of agents commonly added to primary muscle cell cultures or to myoblast cell lines (18% Medium 199, 1% chick-embryo extract, antibiotics and antifungal agents) had no effect on rates of protein synthesis or degradation. Horse serum, fetal bovine serum and insulin stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit the degradation of long-lived proteins without affecting the degradation of short-lived proteins. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1 and -2 also stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein degradation. The stimulation of protein synthesis and the inhibition of protein degradation are of similar magnitude (a maximum of approx. 2-fold) and display similar sensitivities to a particular anabolic agent. Insulin stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation only at supraphysiological doses, whereas IGF-1 and -2 are effective at physiological concentrations. These and other findings suggest that IGFs may be important regulators of skeletal muscle growth during the fetal and early neonatal periods.
Project description:Tyrosine-glycogen obtained from retina proteoglycogen by exhaustive proteolytic digestion was radiolabelled with 125I. The 125I-labelled tyrosine-glycogen was degraded by amylolytic digestion to a very small radioactive product, which was identified as iodotyrosine by h.p.l.c. The amylolytic mixture used released glucose and maltose that were alpha-linked to the phenolic hydroxy group of p-nitrophenol. No free iodotyrosine was found before or after the intact [125I]iodotyrosine-glycogen was subjected to two cycles of the Edman degradation procedure. The linkage between protein and glycogen was alkali-stable. Therefore it is concluded that the protein-bound glycogen was O-glycosidically linked to the phenolic hydroxy group of tyrosine. The amino acid has not been heretofore found to be involved in the linkage of carbohydrates to proteins.
Project description:The effect of hypophysectomy on the protein metabolism of the liver in vivo was studied. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and degradation were determined in the livers of normal and hypophysectomized rats. Synthesis was measured after the injection of massive amounts of radioactive leucine. Degradation was estimated either as the balance between synthesis and accumulation of stable liver proteins or from the disappearance of radioactivity from the proteins previously labelled by the injection of NaH14CO3. The results indicate that: (1) hypophysectomy diminishes the capacity of the liver to synthesize proteins in vivo, mainly of those that are exported as plasma proteins; (2) livers of both normal and hypophysectomized rats show identical protein-degradation rates, whereas plasma proteins are degraded slowly after hypophysectomy.
Project description:The degradative fate of monoamine oxidase in endogenous and transplanted mitochondrial outer membrane has been compared in rat hepatocyte monolayers. Monoamine oxidase was specifically irreversibly radiolabelled by the suicide inhibitor [3H]pargyline. Hepatocyte monolayers were cultured in conditions in which rates of protein catabolism like those in vivo are maintained [Evans & Mayer (1983) Biochem. J. 216, 151-161]. Incubation of hepatocyte monolayers for 17 h with [3H]pargyline specifically radiolabels mitochondrial monoamine oxidase, as shown by Percoll-gradient fractionation of broken hepatocytes. Monoamine oxidase is degraded at a similar rate to that observed in liver in vivo (t1/2 approx. 63 h). The effects of leupeptin, methylamine and colchicine on the degradation of endogenous radiolabelled enzyme has been studied over prolonged culture periods. Culture of hepatocytes for periods of up to 80 h with inhibitors was not cytotoxic, as demonstrated by measurements of several intrinsic biochemical parameters. Leupeptin, methylamine and colchicine inhibit the degradation of endogenous monoamine oxidase by 60, 38 and 18% respectively. Monoamine oxidase in mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles introduced into hepatocytes by poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated vesicle-cell transplantation is degraded at a similar rate (t1/2 55 h) to the endogenous mitochondrial enzyme. Whereas leupeptin inhibits the degradation of endogenous and transplanted enzyme to a similar extent, methylamine and colchicine inhibit the degradation of transplanted enzyme to a much greater extent (85 and 56% respectively). Fluorescence microscopy (with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated mitochondrial outer membrane) shows that transplanted mitochondrial outer membrane undergoes internalization and translocation to a sided perinuclear site, as observed previously with whole mitochondria [Evans & Mayer (1983) Biochem. J. 216, 151-161]. The effects of the inhibitors on the distribution of transplanted membrane material in the cell and inhibition of proteolysis show the importance of cytomorphology for intracellular protein catabolism.
Project description:Reductively [3H]methylated 3H mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles from rat liver and vesicles where monoamine oxidase has been derivatized irreversibly by [3H]-pargyline have been deliberately miscompartmentalized by heterologous transplantation into hepatoma (HTC) cells by poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated vesicle-cell fusion. Fluorescein-conjugated mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles have also been used to show that transplanted material is patched, capped and internalized. Reductively methylated outer-membrane proteins and monoamine oxidase are destroyed at the same rate (t1/2 24 h). Mitochondrial-outer-membrane proteins are not degraded at the same rate as HTC plasma-membrane proteins, endogenous cell protein, or endocytosed protein. Transplanted radiolabelled mitochondrial-outer-membrane proteins accumulate intracellularly in structures that are distinct from plasma membrane and lysosomes. However, when mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles derivatized with [14C]sucrose are transplanted, the acid-soluble degradation products accumulate in the lysosomal fraction. [14C]Sucrose-conjugated HTC cell plasma membrane accumulates in intracellular structures that are again distinct from plasma membrane and lysosomes. In contrast with the above observations, homologously transplanted mitochondrial-outer-membrane proteins from rat liver are destroyed in hepatocytes at rates that are remarkably similar (t1/2 60-70 h) to the rates in rat liver in vivo [Evans & Mayer (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 107, 51-58].
Project description:The technique of erythrocyte-mediated microinjection has been successfully adapted for use with cultured muscle cells. Erythrocytes were fused with primary chick myotube cultures with poly(ethylene glycol), and fluorescent antibodies to haemoglobin demonstrated that this protein was injected into the sarcoplasm of myotubes. The microinjection treatment did not significantly alter protein metabolism in the muscle cells as monitored by rates of synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. 125I-labelled ribonuclease A and bovine serum albumin were degraded with the expected exponential decay kinetics after microinjection into muscle cells, and the half-life of ribonuclease A (40 h) was approximately twice that of bovine serum albumin (17 h). The degradation of ribonuclease A in the muscle cells was enhanced 1.6-fold in the absence of horse serum and chick-embryo extract, whereas the degradation of bovine serum albumin was not altered during deprivation. These results are characteristic of the breakdown of microinjected ribonuclease A and bovine serum albumin in other cell types. Therefore, our experiments indicate the erythrocyte-mediated microinjection is a valid technique to study protein degradation in primary chick muscle cultures.
Project description:The degradation of proteins in reductively [3H]methylated mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) transplanted into cells by a poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated process has been studied. The average rate of degradation (t1/2 24-28 h) of MOM proteins transplanted into HTC cells was not the same as for endogenous MOM proteins (t1/2 56 h), mitoplast proteins (t1/2 120 h), plasma membrane proteins (t1/2 approx. 90 h) or cytosol proteins (t1/2 75 h). The degradation of transplanted MOM proteins was inhibited to the same extent (30-45%) as that of endogenous mitochondrial and plasma membrane proteins by leupeptin and NH4Cl. No inhibition of HTC cell cytosol protein degradation by NH4Cl was observed. NH4Cl differentially inhibited the degradation of endogenous MOM and mitoplast protein subunits as shown after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Proteins in MOM transplanted into tissue culture cells were degraded either with t1/2 24-28 h (MRC-5, B82 and A549 cells) or with t1/2 55-70 h (CHO-K1 and 3T3-L1 cells) similar to that of proteins in MOM transplanted into rat hepatocytes [Evans & Mayer (1983) Biochem. J. 216, 151-161]. The data suggest that membrane protein destruction is but the end part of a fundamental intracellular membrane recognition process.
Project description:Reconstituted Sendai-viral envelopes (RSVE) were produced by the method of Vainstein, Hershkovitz, Israel & Loyter [(1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 773, 181-188]. RSVE are fusogenic unilamellar vesicles containing two transmembrane glycoproteins: the HN (haemagglutinin-neuraminidase) protein and the F (fusion) factor. The fate of the viral proteins after fusion-mediated transplantation of RSVE into hepatoma (HTC) cell plasma membranes was studied to probe plasma-membrane protein degradation. Both protein species are degraded at similar, relatively slow, rates (t1/2 = 67 h) in HTC cells fused with RSVE in suspension. Even slower degradation rates for HN and F proteins (t1/2 = 93 h) were measured when RSVE were fused with HTC cells in monolayer. Lysosomal degradation of the transplanted viral proteins is strongly implicated by the finding that degradation of HN and F proteins is sensitive to inhibition by 10 mM-NH4Cl (81%) and by 50 micrograms of leupeptin/ml (70%).
Project description:The effect of calcium on myofibrillar turnover in primary chick leg skeletal muscle cultures was examined. Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 at subcontraction threshold levels (0.38 microM) increased significantly rates of efflux of preloaded 45Ca+2 but had no effect on total protein accumulation. However, A23187 as well as ionomycin caused decreased accumulation of the myofibrillar proteins, myosin heavy chain (MHC), myosin light chain 1f (LC1f), 2f (LC2f), alpha-actin (Ac), and tropomyosin (TM). A23187 increased the degradation rate of LC1f, LC2f, and TM after 24 h. In contrast, the calcium ionophore caused decreased degradation of Ac and troponin-C and had no effect on the degradation of MHC, troponin-T, troponin-I, or alpha, beta-desmin (Dm). In addition, A23187 did not alter degradation of total myotube protein. The ionophore had little or no effect on the synthesis of total myotube proteins, but caused a marked decrease in the synthesis of MHC, LC1f, LC2f, Ac, TM, and Dm after 48 h. The mechanisms involved in calcium-stimulated degradation of the myofibrillar proteins were also investigated. Increased proteolysis appeared to involve a lysosomal pathway, since the effect of the Ca++ ionophore could be blocked by the protease inhibitor leupeptin and the lysosomotropic agents methylamine and chloroquine. The effects of A23187 occur in the presence of serum, a condition in which no lysosomal component of overall protein degradation is detected. The differential effect of A23187 on the degradative rates of the myofibrillar proteins suggests a dynamic structure for the contractile apparatus.
Project description:Proteins are constantly synthesized and degraded in living cells during their growth and division, often in response to metabolic and environmental conditions. The synthesis and breakdown of proteins under different conditions reveal information about their mechanism of function. The metabolic incorporation of non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA) and subsequent labeling via click chemistry emerged as a non-radioactive strategy useful in the determination of protein kinetics and turnover. We used the method to monitor the degradation of two proteins involved in the multidrug efflux in Escherichia coli, the inner membrane transporter AcrB and its functional partner membrane fusion protein AcrA. Together they form a functional complex with an outer membrane channel TolC to actively transport various small molecule compounds out of E. coli cells. We found that both AcrA and AcrB lasted for approximately 6 days in live E. coli cells, and the stability of AcrB depended on the presence of AcrA but not on active efflux. These results lead to new insight into the multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by efflux.
Project description:In vitro studies demonstrate that the hydroxyl radical converts L-phenylalanine into m-tyrosine, an unnatural isomer of L-tyrosine. Quantification of m-tyrosine has been widely used as an index of oxidative damage in tissue proteins. However, the possibility that m-tyrosine might be generated oxidatively from free L-phenylalanine that could subsequently be incorporated into proteins as an L-tyrosine analogue has received little attention. In the present study, we demonstrate that free m-tyrosine is toxic to cultured CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells. We readily detected radiolabelled material in proteins isolated from CHO cells that had been incubated with m-[14C]tyrosine, suggesting that the oxygenated amino acid was taken up and incorporated into cellular proteins. m-Tyrosine was detected by co-elution with authentic material on HPLC and by tandem mass spectrometric analysis in acid hydrolysates of proteins isolated from CHO cells exposed to m-tyrosine, indicating that free m-tyrosine was incorporated intact rather than being metabolized to other products that were subsequently incorporated into proteins. Incorporation of m-tyrosine into cellular proteins was sensitive to inhibition by cycloheximide, suggesting that protein synthesis was involved. Protein synthesis using a cell-free transcription/translation system showed that m-tyrosine was incorporated into proteins in vitro by a mechanism that may involve L-phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase. Collectively, these observations indicate that m-tyrosine is toxic to cells by a pathway that may involve incorporation of the oxidized amino acid into proteins. Thus misincorporation of free oxidized amino acids during protein synthesis may represent an alternative mechanism for oxidative stress and tissue injury during aging and disease.