Modulation of nuclear cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in dibutyryl cyclic AMP-treated rat H4IIE hepatoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Biochemical and immunochemical studies were undertaken to quantify the effects of cyclic AMP on cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subunit levels in nuclei of H4IIE hepatoma cells. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10 microM) caused a significant biphasic (10 and 120 min after stimulation) increase in total nuclear protein kinase activity. The increase observed 10 min after dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulation was primarily due to an approx. 3-fold increase of catalytic (C) subunit activity, whereas the change observed 120 min after stimulation consisted of an increase in both C subunit and cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activities. Analysis of nuclear protein extracts by photoaffinity labelling with 8-azido cyclic [32P]AMP identified only the type II regulatory subunit (RII), but not the type I regulatory subunit (RI). Analysis of nuclear RII variants by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated that dibutyryl cyclic AMP caused the appearance of two RII variant forms which were not present in the nuclei of unstimulated cells. Using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies and immunoblotting procedures, we identified an approx. 2-fold increase in the RII and C subunits in nuclear extracts of dibutyryl cyclic AMP-treated hepatoma cells. Finally, the RI, RII and C subunits were quantified by an e.l.i.s.a. which indicated that dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased nuclear RII and C subunits levels biphasically, reaching peak values 10 and 120 min after the initial stimulation. Nuclear RI subunit levels were not affected. These results provide qualitative as well as quantitative evidence for a modulation by cyclic AMP of the nuclear RII and C subunit levels in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, and indicate a relatively rapid but temporarily limited dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced translocation of the RII and C subunits to nuclear sites.
Project description:1. The fluctuations in rat hepatocyte volume and protein content in response to dietary perturbations (starvation, protein restriction, refeeding) were accompanied by corresponding fluctuations in the amount of the regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Thus the intracellular concentration of this key enzyme was adjusted to be near constant. 2. The adjustment of cellular R was accomplished almost exclusively by regulating cytosolic RI (R subunit of type I kinase). The preferential down-regulation of cytosolic RI in response to starvation/protein restriction indicates that particulate RI and cytosolic as well as particulate RII are more resistant to breakdown during general catabolism in the hepatocyte. 3. The diet-induced fluctuations of kinase subunits were uniformly distributed in all populations of parenchymatous hepatocytes, regardless of their size and density. It is thus possible to isolate hepatocytes with uniformly altered RI/RII ratio from livers of rats with different feeding regimens. 4. The binding of endogenous cyclic AMP to RI and RII was similar in livers with high RI/RII ratio (fed rats) and low RI/RII ratio (fasted rats) as well as in hepatocytes isolated from fasted rats. Under the conditions of the experiment (short-term stimulation by glucagon), therefore, neither the dietary state nor the RI/RII ratio seemed to affect the apparent affinity of the isoreceptors for cyclic AMP. However, RI appeared to show a slightly higher co-operativity of intracellular cyclic AMP binding than did RII in all states.
Project description:After human platelets were lysed by freezing and thawing in the presence of EDTA, about 35% of the total cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was specifically associated with the particulate fraction. In contrast, Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase was found exclusively in the soluble fraction. Photoaffinity labelling of the regulatory subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with 8-azido-cyclic [32P]AMP indicated that platelet lysate contained a 4-fold excess of 49 000-Da RI subunits over 55 000-Da RII subunits. The RI and RII subunits were found almost entirely in the particulate and soluble fractions respectively. Chromatography of the soluble fraction on DEAE-cellulose demonstrated a single peak of cyclic AMP-dependent activity with the elution characteristics and regulatory subunits characteristic of the type-II enzyme. A major enzyme peak containing Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase was eluted before the type-II enzyme, but no type-I cyclic AMP-dependent activity was normally observed in the soluble fraction. The particulate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and associated RI subunits were solubilized by buffers containing 0.1 or 0.5% (w/v) Triton X-100, but not by extraction with 0.5 M-NaCl, indicating that this enzyme is firmly membrane-bound, either as an integral membrane protein or via an anchor protein. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of the Triton X-100 extracts demonstrated the presence of both type-I cyclic AMP-dependent holoenzyme and free RI subunits. These results show that platelets contain three main protein kinase activities detectable with histone substrates, namely a membrane-bound type-I cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme, a soluble type-II cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme and Ca2+-activated phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, which was soluble in lysates containing EDTA.
Project description:Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is regulated in part by N-terminal myristylation of its catalytic (C) subunit. Structural information about the role of myristylation in membrane targeting of PKA has been limited. In mammalian cells there are four functionally non-redundant PKA regulatory subunits (RI?, RI?, RII?, and RII?). PKA is assembled as an inactive R2C2 holoenzyme in cells. To explore the role of N-myristylation in membrane targeting of PKA holoenzymes, we solved crystal structures of RI?:myrC and RII?2:myrC2, and showed that the N-terminal myristylation site in the myrC serves as a flexible "switch" that can potentially be mobilized for membrane anchoring of RII, but not RI, holoenzymes. Furthermore, we synthesized nanodiscs and showed by electron microscopy that membrane targeting through the myristic acid is specific for the RII holoenzyme. This membrane-anchoring myristylation switch is independent of A Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) that target PKA to membranes by other mechanisms.
Project description:Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates many proteins, most notably cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PKA holoenzymes (comprised of two catalytic (C) and two regulatory (R) subunits) regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, and its functional diversity is amplified by the presence of four R-subunit isoforms, RI?, RI?, RII?, and RII?. Although these isoforms all respond to cAMP, they are functionally nonredundant and exhibit different biochemical properties. In order to understand the functional differences between these isoforms, we screened cAMP derivatives for their ability to selectively activate RI and RII PKA holoenzymes using a fluorescence anisotropy assay. Our results indicate that RI? holoenzymes are selectively activated by C8-substituted analogs and RII? holoenzymes by N6-substituted analogs, where HE33 is the most prominent RII activator. We also solved the crystal structures of both RI? and RII? bound to HE33. The RII? structure shows the bulky aliphatic substituent of HE33 is fully encompassed by a pocket comprising of hydrophobic residues. RI? lacks this hydrophobic lining in Domain A, and the side chains are displaced to accommodate the HE33 dipropyl groups. Comparison between cAMP-bound structures reveals that RII?, but not RI?, contains a cavity near the N6 site. This study suggests that the selective activation of RII over RI isoforms by N6 analogs is driven by the spatial and chemical constraints of Domain A and paves the way for the development of potent noncyclic nucleotide activators to specifically target PKA iso-holoenyzmes.
Project description:Stimulation of growth of the rat parotid gland by repeated injection of the beta-agonist isoprenaline led to a significant decrease in the activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. Immunochemical quantification of the catalytic (C) and regulatory (RI and RII) subunits of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases type I and type II revealed a loss of 65% of the immunochemically measurable amount of catalytic subunit C. The amount of the regulatory subunits, however, remained constant. The observed decrease in C-subunit was not due to a translocation of the molecule to cellular membranes or to an inhibiting effect of the heat-stable inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. A selective decrease in only the C-subunit was also observed after a brief exposure to isoprenaline leading to the stimulation of DNA synthesis. Under these conditions, the decrease was observed at the onset of DNA synthesis (17 h after injection), but not at the the time of an earlier small cyclic AMP peak (13 h after injection) or at the time of maximal DNA synthesis (24 h after injection). The results indicate that the amount of the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases can be regulated independently from that of the regulatory subunits. The time-limited occurrence of the specific change in the amount of the C-subunit suggests that such a regulation is of physiological significance and that it may participate in cyclic AMP-mediated events involved in the control of cellular proliferation.
Project description:The cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic (C) subunit is inhibited by two classes of functionally nonredundant regulatory (R) subunits, RI and RII. Unlike RI subunits, RII subunits are both substrates and inhibitors. Because RIIbeta knockout mice have important disease phenotypes, the RIIbeta holoenzyme is a target for developing isoform-specific agonists and/or antagonists. We also know little about the linker region that connects the inhibitor site to the N-terminal dimerization domain, although this linker determines the unique globular architecture of the RIIbeta holoenzyme. To understand how RIIbeta functions as both an inhibitor and a substrate and to elucidate the structural role of the linker, we engineered different RIIbeta constructs. In the absence of nucleotide, RIIbeta(108-268), which contains a single cyclic nucleotide binding domain, bound C subunit poorly, whereas with AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, the affinity was 11 nM. The RIIbeta(108-268) holoenzyme structure (1.62 A) with AMP-PNP/Mn(2+) showed that we trapped the RIIbeta subunit in an enzyme:substrate complex with the C subunit in a closed conformation. The enhanced affinity afforded by AMP-PNP/Mn(2+) may be a useful strategy for increasing affinity and trapping other protein substrates with their cognate protein kinase. Because mutagenesis predicted that the region N-terminal to the inhibitor site might dock differently to RI and RII, we also engineered RIIbeta(102-265), which contained six additional linker residues. The additional linker residues in RIIbeta(102-265) increased the affinity to 1.6 nM, suggesting that docking to this surface may also enhance catalytic efficiency. In the corresponding holoenzyme structure, this linker docks as an extended strand onto the surface of the large lobe. This hydrophobic pocket, formed by the alphaF-alphaG loop and conserved in many protein kinases, also provides a docking site for the amphipathic helix of PKI. This novel orientation of the linker peptide provides the first clues as to how this region contributes to the unique organization of the RIIbeta holoenzyme.
Project description:Observation and quantification of the catalytic subunit C of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases by immuno-gold electron microscopy suggested a high concentration of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in mitochondria from liver, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle, pancreas, parotid gland and brain cells. The position of gold particles pointed to a localization in the inner membrane/matrix space. A similar distribution was obtained by immunolocalization of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunits RI and RII in liver, pancreas and heart cells. The results indicated the presence of both the type I and the type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in mitochondria of hepatocytes, and the preferential occurrence of the type I protein kinase in mitochondria from exocrine pancreas and heart muscle. The immunocytochemical results were confirmed by immunochemical determination of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subunits in fractionated tissues. Determinations by e.l.i.s.a. of the C-subunit in parotid gland cell fractions indicated about a 4-fold higher concentration of C-subunit in the mitochondria than in a crude 1200 g supernatant. Immunoblot analysis of subfractions from liver mitochondria supported the localization in situ of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in the inner membrane/matrix space and suggested that the type I enzyme is anchored by its regulatory subunit to the inner membrane. In accordance with the immunoblot data, the specific activity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase measured in the matrix fraction was about twice that measured in whole mitochondria. These findings indicate the importance of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in the regulation of mitochondrial functions.
Project description:The catalytic (C) subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is inhibited by two classes of regulatory subunits, RI and RII. The RII subunits are substrates as well as inhibitors and do not require adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form holoenzyme, which distinguishes them from RI subunits. To understand the molecular basis for isoform diversity, we solved the crystal structure of an RIIalpha holoenzyme and compared it to the RIalpha holoenzyme. Unphosphorylated RIIalpha(90-400), a deletion mutant, undergoes major conformational changes as both of the cAMP-binding domains wrap around the C subunit's large lobe. The hallmark of this conformational reorganization is the helix switch in domain A. The C subunit is in an open conformation, and its carboxyl-terminal tail is disordered. This structure demonstrates the conserved and isoform-specific features of RI and RII and the importance of ATP, and also provides a new paradigm for designing isoform-specific activators or antagonists for PKA.
Project description:Protein kinase A (PKA) is a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits and involved in various physiological phenomena, including lipid metabolism. Here we demonstrated that the stoichiometric balance between catalytic and regulatory subunits is crucial for maintaining basal PKA activity and lipid homeostasis. To uncover the potential roles of each PKA subunit, Caenorhabditis elegans was used to investigate the effects of PKA subunit deficiency. In worms, suppression of PKA via RNAi resulted in severe phenotypes, including shortened life span, decreased egg laying, reduced locomotion, and altered lipid distribution. Similarly, in mammalian adipocytes, suppression of PKA regulatory subunits RI? and RII? via siRNAs potently stimulated PKA activity, leading to potentiated lipolysis without increasing cAMP levels. Nevertheless, insulin exerted anti-lipolytic effects and restored lipid droplet integrity by antagonizing PKA action. Together, these data implicate the importance of subunit stoichiometry as another regulatory mechanism of PKA activity and lipid metabolism.
Project description:The photoaffinity labelling of platelet cyclic GMP (cGMP)-binding proteins by [32P]cGMP was studied; at least five labelled proteins (110, 80, 55, 49 and 38 kDa) were detected in platelet cytosol and four (80, 65, 49 and 38 kDa) in platelet membranes. The 110 kDa species was identified as cGMP-inhibited cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE III) by immunoprecipitation and by the inhibition of photolabelling by specific inhibitors of this enzyme. Similarly, the 80 kDa species was identified as cGMP-dependent protein kinase by immunoprecipitation and by the effects of cGMP analogues on photolabelling. Addition of cAMP greatly enhanced the labelling of this 80 kDa protein, implying the existence of a potentially important interaction between the effects of cGMP and cAMP. The 65 kDa photolabelled protein appears to be a novel platelet cyclic-nucleotide-binding protein. In contrast, the 49 and 55 kDa photolabelled species are probably the RI and RII regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and the 38 kDa protein(s) may be proteolytic fragment(s) of RI and/or RII.