The specific binding of the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) to the outer membrane of rat brain mitochondria.
ABSTRACT: Purified mitochondria from rat brain contain microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) bound to the outer membrane. Studies of binding in vitro performed with microtubules and with purified microtubule proteins showed that mitochondria preferentially interact with the high-molecular-mass MAPs (and not with Tau protein). Incubation of intact mitochondria with Taxol-stabilized microtubules resulted in the selective trapping of both MAPs 1 and 2 on mitochondria, indicating that an interaction between the two organelles occurred through a site on the arm-like projection of MAPs. Two MAP-binding sites were located on intact mitochondria. The lower-affinity MAP2-binding site (Kd = 2 x 10(-7) M) was preserved and enriched in the outer-membrane fraction, whereas the higher-affinity site (Kd = 1 x 10(-9) M) was destroyed after removing the outer membrane with digitonin. Detergent fractionation of mitochondrial outer membranes saturated with MAP2 bound in vitro showed that MAPs are associated with membrane fragments which contain the pore-forming protein (porin). MAP2 also partially prevents the solubilization of porin from outer membrane, indicating a MAP-induced change in the membrane environment of porin. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific MAP-binding sites on the outer membrane, suggesting an association between porin and the membrane domain involved in the cross-linkage between microtubules and mitochondria.
Project description:MAP2 and tau exhibit microtubule-stabilizing activities that are implicated in the development and maintenance of neuronal axons and dendrites. The proteins share a homologous COOH-terminal domain, composed of three or four microtubule binding repeats separated by inter-repeats (IRs). To investigate how MAP2 and tau stabilize microtubules, we calculated 3D maps of microtubules fully decorated with MAP2c or tau using cryo-EM and helical image analysis. Comparing these maps with an undecorated microtubule map revealed additional densities along protofilament ridges on the microtubule exterior, indicating that MAP2c and tau form an ordered structure when they bind microtubules. Localization of undecagold attached to the second IR of MAP2c showed that IRs also lie along the ridges, not between protofilaments. The densities attributable to the microtubule-associated proteins lie in close proximity to helices 11 and 12 and the COOH terminus of tubulin. Our data further suggest that the evolutionarily maintained differences observed in the repeat domain may be important for the specific targeting of different repeats to either alpha or beta tubulin. These results provide strong evidence suggesting that MAP2c and tau stabilize microtubules by binding along individual protofilaments, possibly by bridging the tubulin interfaces.
Project description:Lysine acetylation has emerged as a dominant post-translational modification (PTM) regulating tau proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Mass spectrometry studies indicate that tau acetylation sites cluster within the microtubule-binding region (MTBR), a region that is highly conserved among tau, MAP2, and MAP4 family members, implying that acetylation could represent a conserved regulatory mechanism for MAPs beyond tau. Here, we combined mass spectrometry, biochemical assays, and cell-based approaches to demonstrate that the tau family members MAP2 and MAP4 are also subject to reversible acetylation. We identify a cluster of lysines in the MAP2 and MAP4 MTBR that undergo CBP-catalyzed acetylation, many of which are conserved in tau. Similar to tau, MAP2 acetylation can occur in a cysteine-dependent auto-regulatory manner in the presence of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, tubulin reduced MAP2 acetylation, suggesting tubulin binding dictates MAP acetylation status. Taken together, these results uncover a striking conservation of MAP2/Tau family post-translational modifications that could expand our understanding of the dynamic mechanisms regulating microtubules.
Project description:Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea by evading innate immunity. Colonizing the mucosa of the reproductive tract depends on the bacterial outer membrane porin, PorB, which is essential for ion and nutrient uptake. PorB is also targeted to host mitochondria and regulates apoptosis pathways to promote infections. How PorB traffics from the outer membrane of N. gonorrhoeae to mitochondria and whether it modulates innate immune cells, such as macrophages, remains unclear. Here, we show that N. gonorrhoeae secretes PorB via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Purified OMVs contained primarily outer membrane proteins including oligomeric PorB. The porin was targeted to mitochondria of macrophages after exposure to purified OMVs and wild type N. gonorrhoeae. This was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of apoptotic caspases and cell death in a time-dependent manner. Consistent with this, OMV-induced macrophage death was prevented with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Q-VD-PH. This shows that N. gonorrhoeae utilizes OMVs to target PorB to mitochondria and to induce apoptosis in macrophages, thus affecting innate immunity.
Project description:The MAPs (microtubule-associated proteins) MAP1B and tau are well known for binding to microtubules and stabilizing these structures. An additional role for MAPs has emerged recently where they appear to participate in the regulation of transport of cargos on the microtubules found in axons. In this role, tau has been associated with the regulation of anterograde axonal transport. We now report that MAP1B is associated with the regulation of retrograde axonal transport of mitochondria. This finding potentially provides precise control of axonal transport by MAPs at several levels: controlling the anterograde or retrograde direction of transport depending on the type of MAP involved, controlling the speed of transport and controlling the stability of the microtubule tracks upon which transport occurs.
Project description:Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites with extremely reduced genomes and a dependence on host-derived ATP. The microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi proliferates within a membranous vacuole and we investigated how the ATP supply is optimized at the vacuole-host interface. Using spatial EM quantification (stereology), we found a single layer of mitochondria coating substantial proportions of the parasitophorous vacuole. Mitochondrial binding occurred preferentially over the vegetative 'meront' stages of the parasite, which bulged into the cytoplasm, thereby increasing the membrane surface available for mitochondrial interaction. In a broken cell system mitochondrial binding was maintained and was typified by electron dense structures (<?10?nm long) bridging between outer mitochondrial and vacuole membranes. In broken cells mitochondrial binding was sensitive to a range of protease treatments. The function of directly bound mitochondria, as measured by the membrane potential sensitive dye JC-1, was indistinguishable from other mitochondria in the cell although there was a generalized depression of the membrane potential in infected cells. Finally, quantitative immuno-EM revealed that the ATP-delivering mitochondrial porin, VDAC, was concentrated atthe mitochondria-vacuole interaction site. Thus E.?cuniculi appears to maximize ATP supply by direct binding of mitochondria to the parasitophorous vacuole bringing this organelle within 0.020 microns of the growing vegetative form of the parasite. ATP-delivery is further enhanced by clustering of ATP transporting porins in those regions of the outer mitochondrial membrane lying closest to the parasite.
Project description:In plants, as in most eukaryotic cells, import of nuclear-encoded cytosolic tRNAs is an essential process for mitochondrial biogenesis. Despite its broad occurrence, the mechanisms governing RNA transport into mitochondria are far less understood than protein import. This article demonstrates by Northwestern and gel-shift experiments that the plant mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) protein interacts with tRNA in vitro. It shows also that this porin, known to play a key role in metabolite transport, is a major component of the channel involved in the tRNA translocation step through the plant mitochondrial outer membrane, as supported by inhibition of tRNA import into isolated mitochondria by VDAC antibodies and Ruthenium red. However VDAC is not a tRNA receptor on the outer membrane. Rather, two major components from the TOM (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) complex, namely TOM20 and TOM40, are important for tRNA binding at the surface of mitochondria, suggesting that they are also involved in tRNA import. Finally, we show that proteins and tRNAs are translocated into plant mitochondria by different pathways. Together, these findings identify unexpected components of the tRNA import machinery and suggest that the plant tRNA import pathway has evolved by recruiting multifunctional proteins.
Project description:We have sequenced cDNA clones encoding the Drosophila 205K microtubule-associated protein (MAP), a protein that may be the species specific homologue of mammalian MAP4. The peptide sequence deduced from the longest open-reading frame reveals a hydrophilic protein, which has basic and acidic regions that are similar in organization to mammalian MAP2. Using truncated forms of the 205K MAP, a 232-amino acid region could be defined that is necessary for microtubule binding. The amino acid sequence of this region shares no similarity with the binding motif of MAP2 or tau. We also analyzed several embryonic cDNA clones, which show the existence of differentially spliced mRNAs. Finally, we identified several potential protein kinase target sequences. One of these is distal to the microtubule-binding site and fits the phosphorylation consensus sequence of proteins phosphorylated by the mitosis specific protein kinase cdc2. Our data suggest that the 205K MAP uses a microtubule-binding motif unlike that found in other MAPs, and also raise the possibility that the activities of the 205K MAP may be regulated by alternative splicing and phosphorylation.
Project description:The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of DeltaPsi(m). The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce DeltaPsi(m) loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of DeltaPsi(m) is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection.
Project description:The major outer membrane porin (PorB) expressed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae plays multiple roles during infection, in addition to its function as an outer membrane pore. We have generated a panel of mutants of N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 expressing a variety of mutant porB genes that all function as porins. We identified multiple regions of porin that are involved in its binding to the complement regulatory factors C4b-binding protein and factor H and confirmed that the ability to bind at least one factor is required for FA1090 to survive the bactericidal effects of human serum. We tested the ability of these mutants to inhibit both apoptosis and the oxidative burst in polymorphonuclear leukocytes but were unable to identify the porin domains required for either function. This study has identified nonessential porin domains and some potentially essential portions of the protein and has further expanded our understanding of the contribution of the porin domains required for complement regulation.