Voltage- and NADPH-dependence of electron currents generated by the phagocytic NADPH oxidase.
ABSTRACT: The phagocytic NADPH oxidase generates superoxide by transferring electrons from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular O2. The activity of the oxidase at the plasma membrane can be measured as electron current (I(e)), and the voltage dependence of I(e) was recently reported to exhibit a strong rectification in human eosinophils, with the currents being nearly voltage independent at negative potentials. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on inside-out patches from human eosinophils activated with PMA. Electron current was evoked by bath application of different concentrations of NADPH, whereas slow voltage ramps (0.8 mV/ms), ranging from -120 to 200 mV, were applied to obtain 'steady-state' current-voltage relationships (I-V). The amplitude of I(e) recorded at -40 mV was minimal at 8 microM NADPH and saturated above 1 mM, with half-maximal activity (K(m)) observed at approx. 110 microM NADPH. Comparison of I-V values obtained at different NADPH concentrations revealed that the voltage-dependence of I(e) is strongly influenced by the substrate concentration. Above 0.1 mM NADPH, I(e) was markedly voltage-dependent and steeply decreased with depolarization within the physiological membrane potential range (-60 to 60 mV), the I-V curve strongly rectifying only below -100 mV. At lower NADPH concentrations the I-V curve was progressively shifted to more positive potentials and I(e) became voltage-independent also within the physiological range. Consequently, the K(m) of the oxidase decreased by approx. 40% (from 100 to 60 microM) when the membrane potential increased from -60 to 60 mV. We concluded that the oxidase activity depends on both membrane potential and [NADPH], and that the shape of the I(e)-V curve is influenced by the concentration of NADPH in the submillimolar range. The surprising voltage-independence of I(e) reported in whole-cell perforated patch recordings was most likely due to substrate limitation and is not an intrinsic property of the oxidase.
Project description:To investigate if chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to strong (HCl) and weak (CO(2) and acetic acid) acidic stimuli are dependent upon NADPH oxidase-linked and cAMP-sensitive proton conductances in taste cell membranes, CT responses were monitored in rats, wild-type (WT) mice, and gp91(phox) knockout (KO) mice in the absence and presence of blockers (Zn(2+) and diethyl pyrocarbonate [DEPC]) or activators (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP; 8-CPT-cAMP) of proton channels and activators of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA], H(2)O(2), and nitrazepam). Zn(2+) and DEPC inhibited and 8-CPT-cAMP, PMA, H(2)O(2), and nitrazepam enhanced the tonic CT responses to HCl without altering responses to CO(2) and acetic acid. In KO mice, the tonic HCl CT response was reduced by 64% relative to WT mice. The residual CT response was insensitive to H(2)O(2) but was blocked by Zn(2+). Its magnitude was further enhanced by 8-CPT-cAMP treatment, and the enhancement was blocked by 8-CPT-adenosine-3'-5'-cyclic monophospho-rothioate, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Under voltage-clamp conditions, before cAMP treatment, rat tonic HCl CT responses demonstrated voltage-dependence only at ±90 mV, suggesting the presence of H(+) channels with voltage-dependent conductances. After cAMP treatment, the tonic HCl CT response had a quasi-linear dependence on voltage, suggesting that the cAMP-dependent part of the HCl CT response has a quasi-linear voltage dependence between +60 and -60 mV, only becoming sigmoidal when approaching +90 and -90 mV. The results suggest that CT responses to HCl involve 2 proton entry pathways, an NADPH oxidase-dependent proton channel, and a cAMP-PKA sensitive proton channel.
Project description:Granulocytes generate a "respiratory burst" of NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anion (O(2)(-*)) production that is required for efficient clearance of bacterial pathogens. Hv1 mediates a voltage-gated H(+) channel activity that is proposed to serve a charge-balancing role in granulocytic phagocytes such as neutrophils and eosinophils. Using mice in which the gene encoding Hv1 is replaced by beta-Geo reporter protein sequence, we show that Hv1 expression is required for measurable voltage-gated H(+) current in unstimulated phagocytes. O(2)(-*) production is substantially reduced in the absence of Hv1, suggesting that Hv1 contributes a majority of the charge compensation required for optimal NADPH oxidase activity. Despite significant reduction in superoxide production, Hv1(-/-) mice are able to clear several types of bacterial infections.
Project description:The NADPH-oxidase is a plasma membrane enzyme complex that enables phagocytes to generate superoxide in order to kill invading pathogens, a critical step in the host defense against infections. The oxidase transfers electrons from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular oxygen, a process that requires concomitant H+ extrusion through depolarization-activated H+ channels. Whether H+ fluxes are mediated by the oxidase itself is controversial, but there is a general agreement that the oxidase and H+ channel are intimately connected. Oxidase activation evokes profound changes in whole-cell H+ current (IH), causing an approximately -40-mV shift in the activation threshold that leads to the appearance of inward IH. To further explore the relationship between the oxidase and proton channel, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on inside-out patches from both resting and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-activated human eosinophils. Proton currents from resting cells displayed slow voltage-dependent activation, long-term stability, and were blocked by micromolar internal [Zn2+]. IH from PMA-treated cells activated faster and at lower voltages, enabling sustained H+ influx, but ran down within minutes, regaining the current properties of nonactivated cells. Bath application of NADPH to patches excised from PMA-treated cells evoked electron currents (Ie), which also ran down within minutes and were blocked by diphenylene iodonium (DPI). Run-down of both IH and Ie was delayed, and sometimes prevented, by cytosolic ATP and GTP-gamma-S. A good correlation was observed between the amplitude of Ie and both inward and outward IH when a stable driving force for e- was imposed. Combined application of NADPH and DPI reduced the inward IH amplitude, even in the absence of concomitant oxidase activity. The strict correlation between Ie and IH amplitudes and the sensitivity of IH to oxidase-specific agents suggest that the proton channel is either part of the oxidase complex or linked by a membrane-limited mediator.
Project description:The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (phox) moves electrons across cell membranes to kill microbes. The activity of this lethal enzyme is tightly regulated, but the mechanisms that control phox inactivation are poorly understood for lack of appropriate assays. The phox generates measurable electron currents, I(e), that are associated with inward proton currents, I(H). To study the inactivation of the phox and of its associated proton channel, we determined which soluble factors can stabilize I(e) (induced by the addition of NADPH) and I(H) (initiated by small depolarizing voltage steps) in inside-out patches from PMA-activated human eosinophils. I(e) decayed rapidly in the absence of nucleotides (tau approximately 6 min) and was maximally stabilized by the combined addition of 5 mM ATP and 50 microM of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue GTP[S] (guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) (tau approximately 57 min), but not by either ATP or GTP[S] alone. I(H) also decayed rapidly and was stabilized by the ATP/GTP[S] mixture, but maximal stabilization of I(H) required further addition of 25 muM PI(3,4)P2 (phosphoinositide 3,4-bisphosphate) to the cytosolic side of the patch. PI(3,4)P2 had no effect on I(e) and its stabilizing effect on I(H) could not be mimicked by other phosphoinositides. Reducing the ATP concentration below millimolar levels decreased I(H) stability, an effect that was not prevented by phosphatase inhibitors but by the non-hydrolysable ATP analogue ATP[S] (adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate). Our data indicate that the assembled phox complex is very stable in eosinophil membranes if both ATP and GTP[S] are present, but inactivates within minutes if one of the nucleotides is removed. Stabilization of the phox-associated proton channel in a highly voltage-sensitive conformation does not appear to involve phosphorylation but ATP binding, and requires not only ATP and GTP[S] but also PI(3,4)P2, a protein known to anchor the cytosolic phox subunit p47(phox) to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Human neutrophils and HL-60 leukaemic cells possess an NADPH oxidase which catalyses superoxide (O2-) formation and is activated by the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe). In dibutyryl cyclic AMP-differentiated HL-60 cells, ATP and UTP in the presence of cytochalasin B activated O2- formation with EC50 values of 5 microM and efficacies amounting to 30% of that of fMet-Leu-Phe. The potency order of purine nucleotides in activating O2- generation was ATP = adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) greater than ITP greater than dATP = ADP. Pyrimidine nucleotides activated NADPH oxidase in the potency order UTP greater than dUTP greater than CTP = TTP = UDP. Pertussis toxin completely prevented activation of NADPH oxidase by fMet-Leu-Phe and UTP, whereas the effect of ATP was only partially inhibited. ATP and UTP enhanced O2- generation induced by fMet-Leu-Phe by up to 8-fold, and primed the cells to respond to non-stimulatory concentrations of fMet-Leu-Phe. Activation of NADPH oxidase by UTP but not by ATP was inhibited by various activators of adenylate cyclase. In dimethyl sulphoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells and in human neutrophils, ATP and UTP per se did not activate NADPH oxidase, but they potentiated the effect of fMet-Leu-Phe. Our results suggest that purine and pyrimidine nucleotides act via purino- and novel pyrimidinoceptors respectively, which are coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins leading to the activation of NADPH oxidase. As ATP and UTP are released from cells under physiological and pathological conditions, these nucleotides may play roles as intercellular signal molecules in the activation of O2- formation.
Project description:The magnitude and duration of the abruptly occurring increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in human neutrophils following activation with PAF (20 and 200 nM) and FMLP (1 microM), have been compared and related to alterations in NADPH oxidase activity, membrane potential and intracellular cyclic AMP. Cytosolic Ca2+ and membrane potential were measured by spectrofluorimetry, transmembrane fluxes of Ca2+ by radiometric procedures, and NADPH oxidase activity and cyclic AMP by chemiluminescence and radioimmunoassay respectively. Activation of neutrophils with both PAF (200 nM) and FMLP (1 microM) was accompanied by an abrupt increase in cytosolic Ca2+, which was of similar magnitude for each activator (393+/-9 and 378+/-17 nM respectively). Unlike FMLP-activated cells in which Ca2+ was rapidly removed from the cytosol, peak levels of cytosolic Ca2+ were sustained for longer (0.14+/-0.02 vs 1.16+/-0.04 min, P<or=0.0001) and declined at a slower rate in PAF-treated neutrophils. The prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in PAF-treated cells was due to accelerated store-operated influx of extracellular cation and was attenuated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (4 mM), the Ca2+-chelator, EGTA (5 mM), and SKF 96365 (10 microM). In contrast to FMLP, basal levels of superoxide production and cyclic AMP were unaltered in PAF-activated neutrophils, while only moderate membrane depolarization was detected. These observations demonstrate that mechanisms which restore Ca2+ homeostasis to FMLP-activated neutrophils, viz. activation of NADPH oxidase and adenylate cyclase, are not operative in PAF-treated cells, presenting the potential hazard of Ca2+ overload and hyperactivity.
Project description:Detergent-mediated activation of the phagocyte superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase requires the participation of at least four proteins: the membrane-bound heterodimeric cytochrome b558 and three cytosolic components, p47-phox, p67-phox and a Rac1/Rac2 protein. Peptides corresponding to sequences of different subunits of NADPH oxidase have been used as probes of the mechanism and sequence of assembly of the active complex. In the present study effects of mastoparans on activation of NADPH oxidase were investigated. Mastoparans are wasp venom cationic amphiphilic tetradecapeptides capable of modulation of various cellular activities. Natural mastoparans, as well as several synthetic mastoparan analogues, unrelated to oxidase components, blocked activation of the oxidase in the cell-free system (EC50 = 1.5 microM) and in guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S])/ATP-stimulated neutrophils permeabilized with streptolysin O. In the cell-free system the effect was not relieved by raising the detergent concentration and could not be ascribed to changes in critical micellar concentration values of the activating SDS or arachidonate. Chromatography of neutrophil cytosol on an immobilized mastoparan column suggested interaction of cytosolic p47-phox and p67-phox with the peptide. In spite of this interaction mastoparan did not interfere with translocation of p47-phox and p67-phox to the cell membranes.
Project description:Spermine, a cellular polyamine, down-regulates O2- generation in human neutrophils stimulated by receptor-linked agonist [Ogata, Tamura and Takeshita (1992) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 182, 20-26]. In this study, to elucidate the mechanism for the inhibition, the effect of spermine on cell-free activation of the O2- generating enzyme (NADPH oxidase) was examined. Spermine suppressed the SDS-induced activation of NADPH oxidase in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 18 microM. The inhibition was specific for spermine over its precursor amines, spermidine and putrescine. Spermine did not alter the Km for NADPH or the optimal concentration of SDS for activation. The amine was inhibitory only when added before activation, indicating that it affects the activation process rather than the enzyme's activity. An increased concentration of cytosol partly prevented the inhibition by spermine. In semi-recombinant cell-free system, spermine inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase as effectively as in the cell-free system (IC50 = 13 microM). Pretreatment of each recombinant cytosolic component with spermine revealed that they (especially p67phox) are sensitive to spermine. These results suggest that spermine interacts with cytosolic component(s) and impairs the assembly of NADPH oxidase.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis. The development of atherosclerosis involves reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress in vascular cells. Our previous study [Wang and O (2001) Biochem. J. 357, 233-240] demonstrated that Hcy (homocysteine) treatment caused a significant elevation of intracellular superoxide anion, leading to increased expression of chemokine receptor in monocytes. NADPH oxidase is primarily responsible for superoxide anion production in monocytes. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Hcy-induced superoxide anion production in monocytes. Hcy treatment (20-100 microM) caused an activation of NADPH oxidase and an increase in the superoxide anion level in monocytes (THP-1, a human monocytic cell line). Transfection of cells with p47phox siRNA (small interfering RNA) abolished Hcy-induced superoxide anion production, indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase. Hcy treatment resulted in phosphorylation and subsequently membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox subunits leading to NADPH oxidase activation. Pretreatment of cells with PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitors Ro-32-0432 (bisindolylmaleimide XI hydrochloride) (selective for PKCalpha, PKCbeta and PKCgamma) abolished Hcy-induced phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits in monocytes. Transfection of cells with antisense PKCbeta oligonucleotide, but not antisense PKCalpha oligonucleotide, completely blocked Hcy-induced phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits as well as superoxide anion production. Pretreatment of cells with LY333531, a PKCbeta inhibitor, abolished Hcy-induced superoxide anion production. Taken together, these results indicate that Hcy-stimulated superoxide anion production in monocytes is regulated through PKC-dependent phosphorylation of p47phox and p67phox subunits of NADPH oxidase. Increased superoxide anion production via NADPH oxidase may play an important role in Hcy-induced inflammatory response during atherogenesis.
Project description:Ancillary beta-subunits regulate the voltage-dependence and the kinetics of Kv currents. The Kvbeta proteins bind pyridine nucleotides with high affinity but the role of cofactor binding in regulating Kv currents remains unclear. We found that recombinant rat Kvbeta 1.3 binds NADPH (K(d)=1.8+/-0.02 microM) and NADP(+) (K(d)=5.5+/-0.9 microM). Site-specific modifications at Tyr-307 and Arg-316 decreased NADPH binding; whereas, K(d) NADPH was unaffected by the R241L mutation. COS-7 cells transfected with Kv1.5 cDNA displayed non-inactivating currents. Co-transfection with Kvbeta1.3 accelerated Kv activation and inactivation and induced a hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependence of activation. Kvbeta-mediated inactivation of Kv currents was prevented by the Y307F and R316E mutations but not by the R241L substitution. Additionally, the R316E mutation weakened Kvalpha-beta interaction. Inactivation of Kv currents by Kvbeta:R316E was restored when excess NADPH was included in the patch pipette. These observations suggest that NADPH binding is essential for optimal interaction between Kvalpha and beta subunits and for Kvbeta-induced inactivation of Kv currents.