Targeting avian leukosis virus subgroup A vectors by using a TVA-VEGF bridge protein.
ABSTRACT: Previously, we have demonstrated that bridge proteins comprised of avian leukosis virus (ALV) receptors fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF) can be used to selectively target retroviral vectors with ALV envelope proteins to cells expressing EGF receptors. To determine whether another type of ligand incorporated into an ALV receptor-containing bridge protein can also function to target retroviral infection, the TVA-VEGF110 bridge protein was generated. TVA-VEGF110 consists of the extracellular domain of the TVA receptor for ALV subgroup A (ALV-A), fused via a proline-rich linker peptide to a 110-amino-acid form of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This bridge protein bound specifically to its cell surface receptor, VEGFR-2, and efficiently mediated the entry of an ALV-A vector into cells. These studies indicate that ALV receptor-ligand bridge proteins may be generally useful tools for retroviral targeting approaches.
Project description:To better understand retroviral entry, we have characterized the interactions between subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and Tva, the receptor for ALV(A), that result in receptor interference. We have recently shown that soluble forms of the chicken and quail Tva receptor (sTva), expressed from genes delivered by retroviral vectors, block ALV(A) infection of cultured chicken cells ( approximately 200-fold antiviral effect) and chickens (>98% of the birds were not infected). We hypothesized that inhibition of viral replication by sTva would select virus variants with mutations in the surface glycoprotein (SU) that altered the binding affinity of the subgroup A SU for the sTva protein and/or altered the normal receptor usage of the virus. Virus propagation in the presence of quail sTva-mIgG, the quail Tva extracellular region fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein, identified viruses with three mutations in the subgroup A hr1 region of SU, E149K, Y142N, and Y142N/E149K. These mutations reduced the binding affinity of the subgroup A envelope glycoproteins for quail sTva-mIgG (32-, 324-, and 4,739-fold, respectively) but did not alter their binding affinity for chicken sTva-mIgG. The ALV(A) mutants efficiently infected cells expressing the chicken Tva receptor but were 2-fold (E149K), 10-fold (Y142N), and 600-fold (Y142N/E149K) less efficient at infecting cells expressing the quail Tva receptor. These mutations identify key determinants of the interaction between the ALV(A) glycoproteins and the Tva receptor. We also conclude from these results that, at least for the wild-type and variant ALV(A)s tested, the receptor binding affinity was directly related to infection efficiency.
Project description:The interactions between the subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and soluble forms of the ALV(A) receptor Tva were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by quantitating the ability of the soluble Tva proteins to inhibit ALV(A) entry into susceptible cells. Two soluble Tva proteins were tested: the 83-amino-acid Tva extracellular region fused to two epitope tags (sTva) or fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G heavy chain (sTva-mIgG). Replication-competent ALV-based retroviral vectors with subgroup B or C env were used to deliver and express the two soluble tv-a (stva) genes in avian cells. In vitro, chicken embryo fibroblasts or DF-1 cells expressing sTva or sTva-mIgG proteins were much more resistant to infection by ALV(A) ( approximately 200-fold) than were control cells infected by only the vector. The antiviral effect was specific for ALV(A), which is consistent with a receptor interference mechanism. The antiviral effect of sTva-mIgG was positively correlated with the amount of sTva-mIgG protein. In vivo, the stva genes were delivered and expressed in line 0 chicken embryos by the ALV(B)-based vector RCASBP(B). Viremic chickens expressed relatively high levels of stva and stva-mIgG RNA in a broad range of tissues. High levels of sTva-mIgG protein were detected in the sera of chickens infected with RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG. Viremic chickens infected with RCASBP(B) alone, RCASBP(B)stva, or RCASBP(B)stva-mIgG were challenged separately with ALV(A) and ALV(C). Both sTva and sTva-mIgG significantly inhibited infection by ALV(A) (95 and 100% respectively) but had no measurable effect on ALV(C) infection. The results of this study indicate that a soluble receptor can effectively block infection of at least some retroviruses and demonstrates the utility of the ALV experimental system in characterizing the mechanism(s) of viral entry.
Project description:A complex interaction between the retroviral envelope glycoproteins and a specific cell surface protein initiates viral entry into cells. The avian leukosis-sarcoma virus (ALV) group of retroviruses provides a useful experimental system for studying the retroviral entry process and the evolution of receptor usage. In this study, we demonstrate that evolutionary pressure on subgroup A ALV [ALV(A)] entry exerted by the presence of a competitive inhibitor, a soluble form of the ALV(A) Tva receptor linked to a mouse immunoglobulin G tag (quail sTva-mIgG), can select different populations of escape variants. This escape population contained three abundant ALV(A) variant viruses, all with mutations in the surface glycoprotein hypervariable regions: a previously identified variant containing the Y142N mutation in the hr1 region; a new variant with two mutations, W141G in hr1 and K261E in vr3; and another new variant with two mutations, W145R in hr1 and K261E. The W141G K261E and W145R K261E viruses escape primarily by lowering their binding affinities for the quail Tva receptor competitive inhibitor while retaining wild-type levels of binding affinity for the chicken Tva receptor. A secondary phenotype of the new variants was an alteration in receptor interference patterns from that of wild-type ALV(A), indicating that the mutant glycoproteins are possibly interacting with other cellular proteins. One result of these altered interactions was that the variants caused a transient period of cytotoxicity. We could also directly demonstrate that the W141G K261E variant glycoproteins bound significant levels of a soluble form of the Tvb(S3) ALV receptor in a binding assay. Alterations in the normally extreme specificity of the ALV(A) glycoproteins for Tva may represent an evolutionary first step toward expanding viral receptor usage in response to inefficient viral entry.
Project description:Avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K) is composed of newly emerging isolates, which, in sequence analyses, cluster separately from the well-characterized subgroups A, B, C, D, E, and J. However, it remains unclear whether ALV-K represents an independent ALV subgroup with regard to receptor usage, host range, and superinfection interference. In the present study, we examined the host range of the Chinese infectious isolate JS11C1, an ALV-K prototype, and we found substantial overlap of species that were either resistant or susceptible to ALV-A and JS11C1. Ectopic expression of the chicken tva gene in mammalian cells conferred susceptibility to JS11C1, while genetic ablation of the tva gene rendered chicken DF-1 cells resistant to infection by JS11C1. Thus, tva expression is both sufficient and necessary for JS11C1 entry. Receptor sharing was also manifested in superinfection interference, with preinfection of cells with ALV-A, but not ALV-B or ALV-J, blocking subsequent JS11C1 infection. Finally, direct binding of JS11C1 and Tva was demonstrated by preincubation of the virus with soluble Tva, which substantially decreased viral infectivity in susceptible chicken cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that JS11C1 represents a new and bona fide ALV subgroup that utilizes Tva for cell entry and binds to a site other than that for ALV-A.IMPORTANCE ALV consists of several subgroups that are particularly characterized by their receptor usage, which subsequently dictates the host range and tropism of the virus. A few newly emerging and highly pathogenic Chinese ALV strains have recently been suggested to be an independent subgroup, ALV-K, based solely on their genomic sequences. Here, we performed a series of experiments with the ALV-K strain JS11C1, which showed its dependence on the Tva cell surface receptor. Due to the sharing of this receptor with ALV-A, both subgroups were able to interfere with superinfection. Because ALV-K could become an important pathogen and a significant threat to the poultry industry in Asia, the identification of a specific receptor could help in the breeding of resistant chicken lines with receptor variants with decreased susceptibility to the virus.
Project description:Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is a recently identified avian oncogenic retrovirus responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. In contrast with the other ALV subgroups, ALV-J predominantly induces myeloid leukosis in meat-type chickens. Despite significant homology with the other ALV subgroups across most of the genome, the envelope protein of ALV-J (EnvJ) shares low homology with the others. Pathogenicity and myeloid leukosis induction map to the env gene of ALV-J. A chimeric protein composed of the surface domain of EnvJ fused to the constant region of a rabbit IgG and mass spectrometry were used to identify the chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (chNHE1) as a binding protein for ALV-J. Flow cytometry analysis and coprecipitation experiments demonstrated a specific interaction between EnvJ and chNHE1. When introduced into nonpermissive human 293T cells and quail QT6 cells, chNHE1 conferred susceptibility to EnvJ-mediated infection. Furthermore, 293T cells expressing chNHE1 fused with 293T cells expressing EnvJ in a low-pH-dependent manner. Together, these data identify chNHE1 as a cellular receptor for the highly pathogenic ALV-J.
Project description:The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed strong selection pressure toward resistance to ASLV infection, and the resistant alleles in all four receptor genes have been identified. In this study, two new alleles of the tva receptor gene, tva(r5) and tva(r6), with similar intronic deletions were identified in Chinese commercial broilers. These natural mutations delete the deduced branch point signal within the first intron, disrupting mRNA splicing of the tva receptor gene and leading to the retention of intron 1 and introduction of premature TGA stop codons in both the longer and shorter tva isoforms. As a result, decreased susceptibility to subgroup A ASLV in vitro and in vivo was observed in the subsequent analysis. In addition, we identified two groups of heterozygous allele pairs which exhibited quantitative differences in host susceptibility to ASLV-A. This study demonstrated that defective splicing of the tva receptor gene can confer genetic resistance to ASLV subgroup A in the host.
Project description:The transcription factor Blimp-1 has emerged as a regulator of cell fate in embryonic (germ cell) and adult (B- and T-cell immune effector and epithelial) lineages. It has also been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor in B-cell malignancy. Here, we present a novel in vivo system enabling the targeted genetic manipulation of cells expressing Prdm1, the gene encoding Blimp-1. We created bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice expressing the avian leukosis virus (ALV) receptor TVB, fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein, under regulation by Prdm1 transcriptional elements, and we achieved transduction of TVB-expressing lymphocytes by ALV vectors bearing a subgroup B envelope. The system presented here incorporates a number of innovations. First, it is the first mammalian transgenic system that employs the ALV receptor TVB, thus expanding the flexibility and scope of ALV-mediated gene delivery. Second, it represents the first ALV-based system that allows gene transfer and expression into in vivo-activated mature lymphocytes, a cell type that has traditionally presented formidable challenges to efficient retroviral transduction. Third, Prdm1:TVB-mRFP transgenic animals could provide an invaluable tool for exploring the diverse roles of Blimp-1 in lineage commitment, immune regulation, and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Background:Previously, we showed that targeted disruption of viral receptor genes in avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9))-based genome editing confers resistance to ALV subgroups B and J. Here, we used the same strategy to target the receptor expressed by ALV subgroup A (TVA) and generate chicken cells resistant to infection by this virus. Results:CRISPR/Cas9-based disruption of exon 2 within the tva gene of DF-1 fibroblasts conferred resistance to infection by ALV subgroup A regardless of whether frameshift mutations were introduced during editing. Conversely, overexpression of the wild-type TVA receptor (wtTVA) by tva-modified DF-1 clones restored susceptibility to ALV subgroup A. The results confirm that exon 2, which contains the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain of TVA, is critical for virus entry. Furthermore, we sequentially modified DF-1 cells by editing the tva, tvb, and Na+/H+ exchange 1 (chNHE1) genes, which are the specific receptors for ALV subgroups A, B, and J, respectively. Conclusions:Simultaneous editing of multiple receptors to block infection by different subgroups of ALV confirmed that ALV subgroups A, B, and J do not share host receptors. This strategy could be used to generate cells resistant to multiple viral pathogens that use distinct receptors for cell entry.
Project description:Previously, mutant Tva receptors were classified as either partially or completely defective in mediating subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus (ALSV-A) entry (C. Bélanger, K. Zingler, and J. A. T. Young, J. Virol. 69:1019-1024, 1995; K. Zingler, C. Bélanger, R. Peters, D. Agard, and J. A. T. Young, J. Virol. 69:4261-4266, 1995). To specifically test the abilities of these mutant Tva proteins to bind ALSV-A surface (SU) protein, binding studies were performed with a subgroup A SU-immunoadhesin. This fusion protein is composed of the subgroup A Schmidt-Ruppin SU protein fused in frame to a rabbit immunoglobulin constant region. This reagent was conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and used for flow cytometric analysis with transfected human 293 cells expressing different forms of Tva. The SU-immunoadhesin bound the wild-type Tva protein with a KD of approximately 1.5 nM. Amino acid substitutions that reduced viral entry at Asp-46 and at Cys-35 and Cys-50, which are predicted to form an intrachain disulfide bond in Tva, drastically reduced the binding affinity for the SU-immunoadhesin. Thus, the effects on viral entry of some mutations could be explained solely by changes in the binding affinity for ALSV-A SU. However, this was not true for other mutations tested, especially those with amino acid substitutions that replaced Trp-48. Compared with the wild-type receptor, these latter mutations led to approximately 43- to 200-fold reductions in viral infectivity but only to approximately 2.5- to 3.4-fold reductions in the binding affinity for the SU-immunoadhesin. These results support a role for Trp-48 of Tva in mediating steps of viral entry subsequent to binding ALSV-A SU.
Project description:The subgroup A to E avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLVs) are highly related and are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. These viruses use distinct cell surface proteins as receptors to gain entry into avian cells. Chickens have evolved resistance to infection by the ASLVs. We have identified the mutations responsible for the block to virus entry in chicken lines resistant to infection by subgroup A ASLVs [ASLV(A)]. The tva genetic locus determines the susceptibility of chicken cells to ASLV(A) viruses. In quail, the ASLV(A) susceptibility allele tva(s) encodes two forms of the Tva receptor; these proteins are translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs. The normal cellular function of the Tva receptor is unknown; however, the extracellular domain contains a 40-amino-acid, cysteine-rich region that is homologous to the ligand binding region of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) proteins. The chicken tva(s) cDNAs had not yet been fully characterized; we cloned the chicken tva cDNAs from two lines of subgroup A-susceptible chickens, line H6 and line 0. Two types of chicken tva(s) cDNAs were obtained. These cDNAs encode a longer and shorter form of the Tva receptor homologous to the Tva forms in quail. Two different defects were identified in cDNAs cloned from two different ASLV(A)-resistant inbred chickens, line C and line 7(2). Line C tva(r) contains a single base pair substitution, resulting in a cysteine-to-tryptophan change in the LDLR-like region of Tva. This mutation drastically reduces the binding affinity of Tva(R) for the ASLV(A) envelope glycoproteins. Line 7(2) tva(r2) contains a 4-bp insertion in exon 1 that causes a change in the reading frame, which blocks expression of the Tva receptor.