Autophagy promotes MHC class II presentation of peptides from intracellular source proteins.
ABSTRACT: MHC-peptide complexes mediate key functions in adaptive immunity. In a classical view, MHC-I molecules present peptides from intracellular source proteins, whereas MHC-II molecules present antigenic peptides from exogenous and membrane proteins. Nevertheless, substantial crosstalk between these two pathways has been observed. We investigated the influence of autophagy on the MHC-II ligandome and demonstrated that peptide presentation is altered considerably upon induction of autophagy. The presentation of peptides from intracellular and lysosomal source proteins was strongly increased on MHC-II in contrast with peptides from membrane and secreted proteins. In addition, autophagy influenced the MHC-II antigen-processing machinery. Our study illustrates a profound influence of autophagy on the class II peptide repertoire and suggests that this finding has implications for the regulation of CD4(+) T cell-mediated processes.
Project description:Tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify naturally processed peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and MHC II molecules in central nervous system (CNS) of eight patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MHC molecules were purified from autopsy CNS material by immunoaffinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR. Subsequently peptides were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Database searches revealed 118 amino acid sequences from self-proteins eluted from MHC I molecules and 191 from MHC II molecules, corresponding to 174 identified source proteins. These sequences define previously known and potentially novel autoantigens in MS possibly involved in disease induction and antigen spreading. Taken together, we have initiated the characterization of the CNS-expressed MHC ligandome in CNS diseases and were able to demonstrate the presentation of naturally processed myelin basic protein peptides in the brain of MS patients.
Project description:Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.
Project description:B lymphocytes exploit macroautophagy to capture cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins within autophagosomes. Fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes and endosomes facilitates content proteolysis, with the resulting peptides selectively binding MHC class II (MHC II) molecules, which are displayed for recognition by T lymphocytes. Nutrient deprivation or stress amplified this pathway, favoring increased MHC II presentation of cytoplasmic Ags targeted to autophagosomes. By contrast, this stress diminished MHC II presentation of membrane Ags including the BCR and cytoplasmic proteins that use the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway. Whereas intracellular protease activity increased with nutrient stress, endocytic trafficking and proteolytic turnover of the BCR was impaired. Addition of macronutrients such as high molecular mass proteins restored endocytosis and Ag presentation, evidence of tightly regulated membrane trafficking dependent on macronutrient status. Altering cellular levels of the cytosolic chaperone HSC70 was sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effects of nutritional stress on BCR trafficking and Ag presentation. Together, these results reveal a key role for macronutrient sensing in regulating immune recognition and the importance of HSC70 in modulating membrane trafficking pathways during cellular stress.
Project description:Oncolytic viruses (OVs), known for their cancer-killing characteristics, also overturn tumor-associated defects in antigen presentation through the MHC class I pathway and induce protective neo-antitumor CD8 T cell responses. Nonetheless, whether OVs shape the tumor MHC-I ligandome remains unknown. Here, we investigated if an OV induces the presentation of novel MHC I-bound tumor antigens (termed tumor MHC-I ligands). Using comparative mass spectrometry (MS)-based MHC-I ligandomics, we determined differential tumor MHC-I ligand expression following treatment with oncolytic reovirus in a murine ovarian cancer model. In vitro, we found that reovirus changes the tumor ligandome of cancer cells. Concurrent multiplexed quantitative proteomics revealed that the reovirus-induced changes in tumor MHC-I ligand presentation were mostly independent of their source proteins. In an in vivo model, tumor MHC-I ligands induced by reovirus were detectable not only in tumor tissues but also the spleens (a source of antigen-presenting cells) of tumor-bearing mice. Most importantly, therapy-induced MHC-I ligands stimulated antigen-specific IFN? responses in antitumor CD8 T cells from mice treated with reovirus. These data show that therapy-induced MHC-I ligands may shape underlying neo-antitumor CD8 T cell responses. As such, they should be considered in strategies promoting the efficacy of OV-based cancer immunotherapies.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that can survive within phagocytic cells by inhibiting phagolysosome biogenesis. However, host cells can control the intracellular M. tuberculosis burden by the induction of autophagy. The mechanism of autophagosome formation to M. tuberculosis has been well studied in macrophages, but remains unclear in dendritic cells. We therefore characterized autophagosome formation in response to M. tuberculosis infection in dendritic cells. Autophagy marker protein LC3, autophagy adaptor protein p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and ubiquitin co-localized to M. tuberculosis in dendritic cells. Mycobacterial autophagosomes fused with lysosomes during infection, and major histcompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) also localized to mycobacterial autophagosomes. The proteins p62 and Atg5 function in the initiation and progression of autophagosome formation to M. tuberculosis, respectively; p62 mediates ubiquitination of M. tuberculosis and Atg5 is involved in the trafficking of degradative vesicles and MHC II to mycobacterial autophagosomes. These results imply that the autophagosome formation to M. tuberculosis in dendritic cells promotes the antigen presentation of mycobacterial peptides to CD4(+) T lymphocytes via MHC II.
Project description:Peptides presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on the cell surface play a crucial role in adaptive immunology, mediating the communication between T cells and antigen presenting cells. Knowledge of these peptides is of pivotal importance in fundamental studies of T cell action and in cellular immunotherapy and transplantation. In this paper we present the in-depth identification and relative quantification of 14,500 peptide ligands constituting the HLA ligandome of B cells. This large number of identified ligands provides general insight into the presented peptide repertoire and antigen presentation. Our uniquely large set of HLA ligands allowed us to characterize in detail the peptides constituting the ligandome in terms of relative abundance, peptide length distribution, physicochemical properties, binding affinity to the HLA molecule, and presence of post-translational modifications. The presented B-lymphocyte ligandome is shown to be a rich source of information by the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens, virus-derived epitopes, and post-translationally modified HLA ligands, and it can be a good starting point for solving a wealth of specific immunological questions. These HLA ligands can form the basis for reversed immunology approaches to identify T cell epitopes based not on in silico predictions but on the bona fide eluted HLA ligandome.
Project description:Comprehensive analysis of the complex nature of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II ligandome is of utmost importance to understand the basis for CD4(+)T cell mediated immunity and tolerance. Here, we implemented important improvements in the analysis of the repertoire of HLA-DR-presented peptides, using hybrid mass spectrometry-based peptide fragmentation techniques on a ligandome sample isolated from matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). The reported data set constitutes nearly 14 thousand unique high-confident peptides,i.e.the largest single inventory of human DC derived HLA-DR ligands to date. From a technical viewpoint the most prominent finding is that no single peptide fragmentation technique could elucidate the majority of HLA-DR ligands, because of the wide range of physical chemical properties displayed by the HLA-DR ligandome. Our in-depth profiling allowed us to reveal a strikingly poor correlation between the source proteins identified in the HLA class II ligandome and the DC cellular proteome. Important selective sieving from the sampled proteome to the ligandome was evidenced by specificity in the sequences of the core regions both at their N- and C- termini, hence not only reflecting binding motifs but also dominant protease activity associated to the endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the HLA-DR ligandome reflects a surface representation of cell-compartments specific for biological events linked to the maturation of monocytes into antigen presenting cells. Our results present new perspectives into the complex nature of the HLA class II system and will aid future immunological studies in characterizing the full breadth of potential CD4(+)T cell epitopes relevant in health and disease.
Project description:Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.