Virus isolates during acute and chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection show distinct patterns of sensitivity to entry inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of entry inhibitors on 58 virus isolates derived during acute and chronic infection to validate these inhibitors in vitro and to probe whether viruses at early and chronic disease stages exhibit general differences in the interaction with entry receptors. We included members of all types of inhibitors currently identified: (i) agents that block gp120 binding to CD4 (CD4-IgG2 and monoclonal antibody [MAb] IgG1b12), (ii) compounds that block the interaction with CCR5 (the chemokine RANTES/CCL5, the small-molecule inhibitor AD101, and the anti-CCR5 antibody PRO 140), (iii) the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (T-20), and (iv) neutralizing antibodies directed against gp120 (MAb 2G12) and gp41 (MAbs 2F5 and 4E10). No differences between viruses from acute and chronic infections in the susceptibility to inhibitors targeting the CD4 binding site, CCR5, or fusion or to MAb 2G12 were apparent, rendering treatment with entry inhibitors feasible across disease stages. The notable exceptions were antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, which were more potent in inhibiting viruses from acute infection (P = 0.0088 and 0.0005, respectively), although epitopes of these MAbs were equally well preserved in both groups. Activities of these MAbs correlated significantly with each other, suggesting that common features of the viral envelope modulate their potencies.
Project description:Understanding the nature of neutralization may provide information for crafting improvements in HIV vaccines. Using JR-FL as a prototype primary pseudovirus, we first investigated anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in several neutralization formats designed to elucidate the timing of neutralization. MAb b12 was most effective before receptor binding, 2G12 neutralized effectively even after CD4 binding, and X5 and a V3 loop mAb (LE311) were inactive in a standard format but were induced by sCD4. Consistent with this latter finding, native PAGE indicated that X5 and V3 mAb binding to Envelope trimers was dependent on sCD4 binding. In contrast, 2F5 and 4E10 were active even post-CD4/CCR5 engagement. We next analyzed the neutralization mechanism of a panel of HIV+ donor plasmas of various potencies. All mediated high levels of post-CD4 neutralization that was not associated with activity in the standard format. None, however, neutralized effectively in the post-CD4/CCR5 format, suggesting that 2F5/4E10-like Abs were absent or at low concentrations. Finally, we analyzed a non-neutralizing plasma spiked with mAbs b12, 2G12 or 2F5, which resulted in increases in neutralization titers consistent with the activities of the mAbs. We conclude that these methods, together with other mapping approaches, may provide a better understanding of neutralization that could be useful in vaccine research.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are potentially important tools in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine design. A few rare MAbs have been intensively studied, but we still have a limited appreciation of their neutralization breadth. Using a pseudovirus assay, we evaluated MAbs from clade B-infected donors and a clade B HIV(+) plasma against 93 viruses from diverse backgrounds. Anti-gp120 MAbs exhibited greater activity against clade B than non-B viruses, whereas anti-gp41 MAbs exhibited broad interclade activity. Unexpectedly, MAb 4E10 (directed against the C terminus of the gp41 ectodomain) neutralized all 90 viruses with moderate potency. MAb 2F5 (directed against an epitope adjacent to that of 4E10) neutralized 67% of isolates, but none from clade C. Anti-gp120 MAb b12 (directed against an epitope overlapping the CD4 binding site) neutralized 50% of viruses, including some from almost every clade. 2G12 (directed against a high-mannose epitope on gp120) neutralized 41% of the viruses, but none from clades C or E. MAbs to the gp120 V3 loop, including 447-52D, neutralized a subset of clade B viruses (up to 45%) but infrequently neutralized other clades (</=7%). MAbs b6 (directed against the CD4 binding site) and X5 (directed against a CD4-induced epitope of gp120) neutralized only sensitive primary clade B viruses. The HIV(+) plasma neutralized 70% of the viruses, including some from all major clades. Further analysis revealed five neutralizing immunotypes that were somewhat associated with clades. As well as the significance for vaccine design, our data have implications for passive-immunization studies in countries where clade C viruses are common, given that only MAbs b12 and 4E10 were effective against viruses from this clade.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which potently neutralize a broad range of HIV isolates are potential microbicide candidates. To date, topical application of mAbs in humans and their stability in vaginal secretions has not been studied. OBJECTIVES:To assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of the mAbs 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 when applied vaginally in women. DESIGN:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial. METHODS:Twenty-eight healthy, sexually abstinent women administered 2.5 g of gel daily for 12 days containing either 10 or 20 mg/g of each mAb (MABGEL) or placebo. Main clinical evaluations and sampling occurred at baseline, 1, 8, and 24 hours post-1st dose and 12 and 36 hours post-12th dose. RESULTS:After adjustment for dilution factors, median levels of 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 in vaginal secretions at 1 hour post high-dose MABGEL were 7.74, 5.28 and 7.48 mg/ml respectively. Levels of 2F5 and 4E10 declined exponentially thereafter with similar estimated half-lives (4.6 and 4.3 hours). In contrast, 2G12 levels declined more rapidly in the first 8 hours, with an estimated half-life of 1.4 hours during this period. There was no evidence of systemic absorption. There were no significant differences in local or systemic adverse event rates or vaginal flora changes (by qPCR) between active and placebo gel arms. Whilst at least 1 adverse event was recorded in 96% of participants, 95% were mild and none were serious. CONCLUSIONS:Vaginal application of 50 mg of each mAb daily was safe over a 12 day period. Median mAb concentrations detected at 8 hours post dose were potentially sufficient to block HIV transmission.2G12 exhibited more rapid elimination from the human vagina than 4E10 and 2F5, likely due to poor stability of 2G12 in acidic human vaginal secretions. Further research is needed to develop mAb-based vaginal microbicides and delivery systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN 64808733 UK CRN Portfolio 6470.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against epitopes in the V2 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 often possess neutralizing activity, but these generally are highly type specific, neutralize only laboratory isolates, or have low potency. The most potent of these is C108g, directed against a type-specific epitope in HXB2 and BaL gp120s, which is glycan dependent and, in contrast to previous reports, dependent on intact disulfide bonds. This epitope was introduced into two primary Envs, derived from a neutralization-sensitive (SF162) and a neutralization-resistant (JR-FL) isolate, by substitution of two residues and, for SF162, addition of an N-linked glycosylation site. C108g effectively neutralized both variant Envs with considerably higher potency than standard MAbs against the V3 and CD4-binding domains and the broadly neutralizing MAbs 2G12 and 2F5. These amino acid substitutions also introduced the epitope recognized by a second V2-specific MAb, 10/76b, but this MAb possessed potent neutralizing activity only in the absence of the glycan required for C108g reactivity. In contrast to other gp120-specific neutralizing MAbs, C108g did not block binding of soluble Env proteins to either the CD4 or the CCR5 receptor, but studies with a fusion-arrested Env indicated that C108g neutralized at a step preceding the one blocked by the gp41-specific MAb, 2F5. These results indicate that the V1/V2 domain possesses targets that mediate potent neutralization of primary viral isolates via a novel mechanism and suggest that inclusion of carbohydrate determinants into these epitopes may help overcome the indirect masking effects that limit the neutralizing potency of antibodies commonly produced after infection.
Project description:A Phase I clinical trial has been proposed that uses neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as passive immunoprophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in South Africa. To assess the suitability of such an approach, we determined the sensitivity of paediatric HIV-1 subtype C viruses to the broadly neutralising MAbs IgG1b12, 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10.The gp160 envelope genes from seven children with HIV-1 subtype C infection were cloned and used to construct Env-pseudotyped viruses that were tested in a single-cycle neutralisation assay. The epitopes defining three of these MAbs were determined from sequence analysis of the envelope genes. None of the seven HIV-1 subtype C pseudovirions was sensitive to 2G12 or 2F5, which correlated with the absence of crucial N-linked glycans that define the 2G12 epitope and substitutions of residues integral to the 2F5 epitope. Four viruses were sensitive to IgG1b12, and all seven viruses were sensitive to 4E10.Only 4E10 showed significant activity against HIV-1 subtype C isolates, while 2G12 and 2F5 MAbs were ineffective and IgG1b12 was partly effective. It is therefore recommended that 2G12 and 2F5 MAbs not be used for passive immunization experiments in southern Africa and other regions where HIV-1 subtype C viruses predominate.
Project description:Three neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, with activity in vitro and in vivo were administered in an open-label, nonrandomized, proof-of-concept study to attempt to prevent viral rebound after interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ten human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals identified and treated with ART during acute and early infection were enrolled. The first six patients were administered 1.0 g of each of the three MAbs per infusion. The remaining four patients received 2G12 at 1.0 g/infusion and 2.0 g/infusion of 2F5 and 4E10. The MAbs were well tolerated. Grade I post-partial thromboplastin time prolongations were noted. Viral rebound was observed in 8/10 subjects (28 to 73 days post-ART interruption), and 2/10 subjects remained aviremic over the course of the study. In seven of eight subjects with viral rebound, clear resistance to 2G12 emerged, whereas reductions in the susceptibilities of plasma-derived recombinant viruses to 2F5 and 4E10 were neither sustained nor consistently measured. Viral rebound was associated with a preferential depletion of CD4(+) T cells within the gastrointestinal tract. Though safe, the use of MAbs generally delayed, but did not prevent, virologic rebound. Consideration should be given to further pilot studies with alternative combinations of MAbs and perhaps additional novel treatment modalities.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNt Abs) against HIV-1 are rarely produced during natural infection, and efforts to induce such Abs by vaccination have been unsuccessful. Thus, elucidating the nature and cellular origins of bNt Abs is a high priority for vaccine research. As the bNt monoclonal Abs (MAbs) 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 have been reported to bind select autoantigens, we investigated whether these MAbs display a broader range of autoreactivity and how their autoreactivity compares with that of pathogenic autoAbs.An autoantigen microarray comprising 106 connective tissue disease-related autoantigens and control antigens was developed and used, in combination with ELISAs, to compare the reactivity profiles of MAbs 4E10, 2F5 and 2G12 to those of four pathogenic autoAbs derived from patients with antiphospholipid-syndrome (APS), and to serum from a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The APS MAbs and SLE serum reacted strongly with multiple autoantigens on the microarray, whereas anti-HIV-1 MAb reactivity was limited mainly to HIV-1-related antigens. The APS autoAbs reacted strongly with CL, yet only 4E10 bound CL at high concentrations; both 2F5 and 4E10 bound their HIV-1 epitopes with a 2-3-log higher apparent affinity than CL. Moreover, the polyreactivity of 4E10, but not CL15, could be blocked with dried milk.The reactivity profiles of bNt anti-HIV-1 MAbs are fundamentally distinct from those of pathogenic autoAbs that arise from dysregulated tolerance mechanisms. This suggests that the limited polyreactivity observed for the bNt MAbs, and for HIV-1-Nt Abs in general, may arise through alternative mechanisms, such as extensive somatic mutation due to persistent antigen selection during chronic infection.
Project description:The conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 envelope is a target for the rare broadly neutralizing 2F5, Z13, and 4E10 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One strategy to elicit such antibodies is to design an immunogen with increased exposure of the 2F5 and 4E10 mAb epitopes. In this study we characterize a single leucine to serine substitution at position 669 (L669S) in the gp41 Env MPER that confers >250-fold more neutralization sensitivity to 2F5 and 4E10 mAbs than does the wild-type gp41 sequence. On synthetic liposomes, increased solvent exposure of MPER tryptophan residues and stable docking of 2F5 and 4E10 mAbs to mutant MPER peptide liposomes indicate more favorable membrane orientation of MPER neutralizing epitopes with L669S substitution. The time during which virus is sensitive to 2F5 mAb-mediated neutralization is approximately 3-fold longer when the mutation is present. These data suggest that a major contribution to the L669S mutant virus phenotype of enhanced susceptibility to MPER mAbs is prolonged exposure of the MPER neutralizing epitope during viral entry.
Project description:Two neutralizing human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, that react with the HIV-1 envelope gp41 membrane proximal region are also polyspecific autoantibodies that bind to anionic phospholipids. To determine the autoantibody nature of these Abs, we have compared their reactivities with human anti-cardiolipin mAbs derived from a primary antiphospholipid syndrome patient. To define the role of lipid polyreactivity in binding of 2F5 and 4E10 mAbs to HIV-1 envelope membrane proximal epitopes, we determined the kinetics of binding of mAbs 2F5 and 4E10 to their nominal gp41 epitopes vs liposome-gp41 peptide conjugates. Both anti-HIV-1 mAbs 2F5 and 4E10 bound to cardiolipin with K(d) values similar to those of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin Abs, IS4 and IS6. Binding kinetics studies revealed that mAb 2F5 and 4E10 binding to their respective gp41 peptide-lipid conjugates could best be defined by a two-step (encounter-docking) conformational change model. In contrast, binding of 2F5 and 4E10 mAbs to linear peptide epitopes followed a simple Langmuir model. A mouse mAb, 13H11, that cross-blocks mAb 2F5 binding to the gp41 epitope did not cross-react with lipids nor did it neutralize HIV-1 viruses. Taken together, these data demonstrate the similarity of 2F5 and 4E10 mAbs to known anti-cardiolipin Abs and support the model that mAb 2F5 and 4E10 binding to HIV-1 involves both viral lipid membrane and gp41 membrane proximal epitopes.
Project description:During natural HIV infection, an array of host receptors are thought to influence virus attachment and the kinetics of infection. In this study, to probe the interactions of HIV envelope (Env) with various receptors, we assessed the inhibitory properties of various anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in binding assays. To assist in detecting Env in attachment assays, we generated Fc fusions of full-length wild-type gp120 and several variable loop-deleted gp120s. Through investigation of the inhibition of Env binding to cell lines expressing CD4, CCR5, DC-SIGN, syndecans or combinations thereof, we found that the broadly neutralizing mAb, 2G12, directed to a unique carbohydrate epitope of gp120, inhibited Env-CCR5 binding, partially inhibited Env-DC-SIGN binding, but had no effect on Env-syndecan association. Furthermore, 2G12 inhibited Env attachment to primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, that expressed CD4 and CCR5 primary HIV receptors, as well as DC-SIGN, and suggested that the dual activities of 2G12 could be valuable in vivo for inhibiting initial virus dissemination and propagation.