Loss of fast-twitch isomyosins in skeletal muscles of the diabetic rat.
ABSTRACT: By means of pyrophosphate electrophoresis the myosin isoenzyme pattern of two fast-twitch skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius) and one slow-twitch muscle (soleus) was investigated in control rats and was compared with that of rats 4 weeks after induction of diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin injection. In the fast-twitch muscles the isomyosin pattern consisting of FM1 (fast isomyosin 1), FM2 and FM3 was strongly affected by diabetes, resulting in an extensive loss of FM1 and a substantial decrease of FM2. These changes were also apparent when the light chains of the fast isomyosins were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis: LC3f (myosin light chain 3f) largely disappeared and LC2f was significantly diminished. In contrast, the isomyosin pattern in soleus muscle, consisting of SM1 (slow isomyosin 1) and SM2, was not affected by the diabetic state, and two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a normal light-chain pattern of LC1sa, LC1sb and LC2s. These results indicate that the isomyosins of slow-twitch oxidative myofibres are more resistant to the hormonal and metabolic disorders during diabetes mellitus than are the isomyosins of fast-twitch fibres.
Project description:The patterns of myosin isoenzymes in fast- and slow-twitch muscles of the rat hindlimb were studied, by pyrophosphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, with hypertrophy (induced by synergist removal) and with spontaneous running exercise of 4 and 11 weeks duration. At 11 weeks, changes with hypertrophy in the slow-twitch soleus, composed of greater than 95% SM2 (slow myosin 2) in normal muscles, were minor, and consisted of an increase in the SM1 and SM1', and a loss of intermediate myosin (IM), an isoenzyme characteristic of Type IIa fibres [Fitzsimons & Hoh (1983) J. Physiol. (London) 343, 539-550]. The changes were dramatic, however, in the fast-twitch plantaris muscle. There was a 3-fold increase in the proportion of SM. In addition, IM became the predominant isoenzyme in the profile of hypertrophied plantaris by 4 weeks. These increases were balanced by decreases in the proportion of FM2 (fast myosin 2), with FM1 completely absent from the profile at 11 weeks. The changes in the plantaris with exercise were similar in direction but not as extensive as those with hypertrophy, and FM1 remained present at control levels throughout the study. When hypertrophy and exercise were combined, the increase in slow myosin was equal to the sum of the increases with each treatment alone. Changes at 4 weeks were intermediate between those of control and 11-week muscles. Peptide mapping of individual myosin isoenzymes showed that the heavy chains of IM were different from either fast or slow heavy chains. Furthermore, IM was found to be composed of a mixture of fast and slow light chains. These changes suggest that a transformation of myosin from fast to slow isoforms was in progress in the plantaris in response to hypertrophy, via a Type-IIa-myosin (IM) intermediate stage, a phenomenon similar to that occurring in chronically stimulated fast muscles during fast-to-slow transformation [Brown, Salmons & Whalen (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 14686-14692].
Project description:1. Six adult rabbit soleus muscles were analysed by isolating histochemically identified fibre pieces from freeze-dried serial cross-sections. 2. By the use of this method, four fibre types (I, IC, IIC and IIA) were identified and analysed micro-electrophoretically. 3. Type I fibres contained the slow myosin heavy chain HCI and the slow myosin light chains LC1s and LC2s. 4. Type IIA fibres contained the fast myosin HCIIa with the fast light chains and, in addition, either LC1s or both LC1s and LC2s. 5. The C fibres (IC and IIC) represented intermediate populations between types I and IIC (IC) and between IC and IIA (IIC). They contained varied ratios of HCI/HCIIa with both sets of fast and slow light chains. With regard to myosin composition and isoforms of other myofibrillar proteins (M- and C-proteins, alpha-tropomyosin, troponin I), IC fibres resembled type I and IIC fibres resembled type IIA. 6. The presence of various myosin light and heavy chains within a specific fibre suggests a multiplicity of isomyosins. Without consideration of LC1sa and LC1sb differences, at least 54 possible isomyosins can be derived: type I fibres contain one isomyosin, types IC and IIC 54 possible isomyosins, and type IIA up to 18.
Project description:Human myosin from different skeletal muscles was analysed in a non-denaturing gel system, and the isoenzyme composition correlated with the histochemical composition of the muscle. Two components (SM1 and SM2) were associated with type 1 (slow-twitch) fibres, and three (FM1, FM2 and FM3) with type 2 (fast-twitch) fibres. Light-chain analysis was performed in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. There are three light chains (LCs1a, LCS1b and LCs2) in type 1 fibres, and three (LCf1, LCf2 and LCf3) in type 2 fibres. LCf1 and LCs1b co-migrate in sodium dodecyl sulphate gels. The ratio of LCf3/LCf2 is correlated with the distribution of the individual fast isoenzymes. These results explain apparent discrepancies in the literature concerning the light-chain distribution of human myosin.
Project description:The synthesis rates of different myosin isoenzymes in a single muscle, and of the same isoenzymes in different muscles (soleus, masseter and plantaris), were measured. The rate of total protein synthesis was significantly higher in the soleus [greater than 95% slow myosin (SM)] than in the plantaris [greater than 95% fast myosin (FM)]. Two fast isoenzymes, FM2 and FM3, were synthesized at different rates in the masseter, and SM was synthesized at a faster rate than FM. Intermediate myosin had a synthesis rate similar to that of FM. There was a small but significant difference between the synthesis rates of the SM isoenzymes of the soleus and masseter muscles. FM3 was synthesized faster in the masseter than in the plantaris, whereas FM2 was synthesized faster in the plantaris than in the masseter.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal motor neuron disease that progressively debilitates neuronal cells that control voluntary muscle activity. In a mouse model of ALS that expresses mutated human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-G93A) skeletal muscle is one of the tissues affected early by mutant SOD1 toxicity. Fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles are differentially affected in ALS patients and in the SOD1-G93A model, fast-twitch muscles being more vulnerable. We used miRNA microarrays to investigate miRNA alterations in fast-twitch (EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) skeletal muscles of symptomatic SOD1-G93A animals and their age-matched wild type littermates. At age of 90 days RNA was extracted from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of male SOD1-G93A animals and their age-matched wild type male littermates. RNA was hybridized on Affymetrix Multispecies miRNA-2_0 Array.
Project description:Rabbit predominantly fast-twitch-fibre and predominantly slow-twitch-fibre skeletal muscles of the hind limbs, the psoas, the diaphragm and the masseter muscles were fibre-typed by one-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the myofibrillar proteins of chemically skinned single fibres. Investigation of the distribution of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre isoforms of myosin light chains and the type of myosin heavy chains, based on peptide 'maps' published in Cleveland. Fischer, Kirschner & Laemmli [(1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1102-1106], allowed a classification of muscle fibres into four classes, corresponding to histochemical types I, IIA, IIB and IIC. Type I fibres with a pure slow-twitch-type of myosin were found to be characterized by a unique set of isoforms of troponins I, C and T, in agreement with the immunological data of Dhoot & Perry [(1979) Nature (London) 278, 714-718], by predominance of the beta-tropomyosin subunit and by the presence of a small amount of an additional tropomyosin subunit, apparently dissimilar from fast-twitch-fibre alpha-tropomyosin subunit. The myofibrillar composition of type IIB fast-twitch white fibres was the mirror image of that found for slow-twitch fibres in that the fast-twitch-fibre isoforms only of the troponin subunits were present and the alpha-tropomyosin subunit predominated. Type IIA fast-twitch red fibres showed a troponin subunit composition identical with that of type IIB fast-twitch white fibres. On the other hand, a unique type of myosin heavy chains was found to be associated with type IIA fibres. Furthermore, the myosin light-chain composition of these fibres was invariably characterized by a small amount of LC3F light chain and by a pattern that was either a pure fast-twitch-fibre light-chain pattern or a hybrid LC1F/LC2F/LC3F/LC1Sb light-chain pattern. By these criteria type IIA fibres could be distinguished from type IIC intermediate fibres, which showed coexistence of fast-twitch-fibre and slow-twitch-fibre forms of myosin light chains and of troponin subunits.
Project description:Muscle is highly hierarchically organized, with functions shaped by genetically controlled expression of protein ensembles with different isoform profiles at the sarcomere scale. However, it remains unclear how isoform profiles shape whole-muscle performance. We compared two mouse hindlimb muscles, the slow, relatively parallel-fibered soleus and the faster, more pennate-fibered tibialis anterior (TA), across scales: from gene regulation, isoform expression and translation speed, to force-length-velocity-power for intact muscles. Expression of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms directly corresponded with contraction velocity. The fast-twitch TA with fast MHC isoforms had faster unloaded velocities (actin sliding velocity, Vactin; peak fiber velocity, Vmax) than the slow-twitch soleus. For the soleus, Vactin was biased towards Vactin for purely slow MHC I, despite this muscle's even fast and slow MHC isoform composition. Our multi-scale results clearly identified a consistent and significant dampening in fiber shortening velocities for both muscles, underscoring an indirect correlation between Vactin and fiber Vmax that may be influenced by differences in fiber architecture, along with internal loading due to both passive and active effects. These influences correlate with the increased peak force and power in the slightly more pennate TA, leading to a broader length range of near-optimal force production. Conversely, a greater force-velocity curvature in the near-parallel fibered soleus highlights the fine-tuning by molecular-scale influences including myosin heavy and light chain expression along with whole-muscle characteristics. Our results demonstrate that the individual gene, protein and whole-fiber characteristics do not directly reflect overall muscle performance but that intricate fine-tuning across scales shapes specialized muscle function. Overall design: Comparative study of transcriptomes of slow-twitch Soleus and fast-twitch TA muscle tissues.
Project description:Adult rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle such as extensor digitorum longus contains alpha- and beta-tropomyosin subunits, as is the case in the corresponding muscles of rabbit. Adult rat soleus muscle contains beta-, gamma- and delta-tropomyosins, but no significant amounts of alpha-tropomyosin. Evidence for the presence of phosphorylated forms of at least three of the four tropomyosin subunit isoforms was obtained, particularly in developing muscle. Immediately after birth alpha- and beta-tropomyosins were the major components of skeletal muscle, in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscles. Differentiation into slow-twitch skeletal muscles was accompanied by a fall in the amount of alpha-tropomyosin subunit and its replacement with gamma- and delta-subunits. After denervation and during regeneration after injury, the tropomyosin composition of slow-twitch skeletal muscle changed to that associated with fast-twitch muscle. Thyroidectomy slowed down the changes in tropomyosin composition resulting from the denervation of soleus muscle. The results suggest that the 'ground state' of tropomyosin-gene expression in the skeletal muscle gives rise to alpha- and beta-tropomyosin subunits. Innervation by a 'slow-twitch' nerve is essential for the expression of the genes controlling gamma- and delta-subunits. There appears to be reciprocal relationship between expression of the gene controlling the synthesis of alpha-tropomyosin and those controlling the synthesis of gamma- and delta-tropomyosin subunits.
Project description:1. A method is described for the electrophoretic analysis of intact myosin in polyacrylamide gel in a buffer system containing 0.02 M-pyrophosphate and 10% (v/v) glycerol, pH 8.8. 2. In this system chicken skeletal-muscle myosins reveal five distinct electrophoretic components, three components from the fast-twitch posterior latissimus dorsi muscle and two slower-migrating components from the slow-twitch anterior latissimus dorsi muscle. 3. The Ca2+-activated ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) activity of myosin components was measured by densitometric scanning of the gel for the Ca3(PO4)2 precipitate formed during the ATPase reaction and subsequently for stained protein. Each component from the same muscle appears to have identical ATPase activity, but components from the fast-twitch muscle had an activity 2.2 times higher than those from the slow-twitch muscle. 4. On re-electrophoresis in the same buffer system, individual fractions of fast-twitch myosin did not reproduce the three-band pattern of the original myosin, but migrated at rates consistent with their original mobility. 5. Analysis of the mobility of the three fast-twitch myosin components in gels of different concentrations suggests that they are not stable oligomers of each other. 6. It is suggested that these components of fast-twitch myosin and slow-twitch myosin are isoenzymes of myosin.
Project description:Parvalbumin was purified from rabbit fast skeletal muscle and used to raise antibodies in sheep. Subsequently, a sensitive 'sandwich' enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay permitted quantification of parvalbumin in homogenates of embryonic, maturing, innervated, denervated and chronically stimulated skeletal muscles of the rabbit. High concentrations of parvalbumin were detected in various adult fast-twitch muscles of the rabbit (700-1200 micrograms/g of muscle), whereas slow-twitch muscles contained negligible concentrations (3-5 micrograms/g of muscle). Parvalbumin was not detectable in embryonic-rabbit muscles (21, 25, 28 days of gestation), either presumptive fast- or slow-twitch. However, parvalbumin concentrations did increase during postnatal development in presumptive fast-twitch muscles. Thus the onset of parvalbumin synthesis appears to be correlated with the neonatal-to-adult transition of motor-neuron activity [Navarrete & Vrbová (1983) Dev. Brain Res. 8, 11-19]. The increase of parvalbumin in maturing, presumptive fast-twitch muscle was suppressed by denervation. In the adult rabbit, denervation of the tibialis anterior muscle caused a reduction of parvalbumin to a level normally found in slow-twitch muscles. In contrast, the already low levels of parvalbumin in maturing and adult slow-twitch soleus muscle were unaffected by denervation. Chronic low-frequency stimulation of adult fast-twitch muscle resulted in a rapid reduction of parvalbumin to a level normally found in slow-twitch muscle. These data support the hypothesis that the expression of parvalbumin is under positive control of fast-type motor-neuron activity.