Incorporation of serine into Paramecium ethanolamine phospholipid and phosphonolipid head groups.
ABSTRACT: Ethanolamine phospholipid head groups in Paramecium were synthesized directly from ethanolamine. As in other cell types, radioactivity from ethanolamine failed to incorporate significantly into head groups of ethanolamine phosphonolipids, indicating that the phosphonolipids are not derived from their phospholipid analogues. Unlike other systems previously examined, radioactivity from serine is incorporated into both ethanolamine phospholipid and phosphonolipid head groups of glycerolipids and sphingolipids in this ciliate. These observations suggest that synthesis of ethanolamine phosphonolipids involves synthesis de novo of free phosphonoserine, which is then incorporated into lipids, and then lipid-bound phosphonoserine intermediates (glycerolipids or sphingolipids) undergo decarboxylation, forming lipidbound phosphonoethanolamine compounds.
Project description:Evidence is presented for the operation of an ethanolamine-phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) cycle in Chinese hamster ovary cells. PtdEtn was labelled with [3H]ethanolamine and radioactivity was chased by incubation with 1 mM unlabelled ethanolamine. Radioactivity in [3H]PtdEtn gradually declined over a 23 h time period. In contrast, when the cells were incubated in medium lacking unlabelled ethanolamine, radioactivity in PtdEtn remained constant for at least 23 h. These observations suggest that the ethanolamine moiety is continuously released from PtdEtn and recycled back into PtdEtn. In cells incubated without unlabelled ethanolamine, labelled ethanolamine released from PtdEtn is re-incorporated into PtdEtn without significant dilution. In contrast, in cells incubated with unlabelled ethanolamine the specific radioactivity of the intracellular ethanolamine pool decreases as a result of dilution by the exogenous ethanolamine, hence radioactivity in PtdEtn gradually declines. Similar results were obtained for confluent and non-confluent cells. Our data also demonstrate that when PtdEtn is derived from phosphatidylserine decarboxylation, the ethanolamine cycle operates only in actively dividing, and not in confluent, cells, implying that PtdEtn derived from different biosynthetic origins [i.e. from decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine or from ethanolamine (most likely via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway)] is metabolized differently.
Project description:Studies with mammalian cell lines have led to suggestions that mammalian tissues may derive all of their phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from the decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PS), and also that the physiological significance of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway was the synthesis of ethanolamine plasmalogen. We have therefore investigated the biosynthesis of PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen via the CDP-ethanolamine and decarboxylation pathways in vivo in three rat tissues (heart, kidney and liver), which differ in ethanolamine plasmalogen content. In all three tissues [14C]ethanolamine was incorporated into both PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen, whereas [3H]serine was incorporated into only PS and PE fractions. When [14C]ethanolamine was introduced into the animals, the specific radioactivity of ethanolamine plasmalogen in the kidney was always greater than that of the PE fraction; in the heart the specific radioactivity of the ethanolamine plasmalogen fraction was similar to that of the PE fraction, whereas in the liver the specific radioactivity of the PE fraction was always greater than that of the ethanolamine plasmalogen fraction. The results obtained in this study indicate that: (1) the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is utilized for the synthesis of both PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen in all three tissues; (2) the decarboxylation pathway is utilized solely for the synthesis of PE; (3) serine plasmalogens are not formed by base-exchange reactions; (4) the relative utilization of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for the synthesis of PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen varies among tissues. Our studies also revealed that the hypolipidaemic drug MDL 29350 is a potent inhibitor of PE N-methyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:1. Ten bacteria utilizing [2-14C]ethanol-2-amine as the sole or major source of nitrogen for growth on glycerol + salts medium incorporated radioactivity into a variety of bacterial substances. A high proportion was commonly found in lipid fractions, particularly in the case of Erwinia carotovora. 2. Detailed studies of [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into lipids by five bacteria, including E. carotovora, showed that all detectable lipids were labelled. Even where phosphatidylethanolamine was the major lipid labelled, radioactivity was predominantly in the fatty acid rather than the base moiety. The labelled fatty acids were identified in each case. 3. The addition of acetate to growth media decreased the incorporation of radioactivity from ethanolamine into both fatty acid and phosphatidyl-base fragments of lipids from all the bacteria except Mycobacterium smegmatis. Experiments with [3H]ethanolamine and [14C]acetate confirmed that unlabelled acetate decreased the incorporation of both radioactive isotopes into lipids, except in the case of M. smegmatis. 4. Enzyme studies suggested one of two metabolic routes between ethanolamine and acetyl-CoA for each of four bacteria. A role for ethanolamine O-phosphate was not obligatory for the incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phospholipids, but correlated with CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.
Project description:1. Spermatozoa collected directly from the testis of the conscious ram contain 25% more phospholipid than ejaculated spermatozoa. The concentration of lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and ethanolamine plasmalogen was greater in testicular spermatozoa; little difference was observed in choline plasmalogen. Both types of spermatozoa had significant amounts of cardiolipin and alkyl ether phospholipid. 2. The fatty acids in the phospholipid extracted from testicular spermatozoa have a very high content of palmitic acid. The phospholipids of ejaculated spermatozoa contained less palmitic acid, but more myristic acid. 3. Ejaculated spermatozoa contained less acyl ester and cholesterol. It is suggested that lipids are a source of substrate for spermatozoa during their passage through the epididymis. 4. Testicular spermatozoa when incubated with [U-(14)C]glucose incorporated more radioactivity into the glycerol part of the phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions than did ejaculated cells. The distribution of radioactivity in the individual phospholipids and neutral lipids was similar for both cell types. No radioactivity was detected in choline plasmalogen, which accounted for approx. 40% of the total phospholipid. 5. Testicular spermatozoa incorporated more radioactivity from glucose into formate than into acetate, whereas a higher proportion of radioactivity was found in acetate in ejaculated cells. 6. The implications of these lipid changes in the process of spermatozoal maturation are discussed.
Project description:Olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures were incubated with [2-14C]ethanolamine and [Me-14C]choline in order to study phospholipid synthesis. Radioactivity from [Me-14C]choline was shown to be incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-base pathway. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine, but significant radio-activity was also detected in phosphatidylcholine, indicating the operation of a methylation route. Incubation with [2-14C]ethanolamine indicated that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated radiolabel over a similar time course. This led us to investigate the possibility that phosphatidylcholine was being synthesized by a methylation pathway distinct from the direct methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. There was extensive incorporation of [2-14C]ethanolamine into different components of the aqueous phase of the incubations, within which phospho-base derivatives of ethanolamine were prominent. These intermediates were identified and provided evidence for the operation of an alternative methylation pathway via phosphodimethylethanolamine for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in olives.
Project description:1. Incorporation of [Me-14C]choline and [2-14C]ethanolamine into lipids was studied in germinating soya bean (Glycine max L.) seeds. The precursors are only incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and into phosphatidylethanolamine respectively. 2. Base-labelling via a phospholipase-D type of reaction was eliminated as a significant factor. 3. Cyclo heximide inhibited labelling of phosphatidylcholine from [Me-14C]choline but did not affect labelling of the aqueous choline pool. It had no effect on [2-14C]ethanolamine uptake or incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine. 4. Hemicholinium-15 at 10mM concentrations decreased uptake and lipid labelling from the both bases. 5. There was no evidence for base competition. 6. The endogenous pool of choline was much larger than that of ethanolamine, which resulted in higher specific radioactivities for phosphatidyl-ethanolamine than for phosphatidylcholine. 7. The results can be interpreted as indicating that the kinase and phosphoryltransferase enzymes of the CDP-base pathways are separate for each phospholipid.
Project description:1. The kinetics of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in rat liver were followed 5-60 min after the intraportal injection of [14-C]choline and [3-H]-ethanolamine. 2. At all time-intervals the specific radioactivity of CDP-choline was only about half that of phosphorylcholine. This indicated that CDP-choline was formed at a similar rate from phosphorylcholine and phosphatidylcholines, the latter probably through the reverse reaction of cholinephosphotransferase (EC 22.214.171.124.). In view of recent data obtained from experiments in vitro this implies a significant role for the cholinephosphotransferase reaction in the turnover of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine. 3. The specific radioactivity of CDP-ethanolamine was about twice that of phosphorylethanolamine at all time-intervals studied. This supports a previous suggestion that the liver phosphorylethanolamine pool is subject to compartmentation and shows that there is no rapid equilibration between different pools. In contrast with a recent study, no evidence was found for any significant methylation of phosphoryl-or CDP-ethanolamine to the corresponding choline derivative. 4. Quantitative data on the biosynthesis of molecular species of phosphoLIPIDS via CDP derivatives were calculated according to simple kinetic models. They were in the same range as those calculated from earlier data on precusors incorporated via diacylglycerols. 5. The proportion of radioactive phosphatidylethanolamines appearing in the plasma was approximately ten times lower than that for phosphatidylcholines. No selectivity was observed in the transfer into plasma of different molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine.
Project description:We have investigated whether the growth requirement of keratinocytes for ethanolamine is due to defective synthesis of ethanolamine phosphoacylglycerols (EPG) via decarboxylation of serine phosphoacylglycerols. Proliferating keratinocytes readily incorporated [3H]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and [3H]serine into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PE. Non-proliferating keratinocytes in ethanolamine-free medium incorporated [3H]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine (PC), PS and PE in decreasing order of label incorporated. The order of decreasing incorporation of glycerol after addition of ethanolamine to the medium was PC > PE > PS. Incubation of non-proliferating keratinocytes with [3H]serine resulted in incorporation of label into PS and PE. The extent of incorporation of [3H]serine into PS in non-proliferating keratinocytes was not less than that in proliferating cells. Addition of ethanolamine to the medium of non-proliferating keratinocytes did not change the quantity of label incorporated into PS, but resulted in a decrease of label incorporated into PE. When cells were prelabelled overnight with [3H]serine and subsequently incubated in medium containing ethanolamine, the loss of label from PS was inhibited relative to that of control cells incubated in medium without ethanolamine. The activity of PS decarboxylase activity in keratinocyte mitochondria was inhibited by phosphoethanolamine and PE, but not by ethanolamine or CDP-ethanolamine. Both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes incorporated [3H]serine into ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids. Taken together, the above results suggest that (1) both proliferating and non-proliferating keratinocytes are able to synthesize PE and ether-linked ethanolamine phospholipids from serine, and therefore the ethanolamine-requirement of the cells is not due to a defective decarboxylase pathway; (2) any inability of the decarboxylase pathway to meet cellular EPG requirement is not due to decreased synthesis of serine phospholipids; (3) synthesis of PE via decarboxylation, the major route in nonproliferating keratinocytes, appears to decrease when ethanolamine is made available and the CDP-ethanolamine pathway is functioning; (4) phosphoethanolamine and increased PE produced from the CDP-ethanolamine pathway may inhibit PS decarboxylase activity in the cells and provide a means of coordinating the synthesis of PE by the two pathways to prevent excess production.
Project description:1. Analogues of ethanolamine and choline were incubated with different labelled precursors of phospholipids and isolated hepatocytes and the effects on phospholipid synthesis were studied. 2. 2-Aminopropan-1-ol and 2-aminobutan-1-ol were the most efficient inhibitors of [(14)C]ethanolamine incorporation into phospholipids, whereas the incorporation of [(3)H]choline was inhibited most extensively by NN-diethylethanolamine and NN-dimethylethanolamine. 3. When the analogues were incubated with [(3)H]glycerol and hepatocytes, the appearance of (3)H in unnatural phospholipids indicated that they were incorporated, at least in part, via CDP-derivatives. The distribution of [(3)H]glycerol among molecular species of phospholipids containing 2-aminopropan-1-ol and 1-aminopropan-2-ol was the same as in phosphatidylethanolamine. In other phospholipid analogues the distribution of (3)H was more similar to that in phosphatidylcholine. 4. NN-Diethylethanolamine stimulated both the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine and the incorporation of [Me-(14)C]methionine into phospholipids. Other N-alkyl- or NN-dialkyl-ethanolamines also stimulated [(14)C]methionine incorporation, but inhibited the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine. This indicates that phosphatidyl-NN-diethylethanolamine is a poor methyl acceptor, in contrast with other N-alkylated phosphatidylethanolamines. 5. These results on the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in intact cells are discussed with respect to the possible control points. They also provide guidelines for future experiments on the manipulation of phospholipid polar-headgroup composition in primary cultures of hepatocytes.
Project description:Changes in isoprenaline-sensitive phospholipid methyltransferase were studied in hepatocytes isolated from juvenile, mature and adrenalectomized rats. Isoprenaline produced greater stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats than in mature animals. Similarly, isoprenaline stimulated phospholipid methyltransferase in juvenile and mature adrenalectomized rats but had no effect in mature animals. Isoprenaline-mediated activation of phospholipid methyltransferase in adrenalectomized rats was time- and dose-dependent. In hepatocytes isolated from adrenalectomized rats incubated with [Me-3H]methionine or [3H]-ethanolamine the addition of isoprenaline increased the amount of radioactivity incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. The activation by isoprenaline of phospholipid methyltransferase was abolished by the beta-blocker propranolol and by insulin. These results indicate that rat liver the occupation of functional beta-receptors causes a stimulation of phospholipid methylation. It is suggested that, as reported previously, cyclic AMP activates phospholipid methyltransferase.