Characterization of the calcium-sequestering process associated with human platelet intracellular membranes isolated by free-flow electrophoresis.
ABSTRACT: By using density-gradient fractionation and high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, human platelet membranes were separated into highly purified subfractions of surface (SM) and intracellular (IM) origin. Associated exclusively with the IM fraction is an ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake that, in the absence of oxalate, reaches steady-state levels in 5-10 min. When Ca2+-EGTA buffers were used to control the external Ca2+ concentrations (range 0.1-50 microM) there was an increase in the intravesicle steady-state level of Ca2+ up to 10 microM external Ca2+ concentration. Above this level the intravesicle space becomes saturated at a concentration between 10 and 20 nmol of Ca2+ X (mg of protein)-1. The ionophore A23187 promotes a rapid and almost total release of the sequestered Ca2+ (greater than 90%, t1/2 1-2 min). The presence of oxalate in the external medium greatly enhances the Ca2+ accumulation to levels as high as 200 nmol X (mg of protein)-1, but the uptake process is more variable and rarely reaches steady-state level even after 2 h incubation. Moreover, accumulation in the presence of oxalate effects ionophore release with less than 80% depletion in 45-60 min. These findings, taken together with the known presence in the platelet of a wide variety of functional and metabolic processes triggered by this cation, suggest that the platelet IM has a key role in controlling cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Evidence has accumulated in support of a role for intracellularly generated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in raising cytosol [Ca2+] when various hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and other stimulants act on cell surfaces. The increase in [Ca2+] that follows stimulant-receptor interaction is accompanied by rapid hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. One product, Ins(1,4,5)P3, arising from the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was shown to promote the release of Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial stores in a variety of cells. Although platelet intracellular membranes have been implicated in the control of cytosol [Ca2+] and we previously characterized a Ca2+-sequestering mechanism associated with them, we have as yet no knowledge of how this Ca2+ store is mobilized after a stimulus-receptor interaction at the platelet surface. Using free-flow electrophoresis, we isolated and purified human platelet intracellular membranes. They show high enrichment and exclusive localization of the endoplasmic-reticulum marker NADH:cytochrome c reductase, and they sequester Ca2+ by an ATP-dependent process, reaching steady-state values in 10-12 min. Saturation with Ca2+ occurs at around 10-30 microM external Ca2+. When Ins(1,4,5)P3 is added to the 45Ca-loaded vesicles, a rapid release of Ca2+ occurs (approx. 35% in 15-30s). The magnitude of the release depends upon external [Ca2+], being maximum in the range 0.3-0.8 microM and low at external [Ca2+] greater than 1 microM. After release there is a rapid re-uptake of Ca2+, with restoration of the former steady-state values within 1 min. Half-maximal release occurs at approx. 0.25 microM-Ins(1,4,5)P3. This release and re-uptake pattern is not observed with ionophore A23187 or arachidonic acid, both of which liberate Ca2+ irreversibly. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate was ineffective in releasing Ca2+ from these intracellular membranes. The results support the role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 as a specific intracellular mediator, transducing the action of excitatory agonists acting on the platelet surface into metabolic, mechanochemical and other functional events, known to occur during platelet activation.
Project description:1. By using Ca-EGTA buffers, the Km for Ca2+ uptake into rat liver heavy microsomes (microsomal fraction) was found to be 0.2 microM free Ca2+. 2. In the absence of oxalate, these vesicles accumulate about 20 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. Efflux of Ca2+ from the vesicles is much faster at pH 7.6 than at pH 6.8, but does not apparently show saturation kinetics or any stringent requirement for external ions. 3. The steady-state distribution of Ca2+ between the microsomes and the medium in the presence of ATP and the absence of oxalate is dependent on Ca2+ load. When the vesicles are loaded to 50% capacity, the external free Ca2+ concentration is 70 nM. 4. The affinity of heavy microsomes for Ca2+ is such that is seems likely that they has a dominant role in the determination of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:1. The effects of external Ca2+, EGTA, ionophore A23187, CN-, dinitrophenol and iodoacetamide on the rate of protein degradation in the rat diaphragm and epitrochlearis muscles in vitro were investigated. 2. External Ca2+ increased protein degradation when compared with external EGTA. Protein degradation was further increased by Ca2+ + ionophore A23187. 3. EGTA and ionophore A23187 decreased ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations and the ATP/ADP ratio. 4. CN-, dinitrophenol and iodoacetamide decreased protein degradation, presumably by interfering with energy metabolism. 5. The effects of EGTA may be caused by disturbances in energy metabolism. The effects of ionophore A23187 cannot be readily explained by disturbances in energy metabolism. 6. Incubation of diaphragms with Ca2+ causes a rapid increase in whole-tissue Ca content. This is further stimulated by ionophore A23187. The uptake of Ca2+ may be, at least in part, into the cytoplasm because an increase in the glycogen phosphorylase activity ratio is observed. 7. A Ca2+-activated proteinase is present in rat heart and diaphragm. This enzyme may mediate in part the effects of Ca2+ described above. The apparent KA of this enzyme for Ca2+ is about 0.25 mM. 8. Because effects of ionophore A23187 cause a large increase in whole-tissue Ca content and because the Ca2+-activated proteinase has a relatively low affinity for Ca2+, it is felt that the effects of Ca2+ upon muscle proteolysis are unlikely to be of importance in steady-state protein turnover in vivo. The mechanism may, however, be important in breakdown of necrotic tissue in the living animal.
Project description:Ca2+ transport across mammary-gland Golgi membranes was measured after centrifugation of the membrane vesicles through silicone oil. In the presence of 2.3 microM free Ca2+ the vesicles accumulated 5.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein without added ATP, and this uptake was complete within 0.5 min. In the presence of 1 mM-ATP, Ca2+ was accumulated at a linear rate for 10 min after the precipitation of intravesicular Ca2+ with 10 mM-potassium oxalate. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake exhibited a Km of 0.14 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 3.1 nmol of Ca2+/min per mg of protein. Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis exhibited a Km of 0.16 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 10.1 nmol of Pi/min per mg of protein. The stoichiometry between ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase varied between 0.3 and 0.7 over the range 0.03-8.6 microM-Ca2+. Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase were strongly inhibited by orthovanadate, which suggests that the major mechanism by which Golgi vesicles accumulate Ca2+ is through the action of the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. However, Ca2+ uptake was also decreased by the protonophore CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), indicating that it may occur by other mechanisms too. The effect of CCCP may be related to the existence of transmembrane pH gradients (delta pH) in these vesicles: the addition of 30 microM-CCCP reduced delta pH from a control value of 1.06 to 0.73 pH unit. Golgi vesicles also possess a Ca2+-efflux pathway which operated at an initial rate of 0.5-0.57 nmol/min per mg of protein.
Project description:Human platelets were prepared and loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator quin2. The relation between cytoplasmic free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, and the extent of the phosphorylation of myosin light chains of Mr 20 000 could then be examined. When the calcium ionophore ionomycin is used to stimulate platelets, little phosphorylation is seen until [Ca2+]i exceeds 400 nM; half-maximal response occurs at 600 nM with a full response at about 1 microM-[Ca2+]i. Under optimal conditions, physiological stimuli such as platelet-activating factor and thrombin can increase [Ca2+]i to sufficiently high levels [Rink, Smith & Tsien (1982) FEBS Lett. 148, 21-26; Hallam, Sanchez & Rink (1984) Biochem. J. 218, 819-827] that Ca2+ ions could be the trigger for the myosin phosphorylation evoked by these agonists. However, in this paper we show that, in the absence of external calcium, platelet-activating factor and thrombin can stimulate myosin phosphorylation while [Ca2+]i remains at levels which are well below those needed when the calcium ionophore is the stimulus. This observation suggests that myosin light chain phosphorylation may be controlled by an additional pathway.
Project description:Measurements of the initial rate of Ca2+ transport by rat liver microsomal preparations reveal the existence of two phases of transport activity. The first, a phase of rapid transport, is complete by 3-5 min, at which time the second (slower) phase begins; this remains linear for up to at least 40 min. The initial phase is minimal in the absence of MgATP. The initial rate of Ca2+ transport reaches values as high as 25 nmol/min per mg of protein; the Km for Ca2+total is 1-2 micrometer and that for MgATPtotal about 500 micrometer. Ruthenium Red (3-5 nmol/mg of protein) has little effect on the initial rate of transport, whereas tributylin (2 micrometer) inhibits equally in a KC1- or a KNO3-containing medium. Compunds that collapse components of the proton electrochemical gradient in mitochondria (valinomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) each inhibit by 70-80% the initial rate of microsomal Ca2+ transport.
Project description:To probe the structure-function relationships of proteins present in the endoplasmic reticulum-like intracellular membranes of human blood platelets a panel of monoclonal antibodies have been raised, using as immunogen highly purified platelet intracellular membrane vesicles isolated by continuous flow electrophoresis [Menashi, Weintroub & Crawford (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 4095-4101]. Four of these antibodies recognize a single 100 kDa polypeptide in the platelet membrane by immunoblotting. One antibody PL/IM 430 (of IgG1 subclass) inhibited (approximately 70%) the energy-dependent uptake of Ca2+ into the vesicles without affecting the Ca2+ +Mg2+-ATPase activity or the protein phosphorylation previously shown to proceed concomitantly with Ca2+ sequestration [Hack, Croset & Crawford (1986) Biochem. J. 233, 661-668]. The inhibition is independent of ATP concentration over a range 0-2 mM-ATP but shows dose-dependency for external [Ca2+] with maximum inhibition of Ca2+ translocation at concentrations of Ca2+ greater than 500 nM. This capacity of the antibody PL/IM 430 functionally to dislocate components of the intracellular membrane Ca2+ pump complex may have value in structural studies.
Project description:1. The heavy microsomal fraction from rat liver apparently has very little Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity, although it has an active, ATP-driven Ca2+ accumulation system. 2. The addition of ionophore A23187 to the ATPase assay, to allow continuous Ca2+ recycling during the assay time, reveals the presence of a substantial Ca2+-stimulated ATPase with Vmax. 160 nmol of Pi/10 min per mg of protein and Km for Ca2+ 0.19 microM. 3. The Ca2+-stimulated ATPase, but not the basal Mg2+-stimulated ATPase, is potently inhibited by orthovanadate. Both the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase and the vanadate inhibition are enhanced by the presence of Mg2+. 4. Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity is not responsive to calmodulin or the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine.
Project description:ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport was investigated in a rat parotid microsomal-membrane preparation enriched in endoplasmic reticulum. Ca2+ uptake, in KCl medium, was rapid, linear with time up to 20 s, and unaffected by the mitochondrial inhibitors NaN3 and oligomycin. This Ca2+ uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and was of high affinity (Km approximately 38 nM) and high capacity (approximately 30 nmol/min per mg of protein). In the presence of oxalate, Ca2+ uptake continued to increase for at least 5 min, reaching an intravesicular accumulation approx. 10 times higher than without oxalate. Ca2+ uptake was dependent on univalent cations in the order K+ = Na+ greater than trimethylammonium+ greater than mannitol and univalent anions in the order Cl- greater than acetate- greater than Br- = gluconate- = NO3- greater than SCN-. Ca2+ uptake was not elevated if membranes were incubated in the presence of a lipophilic anion (NO3-) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Ca2+ transport was altered by changes in the K+-diffusion potential of the membranes. A relatively negative K+-diffusion potential increased the initial rate of Ca2+ accumulation, whereas a relatively positive potential decreased Ca2+ accumulation. In the presence of an outwardly directed K+ gradient, nigericin had no effect on Ca2+ uptake. In aggregate, these studies suggest that the ATP-dependent Ca2+-transport mechanism present in rat parotid microsomal membranes exhibits an electrogenic Ca2+ flux which requires the movement of other ions for charge compensation.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine exposure and microvesicle release give rise to procoagulant activity during platelet activation. We have previously shown that whereas the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, induce phosphatidylserine exposure, only the former triggers microvesicle release. We now report that microvesicle formation with ionophore A23187 is specifically associated with mu-calpain activation, increased protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation. The degree to which calpain and individual PTPs were activated in response to A23187 depended on the extent of bivalent cation chelation in the external medium. EGTA (2 mM) blocked or severely retarded their activation, and addition of extracellular Ca2+ in excess (2 mM) resulted in virtually immediate tyrosine dephosphorylation. Dephosphorylation was correlated with an increase in total PTP activity in platelet lysates. In platelets stimulated by a combination of thrombin and collagen, only the subpopulation undergoing microvesicle release and isolated by their binding to annexin-V-coated magnetic beads exhibited protein tyrosine dephosphorylation. Detection of PTP activity in an 'in-gel' assay showed the Ca2+-dependent appearance of active low-molecular-mass bands at 38, 36 and 27 kDa. Individual PTPs varied in their protease sensitivity to changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. For example, PTP1B was a more sensitive substrate than SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 for mu-calpain cleavage. Incubation of platelets with the PTP inhibitors, phenylarsine oxide and benzylphosphonic acid acetoxymethyl ester, led to increased tyrosine phosphorylation and the surface expression of aminophospholipids but little microvesicle formation. Furthermore, microvesicle release in response to ionophore A23187 was inhibited. We conclude that platelet microvesicle formation is associated with extensive protein tyrosine dephosphorylation.