Human hepatitis B virus polymerase interacts with the molecular chaperonin Hsp60.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus polymerase (HBV Pol) interacts with host factors such as the Hsp90 complex, which is a critical step in viral genome replication. In this report, we propose that another chaperone, Hsp60, interacts with human HBV Pol and that this is a very important step for maturation of human HBV Pol into the active state. In the immunoprecipitation of recombinant human HBV Pol expressed in insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus expression system, the 60-kDa protein was coimmunoprecipitated with Pol and the protein was identified as Hsp60 through peptide sequencing and immunogenic analysis with an anti-Hsp60 antibody. In vitro experiments showed that Hsp60 strongly affected human HBV Pol activity in that (i) blocking of Hsp60 by the protein-specific antibody reduced human HBV Pol activity, (ii) the activity was increased by addition of Hsp60 in the presence of ATP, and (iii) ATP synergistically activated human HBV Pol with Hsp60. In vivo experiments showed that inhibition of Hsp60 in cells by a mutant Hsp60, C Delta 540, resulted in the reduction of human HBV Pol activity. In summary, our results indicate that the interaction is significant for conversion of human HBV Pol into the active state.
Project description:The human mitochondrial heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) is a tetradecameric chaperonin that folds proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. An hsp60 D3G mutation leads to MitCHAP-60, an early onset neurodegenerative disease while hsp60 V72I has been linked to SPG13, a form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Previous studies have suggested that these mutations impair the protein folding activity of hsp60 complexes but the detailed mechanism by which these mutations lead the neuromuscular diseases remains unknown. It is known, is that the ?-subunit of the human mitochondrial ATP synthase co-immunoprecipitates with hsp60 indicating that the ?-subunit is likely a substrate for the chaperonin. Therefore, we hypothesized that hsp60 mutations cause misfolding of proteins that are critical for aerobic respiration. Negative-stain electron microscopy and DLS results suggest that the D3G and V72I complexes fall apart when treated with ATP or ADP and are therefore unable to fold denatured substrates such as ?-lactalbumin, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the ?-subunit of ATP synthase in in-vitro protein-folding assays. These data suggests that hsp60 plays a crucial role in folding important players in aerobic respiration such as the ?-subunit of the ATP synthase. The hsp60 mutations D3G and V72I impair its ability to fold mitochondrial substrates leading to abnormal ATP synthesis and the development of the MitCHAP-60 and SPG13 neuromuscular degenerative disorders.
Project description:The human mitochondrial chaperonin is a macromolecular machine that catalyzes the proper folding of mitochondrial proteins and is of vital importance to all cells. This chaperonin is composed of 2 distinct proteins, Hsp60 and Hsp10, that assemble into large oligomeric complexes that mediate the folding of non-native polypeptides in an ATP dependent manner. Here, we report the bacterial expression and purification of fully assembled human Hsp60 and Hsp10 recombinant proteins and that Hsp60 forms a stable tetradecameric double-ring conformation in the absence of co-chaperonin and nucleotide. Evidence of the stable double-ring conformation is illustrated by the 15 Å resolution electron microscopy reconstruction presented here. Furthermore, our biochemical analyses reveal that the presence of a non-native substrate initiates ATP-hydrolysis within the Hsp60/10 chaperonin to commence protein folding. Collectively, these data provide insight into the architecture of the intermediates used by the human mitochondrial chaperonin along its protein folding pathway and lay a foundation for subsequent high resolution structural investigations into the conformational changes of the mitochondrial chaperonin.
Project description:We have previously reported the association of a mutation (c.292G > A/p.V98I) in the human HSPD1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonin with a dominantly inherited form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here, we show that the purified Hsp60-(p.V98I) chaperonin displays decreased ATPase activity and exhibits a strongly reduced capacity to promote folding of denatured malate dehydrogenase in vitro. To test its in vivo functions, we engineered a bacterial model system that lacks the endogenous chaperonin genes and harbors two plasmids carrying differentially inducible operons with human Hsp10 and wild-type Hsp60 or Hsp10 and Hsp60-(p.V98I), respectively. Ten hours after shutdown of the wild-type chaperonin operon and induction of the Hsp60-(p.V98I)/Hsp10 mutant operon, bacterial cell growth was strongly inhibited. No globally increased protein aggregation was observed, and microarray analyses showed that a number of genes involved in metabolic pathways, some of which are essential for robust aerobic growth, were strongly up-regulated in Hsp60-(p.V98I)-expressing bacteria, suggesting that the growth arrest was caused by defective folding of some essential proteins. Co-expression of Hsp60-(p.V98I) and wild-type Hsp60 exerted a dominant negative effect only when the chaperonin genes were expressed at relatively low levels. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, we propose that the major effect of heterozygosity for the Hsp60-(p.V98I) mutation is a moderately decreased activity of chaperonin complexes composed of mixed wild-type and Hsp60-(p.V98I) mutant subunits.
Project description:The mammalian molecular chaperone, HSP60, plays an essential role in protein homeostasis through mediating protein folding and assembly. The structure and ATP-dependent function of HSP60 has been well established in recent studies. After ATP, GTP is the major cellular nucleotide. In this paper, we have investigated the role of GTP in the activity of HSP60. It was found that HSP60 has different properties with respect to allostery, complex formation and protein folding activity depending on the nucleoside triphosphate present. The presence of GTP slightly affected the ATPase activity of HSP60 during protein folding. These results provide clues as to the functional mechanism of the HSP60-HSP10 complex.
Project description:The HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin assists folding of proteins in the mitochondrial matrix space by enclosing them in its central cavity. The chaperonin forms part of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. It is essential for cellular survival and mutations in its subunits are associated with rare neurological disorders. Here we present the first survey of interactors of the human mitochondrial HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin. Using a protocol involving metabolic labeling of HEK293 cells, cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation of HSP60, we identified 323 interacting proteins. As expected, the vast majority of these proteins are localized to the mitochondrial matrix space. We find that approximately half of the proteins annotated as mitochondrial matrix proteins interact with the HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin. They cover a broad spectrum of functions and metabolic pathways including the mitochondrial protein synthesis apparatus, the respiratory chain, and mitochondrial protein quality control. Many of the genes encoding HSP60 interactors are annotated as disease genes. There is a correlation between relative cellular abundance and relative abundance in the HSP60 immunoprecipitates. Nineteen abundant matrix proteins occupy more than 60% of the HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin capacity. The reported inventory of interactors can form the basis for interrogating which proteins are especially dependent on the chaperonin.
Project description:The role Hsp60 might play in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases is under investigation, but little information exists pertaining to Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). With the aim to fill this gap, in the present work, we directed our attention to Hsp60 participation in HT pathogenesis. We found Hsp60 levels increased in the blood of HT patients compared to controls. The chaperonin was immunolocalized in thyroid tissue specimens from patients with HT, both in thyrocytes and oncocytes (Hurthle cells) with higher levels compared to controls (goiter). In oncocytes, we found Hsp60 not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane, as shown by double immunofluorescence performed on fine needle aspiration cytology. By bioinformatics, we found regions in the Hsp60 molecule with remarkable structural similarity with the thyroglobulin (TG) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) molecules, which supports the notion that autoantibodies against TG and TPO are likely to recognize Hsp60 on the plasma membrane of oncocytes. This was also supported by data obtained by ELISA, showing that anti-TG and anti-TPO antibodies cross-react with human recombinant Hsp60. Antibody-antigen (Hsp60) reaction on the cell surface could very well mediate thyroid cell damage and destruction, perpetuating inflammation. Experiments with recombinant Hsp60 did not show stimulation of cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HT patients. All together, these results led us to hypothesize that Hsp60 may be an active player in HT pathogenesis via an antibody-mediated immune mechanism.
Project description:The E. coli GroEL/GroES chaperonin complex acts as a folding cage by producing a bullet-like asymmetric complex, and GroEL exists as double rings regardless of the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Its mammalian chaperonin homolog, heat shock protein, HSP60, and co-chaperonin, HSP10, play an essential role in protein folding by capturing unfolded proteins in the HSP60/HSP10 complex. However, the structural transition in ATPase-dependent reaction cycle has remained unclear. We found nucleotide-dependent association and dissociation of the HSP60/HSP10 complex using various analytical techniques under near physiological conditions. Our results showed that HSP60 exist as a significant number of double-ring complexes (football- and bullet-type complexes) and a small number of single-ring complexes in the presence of ATP and HSP10. HSP10 binds to HSP60 in the presence of ATP, which increased the HSP60 double-ring formation. After ATP is hydrolyzed to Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), HSP60 released the HSP10 and the dissociation of the double-ring to single-rings occurred. These results indicated that HSP60/HSP10 undergoes an ATP-dependent transition between the single- and double-rings in their system that is highly distinctive from the GroEL/GroES system particularly in the manner of complex formation and the roles of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the reaction cycle.
Project description:Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) forms together with heat shock protein 10 (HSP10) double-barrel chaperonin complexes that are essential for folding to the native state of proteins in the mitochondrial matrix space. Two extremely rare monogenic disorders have been described that are caused by missense mutations in the HSPD1 gene that encodes the HSP60 subunit of the HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin complex. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders have revealed that different degrees of reduced HSP60 function produce distinct neurological phenotypes. While mutations with deleterious or strong dominant negative effects are not compatible with life, HSPD1 gene variations found in the human population impair HSP60 function and depending on the mechanism and degree of HSP60 dys- and mal-function cause different phenotypes. We here summarize the knowledge on the effects of disturbances of the function of the HSP60/HSP10 chaperonin complex by disease-associated mutations.
Project description:SPG13, an autosomal dominant form of pure hereditary spastic paraplegia, was recently mapped to chromosome 2q24-34 in a French family. Here we present genetic data indicating that SPG13 is associated with a mutation, in the gene encoding the human mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60, that results in the V72I substitution. A complementation assay showed that wild-type HSP60 (also known as "HSPD1"), but not HSP60 (V72I), together with the co-chaperonin HSP10 (also known as "HSPE1"), can support growth of Escherichia coli cells in which the homologous chromosomal groESgroEL chaperonin genes have been deleted. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that the V72I variation is the first disease-causing mutation that has been identified in HSP60.
Project description:All living organisms contain a unique class of molecular chaperones called 60?kDa heat shock proteins (HSP60 - also known as GroEL in bacteria). While some organisms contain more than one HSP60 or GroEL isoform, at least one isoform has always proven to be essential. Because of this, we have been investigating targeting HSP60 and GroEL chaperonin systems as an antibiotic strategy. Our initial studies focused on applying this antibiotic strategy for treating African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei parasites) and drug-resistant bacterial infections (in particular Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA). Intriguingly, during our studies we found that three known antibiotics - suramin, closantel, and rafoxanide - were potent inhibitors of bacterial GroEL and human HSP60 chaperonin systems. These findings prompted us to explore what other approved drugs, natural products, and known bioactive molecules might also inhibit HSP60 and GroEL chaperonin systems. Initial high-throughput screening of 3680 approved drugs, natural products, and known bioactives identified 161 hit inhibitors of the Escherichia coli GroEL chaperonin system (4.3% hit rate). From a purchased subset of 60 hits, 29 compounds (48%) re-confirmed as selective GroEL inhibitors in our assays, all of which were nearly equipotent against human HSP60. These findings illuminate the notion that targeting chaperonin systems might be a more common occurrence than we previously appreciated. Future studies are needed to determine if the in vivo modes of action of these approved drugs, natural products, and known bioactive molecules are related to GroEL and HSP60 inhibition.