Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ from permeabilized insulin-secreting cells.
ABSTRACT: A possible role in secretory processes is proposed for inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), based upon investigations of the Ca2+ steady state maintained by "leaky', insulin-secreting RINm5F cells. These cells had been treated with digitonin to permeabilize their plasma membranes and thereby ensure that only intracellular Ca2+ buffering mechanisms were active. When placed in a medium with a cation composition resembling that of the cytosol, cells rapidly took up Ca2+ as measured by a Ca2+-specific minielectrode. Two Ca2+ steady states were observed. A lower level of around 120nM required ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and was probably determined by the endoplasmic reticulum. The higher steady state (approx. 800 nM), seen only in the absence of ATP, was shown to be due to mitochondrial activity. IP3 specifically released Ca2+ accumulated in the ATP-dependent pool, but not from mitochondria, since Ca2+ release was demonstrated in the presence of the respiratory poison antimycin. The IP3-induced Ca2+ release was rapid, with 50% of the response being seen within 15s. The apparent Km was 0.5 microM and maximal concentrations of IP3 (2.5 microM) produced a peak Ca2+ release of 10 nmol/mg of cell protein, which was followed by re-uptake. A full Ca2+ response was seen if sequential pulses of 2.5 microM-IP3 were added at 20 min intervals, although there was a slight (less than 20%) attenuation if the intervening period was decreased to 10 min. These observations could be related to the rate of IP3 degradation which, in this system, corresponded to a 25% loss of added 32P label within 2 min, and a 75% loss within 20 min. The results suggest that IP3 might act as a link between metabolic, cationic and secretory events during the stimulation of insulin release.
Project description:The effect of the guanine nucleotide GTP on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum of digitonin-permeabilized islets was investigated. maximal and half-maximal Ca2+ release were observed at 5 microM- and 2.5 microM-GTP respectively. GTP caused a rapid release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, which was complete within 1 min. GTP-induced Ca2+ release was structurally specific and required the hydrolysis of GTP. The combination of maximal concentrations of GTP (10 microM) and myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) (10 microM) resulted in an additive effect on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. GDP (100 microM), which inhibits GTP-induced Ca2+ release, did not affect IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Furthermore, GTP-induced Ca2+ release was not independent on submicromolar free Ca2+ concentrations, unlike IP3-induced Ca2+ release. These observations suggest that mechanistically GTP-induced Ca2+ release is different from IP3-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:The effects of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) on Ca2+ uptake and release from isolated adipocyte endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane vesicles were investigated. Effects of IP3 were initially characterized using an endoplasmic reticulum preparation with cytosol present (S1-ER). Maximal and half-maximal effects of IP3 on Ca2+ release from S1-ER vesicles occurred at 20 microM- and 7 microM-IP3, respectively, in the presence of vanadate which prevents the re-uptake of released Ca2+ via the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump. At saturating IP3 concentrations, Ca2+ release in the presence of vanadate was 20% of the exchangeable Ca2+ pool. IP3-induced release of Ca2+ from S1-ER was dependent on extravesicular free Ca2+ concentration with maximal release occurring at 0.13 microM free Ca2+. At 20 microM-IP3 there was no effect on the initial rate of Ca2+ uptake by S1-ER. IP3 promoted Ca2+ release from isolated endoplasmic reticulum vesicles (cytosol not present) to a similar level as compared with S1-ER. Addition of cytosol to isolated endoplasmic reticulum vesicles did not affect IP3-induced Ca2+ release. The endoplasmic reticulum preparation was further fractionated into heavy and light vesicles by differential centrifugation. Interestingly, the heavy fraction, but not the light fraction, released Ca2+ when challenged with IP3. IP3 (20 microM) did not promote Ca2+ release from plasma membrane vesicles and had no effect on the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity or on the initial rate of ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by these vesicles. These results support the concept that IP3 acts exclusively at the endoplasmic reticulum to promote Ca2+ release.
Project description:Swiss 3T3 cells incubated for 60 h with [3H]inositol incorporated radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and the two polyphosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). On stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) there were significant increases in the levels of inositol 1-phosphate (IP1), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The effect of PDGF and IP3 on Ca2+ mobilization was studied in both intact cells and in 'leaky' cells that had been permeabilized with saponin. In intact cells, PDGF stimulated the efflux of 45Ca2+, whereas IP3 had no effect. Conversely, IP3 stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from 'leaky' cells, which were insensitive to PDGF. 'Leaky' cells, which accumulated 45Ca2+ to a steady state within 20 min, were found to release approx. 40% of the label within 1 min after addition of 10 microM-IP3. This stimulation of 45Ca2+ release by IP3 was reversible and was also dose-dependent, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 0.3 microM. It seems likely that an important action of PDGF on Swiss 3T3 cells is to stimulate the hydrolysis of PIP2 to form IP3 and diacylglycerol, both of which may function as second messengers. Our results indicate that IP3 mobilizes intracellular Ca2+, and we propose that diacylglycerol may act through C-kinase to activate the Na+/H+ antiport. By generating two second messengers, PDGF can simultaneously elevate the intracellular level of Ca2+ and alkalinize the cytoplasm by lowering the level of H+.
Project description:At maximally effective concentrations, vasopressin (10(-7) M) increased myo-inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in isolated rat hepatocytes by 100% at 3 s and 150% at 6 s, while adrenaline (epinephrine) (10(-5) M) produced a 17% increase at 3 s and a 30% increase at 6 s. These increases were maintained for at least 10 min. Both agents increased cytosolic free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) maximally by 5 s. Increases in IP3 were also observed with angiotensin II and ATP, but not with glucagon or platelet-activating factor. The dose-responses of vasopressin and adrenaline on phosphorylase and [Ca2+]i showed a close correspondence, whereas IP3 accumulation was 20-30-fold less sensitive. However, significant (20%) increases in IP3 could be observed with 10(-9) M-vasopressin and 10(-7) M-adrenaline, which induce near-maximal phosphorylase activation. Vasopressin-induced accumulation of IP3 was potentiated by 10mM-Li+, after a lag of approx. 1 min. However the rise in [Ca2+]i and phosphorylase activation were not potentiated at any time examined. Similar data were obtained with adrenaline as agonist. Lowering the extracellular Ca2+ to 30 microM or 250 microM did not affect the initial rise in [Ca2+]i with vasopressin but resulted in a rapid decline in [Ca2+]i. Brief chelation of extracellular Ca2+ for times up to 4 min also did not impair the rate or magnitude of the increase in [Ca2+]i or phosphorylase a induced by vasopressin. The following conclusions are drawn from these studies. IP3 is increased in rat hepatocytes by vasopressin, adrenaline, angiotensin II and ATP. The temporal relationships of its accumulation to the increases in [Ca2+]i and phosphorylase a are consistent with it playing a second message role. Influx of extracellular Ca2+ is not required for the initial rise in [Ca2+]i induced by these agonists, but is required for the maintenance of the elevated [Ca2+]i.
Project description:GTP, when added to a rat liver microsomal fraction that had previously been allowed to accumulate Ca2+, causes a slow release of Ca2+, which is greatly enhanced by addition of inositol trisphosphate (IP3). The Ca2+ release caused by IP3 under these conditions is very much greater than that observed in the absence of GTP. The effect of GTP is dependent on the presence of polyethylene glycol in the incubation medium and is not due to inhibition of the Ca2+-accumulation system. The response to GTP is time-dependent, particularly at low (4 microM) GTP concentrations, and cannot be mimicked by ATP, ITP, CTP, UTP and GDP. Studies with [gamma-32P]GTP show that, during incubation with microsomal fractions, the terminal phosphate of GTP is transferred to two protein species, of Mr 38 000 and 17 000. These protein phosphorylations are still present when an excess of unlabelled ATP is included in the incubation mixture, but appear to be unaffected by the presence or absence of IP3 and polyethylene glycol. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that a protein, phosphorylated by GTP, has to bind to the microsomal membranes before IP3 can stimulate Ca2+ release, and that, in vitro, the binding of this protein is favoured by the presence of polyethylene glycol.
Project description:Glucose-induced insulin secretion is thought to be mediated by submicromolar increases in intracellular Ca2+, although the intracellular processes are not well understood. We have used the previously characterized digitonin-permeabilized insulin-secreting pancreatic islet model to study the role of myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), a putative second messenger for mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum was studied with or without vanadate present to inhibit Ca2+ reuptake. IP3 (10 microM), at a free Ca2+ level of 0.06 microM, increased Ca2+ release by 30% and, when vanadate was present, by 50%. Maximal and half-maximal Ca2+ release was observed at 10 microM- and 2.5 microM-IP3, respectively. IP3 provoked a rapid release that was followed by slow reuptake. Reuptake was diminished in the presence of vanadate. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1-phosphate and other phosphoinositide metabolites did not have any significant effect. Because increases in Ca2+ levels in the submicromolar range have been previously shown to induce insulin release in digitonin-permeabilized islets, our results are consistent with the concept of IP3 serving as a second messenger for insulin secretion.
Project description:By using density-gradient fractionation and high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, human platelet membranes were separated into highly purified subfractions of surface (SM) and intracellular (IM) origin. Associated exclusively with the IM fraction is an ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake that, in the absence of oxalate, reaches steady-state levels in 5-10 min. When Ca2+-EGTA buffers were used to control the external Ca2+ concentrations (range 0.1-50 microM) there was an increase in the intravesicle steady-state level of Ca2+ up to 10 microM external Ca2+ concentration. Above this level the intravesicle space becomes saturated at a concentration between 10 and 20 nmol of Ca2+ X (mg of protein)-1. The ionophore A23187 promotes a rapid and almost total release of the sequestered Ca2+ (greater than 90%, t1/2 1-2 min). The presence of oxalate in the external medium greatly enhances the Ca2+ accumulation to levels as high as 200 nmol X (mg of protein)-1, but the uptake process is more variable and rarely reaches steady-state level even after 2 h incubation. Moreover, accumulation in the presence of oxalate effects ionophore release with less than 80% depletion in 45-60 min. These findings, taken together with the known presence in the platelet of a wide variety of functional and metabolic processes triggered by this cation, suggest that the platelet IM has a key role in controlling cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:We have previously reported that exposure of endothelial cells to cyclic strain elicited a rapid but transient generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which reached a peak 10 s after the initiation of cyclic deformation. To address the effect of cyclic strain on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and its temporal relationship to IP3 generation, confluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on flexible membranes, loaded with aequorin and the membranes placed in a custom-designed flow-through chamber. The chamber was housed inside a photomultiplier tube, and vacuum was utilized to deform the membranes. Our results indicate that the initiation of 10% average strain induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i which contained two distinct components: a large initial peak 12 s after the initiation of stretch which closely followed the IP3 peak, and a subsequent lower but sustained phase. Pretreatment with 5 microM GdCl3 for 10 min or nominally Ca2+-free medium (CFM) for 3 min reduced the magnitude of the initial rise and abolished the sustained phase. Repetitive 10% average strain at a frequency of 60 cycles/min also elicited a single IP3 peak at 10 s. However, there was also a large initial [Ca2+]i peak followed by multiple smaller transient [Ca2+]i elevations. Preincubation with 5 microM GdCl3 or CFM diminished the initial [Ca2+]i transient and markedly inhibited the late-phase component. Preincubation with 25 microM 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) attenuated the initial [Ca2+]i transient. Cyclic-strain-mediated IP3 formation in confluent endothelial cells at 10 s, however, was not modified by pretreatment with 25 microM BHQ, 500 microM NiCl2, 10 nM charybdotoxin, 5 microM GdCl3 or CFM. We conclude that in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain, Ca2+ enters the cytosol from intracellular and extracellular pools but IP3 formation is not dependent on Ca2+ entry via the plasma membrane.
Project description:Evidence has accumulated in support of a role for intracellularly generated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in raising cytosol [Ca2+] when various hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and other stimulants act on cell surfaces. The increase in [Ca2+] that follows stimulant-receptor interaction is accompanied by rapid hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. One product, Ins(1,4,5)P3, arising from the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was shown to promote the release of Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial stores in a variety of cells. Although platelet intracellular membranes have been implicated in the control of cytosol [Ca2+] and we previously characterized a Ca2+-sequestering mechanism associated with them, we have as yet no knowledge of how this Ca2+ store is mobilized after a stimulus-receptor interaction at the platelet surface. Using free-flow electrophoresis, we isolated and purified human platelet intracellular membranes. They show high enrichment and exclusive localization of the endoplasmic-reticulum marker NADH:cytochrome c reductase, and they sequester Ca2+ by an ATP-dependent process, reaching steady-state values in 10-12 min. Saturation with Ca2+ occurs at around 10-30 microM external Ca2+. When Ins(1,4,5)P3 is added to the 45Ca-loaded vesicles, a rapid release of Ca2+ occurs (approx. 35% in 15-30s). The magnitude of the release depends upon external [Ca2+], being maximum in the range 0.3-0.8 microM and low at external [Ca2+] greater than 1 microM. After release there is a rapid re-uptake of Ca2+, with restoration of the former steady-state values within 1 min. Half-maximal release occurs at approx. 0.25 microM-Ins(1,4,5)P3. This release and re-uptake pattern is not observed with ionophore A23187 or arachidonic acid, both of which liberate Ca2+ irreversibly. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate was ineffective in releasing Ca2+ from these intracellular membranes. The results support the role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 as a specific intracellular mediator, transducing the action of excitatory agonists acting on the platelet surface into metabolic, mechanochemical and other functional events, known to occur during platelet activation.
Project description:Thapsigargin (TG), 2,5-t-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) all inhibit the initial Ca(2+)-response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) by depleting intracellular Ca2+ pools sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Treatment of GH3 pituitary cells for 30 min with 5 nM TG, 500 nM tBHQ or 50 nM CPA completely eliminated the TRH-induced spike in intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Higher concentrations of TG and tBHQ, but not CPA, were also found to inhibit strongly the activity of L-type calcium channels, as measured by the increase in [Ca2+]i or 45Ca2+ influx stimulated by depolarization. TG and tBHQ blocked high-K(+)-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake, with IC50 values of 10 and 1 microM respectively. Maximal inhibition of L-channel activity was achieved 15-30 min after drug addition. Inhibition by tBHQ was reversible, whereas inhibition by TG was not. TG and CPA did not affect spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations when tested at concentrations adequate to deplete the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool. However, 20 microM TG and 10 microM tBHQ blocked [Ca2+]i oscillations completely. The effect of drugs on calcium currents was measured directly by using the patch-clamp technique. When added to the external bath, 10 microM CPA caused a sustained increase in the calcium-channel current amplitude over 8 min, 10 microM tBHQ caused a progressive inhibition, and 10 microM TG caused an enhancement followed by a sustained block of the calcium current over 8 min. In summary, CPA depletes IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores and does not inhibit voltage-operated calcium channels. At sufficiently low concentrations, TG depletes IP3-sensitive stores without inhibiting L-channel activity, but, for tBHQ, inhibition of calcium channels occurs at concentrations close to those needed to block agonist mobilization of intracellular Ca2+.