Inward fluxes of adenosine in erythrocytes and cultured cells measured by a quenched-flow method.
ABSTRACT: Dilazep, a vasodilator previously recognized as an inhibitor of adenosine permeation, very rapidly blocked the uptake of adenosine by cultured L5178Y cells, and accordingly was used as a quencher in a simple quenched-flow system for measuring cellular uptake of nucleosides during very short intervals. Time courses of cellular uptake of adenosine, assayed during intervals between 0.05 and 0.5s with the quenched-flow system, were linear and defined initial rates of adenosine uptake. The latter are rates of inward transport of adenosine. Kinetic constants for that process in cultured S49 cells determined with the quenched-flow procedure were similar to those determined with an assay dependent on manual timing. In studies of adenosine uptake kinetics in human erythrocytes at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C in which the quenched-flow procedure was used, time courses of adenosine uptake were linear at both temperatures and defined initial uptake rates; kinetic constants (means +/- S.E.M.) at 22 degrees C (n = 8) were Km 25 +/- 14 microM and Vmax. 15 +/- 5 pmol/s per microliter of cell water and at 37 degrees C (n = 3) were Km 98 +/- 17 microM and Vmax. 80 +/- 9 pmol/s per microliter of cell water.
Project description:Na+-dependent uptake of 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) into plasma membrane vesicles derived from bovine blood platelets and ATP-dependent 5-HT uptake into storage vesicles in platelet lysates were measured. Na+-dependent uptake was temperature-dependent, inhibited by imipramine and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (apparent Km, 0.12 +/- 0.02 microM; Vmax. 559 +/- 54 pmol/min per mg of protein. Halothane had no effect on Na+-dependent transport of 5-HT in plasma-membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent 5-HT transport into storage granules also exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (apparent Km 0.34 +/- 0.03 microM; Vmax. 34.3 +/- 1.7 pmol/min per mg of protein) and was inhibited by noradrenaline (norepinephrine), but not by imipramine. Exposure of the granules to halothane resulted in a progressive decrease in Vmax. The results demonstrate a possible site for disruption of platelet function by anaesthetics.
Project description:The transport of uridine into rabbit renal outer-cortical brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles was compared at 22 degrees C. Uridine was taken up into an osmotically active space in the absence of metabolism for both types of membrane vesicles. Uridine influx by brush-border membrane vesicles was stimulated by Na+, and in the presence of inwardly directed gradients of Na+ a transient overshoot phenomenon was observed, indicating active transport. Kinetic analysis of the saturable Na+-dependent component of uridine flux indicated that it was consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 12 +/- 3 microM, Vmax. 3.9 +/- 0.9 pmol/s per mg of protein). The sodium:uridine coupling stoichiometry was found to be consistent with 1:1 and involved the net transfer of positive charge. In contrast, uridine influx by basolateral membrane vesicles was not dependent on the cation present and was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR). NBMPR-sensitive uridine transport was saturable (Km 137 +/- 20 microM, Vmax. 5.2 +/- 0.6 pmol/s per mg of protein). Inhibition of uridine flux by NBMPR was associated with high-affinity binding of NBMPR to the basolateral membrane (Kd 0.74 +/- 0.46 nM). Binding of NBMPR to these sites was competitively blocked by adenosine and uridine. These results indicate that uridine crosses the brush-border surface of rabbit proximal renal tubule cells by Na+-dependent pathways, but permeates the basolateral surface by NBMPR-sensitive facilitated-diffusion carriers.
Project description:The Na(+)-dependent transport and facilitated diffusion of uridine were measured after differentiation of HL-60 leukaemia cells along the monocytic pathway by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA (200 ng/ml) caused a marked increase in Na(+)-dependent uridine transport within 48 h of exposure that was attributable to an increase in transport affinity (apparent Km values of 1.15 +/- 0.22 and 44 +/- 4.4 microM for PMA-induced and uninduced cells respectively), with no change in Vmax. (0.15 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.01 pmol/s per microliter of cell water for PMA-induced and uninduced cells respectively). A corresponding rapid decrease in both the rate of facilitated diffusion and the formation of uracil nucleotides occurred in PMA-induced cells. As a consequence of these changes, intracellular pools of uridine 3-4-fold greater than those in the medium were generated. A similar increase in Na(+)-dependent transport of adenosine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine and cytidine (Km values of 1-4 microM) was observed. The effects of PMA on the activation of the Na(+)-dependent uridine transporter were inhibited by staurosporine, suggesting the involvement of protein kinase C. The findings indicate that a change in the balance of the cellular mechanisms employed for nucleoside transport occurs during the monocytic differentiation of HL-60 leukaemia cells.
Project description:Rat liver parenchymal cells express Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)- independent nucleoside transport activity. The Na(+)-dependent component shows kinetic properties and substrate specificity similar to those reported for plasma membrane vesicles [Ruiz-Montasell, Casado, Felipe and Pastor-Anglada (1992) J. Membr. Biol. 128, 227-233]. This transport activity shows apparent K(m) values for uridine in the range 8-13 microM and a Vmax of 246 pmol of uridine per 3 min per 10(5) cells. Most nucleosides, including the analogue formycin B, cis-inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine transport, although thymidine and cytidine are poor inhibitors. Inosine and adenosine inhibit Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reaching total inhibition. Guanosine also inhibits Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake, although there is some residual transport activity (35% of the control values) that is resistant to high concentrations of guanosine but may be inhibited by low concentrations of adenosine. The transport activity that is inhibited by high concentrations of thymidine is similar to the guanosine-resistant fraction. These observations are consistent with the presence of at least two Na(+)-dependent transport systems. Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide treatment, but Na(+)-independent transport is not. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) stimulates Na(+)-dependent uridine uptake. The NBTI effect involves a change in Vmax, it is rapid, dose-dependent, does not need preincubation and can be abolished by depleting the Na+ transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Na(+)-independent uridine transport seems to be insensitive to NBTI. Under the same experimental conditions, NBTI effectively blocks most of the Na(+)-independent uridine uptake in hepatoma cells. Thus the stimulatory effect of NBTI on the concentrative nucleoside transporter of liver parenchymal cells cannot be explained by inhibition of nucleoside efflux.
Project description:The transport properties of the nucleobase hypoxanthine were examined in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV 304. Initial rates of hypoxanthine influx were independent of extracellular cations: replacement of Na+ with Li+, Rb+, N-methyl-D-glucamine or choline had no significant effect on hypoxanthine uptake by ECV 304 cells. Kinetic analysis demonstrated the presence of a single saturable system for the transport of hypoxanthine in ECV 304 cells with an apparent K(m) of 320 +/- 10 microM and a Vmax of 5.6 +/- 0.9 pmol/10(6) cells per s. Hypoxanthine uptake was inhibited by the nucleosides adenosine, uridine and thymidine (apparent Ki 41 +/- 6, 240 +/- 27 and 59 +/- 8 microM respectively) and the nucleoside transport inhibitors nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), dilazep and dipyridamole (apparent Ki 2.5 +/- 0.3, 11 +/- 3 and 0.16 +/- 0.006 microM respectively), whereas the nucleobases adenine, guanine and thymine had little effect (50% inhibition at > 1 mM). ECV 304 cells were also shown to transport adenosine via both the NBMPR-sensitive and -insensitive nucleoside carriers. Hypoxanthine specifically inhibited adenosine transport via the NBMPR-insensitive system in a competitive manner (apparent Ki 290 +/- 14 microM). These results indicate that hypoxanthine entry into ECV 304 endothelial cells is mediated by the NBMPR-insensitive nucleoside carrier present in these cells.
Project description:In the presence of 150 microM BSA, uptake of [3H]oleate by Xenopus laevis oocytes was a saturable function of the unbound oleate concentration (Vmax. 110 +/- 4 pmol/h per oocyte; Km 193 +/- 11 nM unbound oleate). Oleate uptake was three orders of magnitude faster than that of another test substance, [35S]bromosulphophthalein, and was competitively inhibited by 55 nM unbound palmitate (Vmax. 111 +/- 14 pmol/h per oocyte; Km 424 +/- 63 nM unbound oleate) (P < 0.01). Oleate uptake was also inhibited by antibodies to a 43 kDa rat liver plasma-membrane fatty acid-binding protein, a putative transporter of long-chain fatty acids in mammalian cells; uptake of the medium-chain fatty acid [14C]octanoate was unaffected. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated that the antiserum reacted with a single 43 kDa protein on the oocyte surface. Hence a protein related to the mammalian plasma-membrane fatty acid-binding protein may play a role in saturable uptake of long-chain fatty acids by Xenopus oocytes.
Project description:Uptake of polyamines by confluent monolayers of human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was found to be time-, temperature- and concentration-dependent, energy-requiring, and saturable. Kinetic constants were putrescine Kt 3 +/- 1 microM, Vmax. 15 +/- 7 pmol/h per microgram of protein; spermidine, 0.7 +/- 0.2, 12 +/- 3; spermine, 1 +/- 0.7, 11 +/- 4. Putrescine uptake was inhibited by spermine or spermidine, whereas uptake of spermine or spermidine was not inhibited by 20 microM-putrescine. These data suggest the existence of two carriers, one shared by spermine and spermidine, and one capable of transporting all three polyamines. Pretreatment of HUVECs with thrombin (less than or equal to 10 units/ml; 1 h), bradykinin (less than or equal to 10 microM; 1 h), interleukin-1 (less than or equal to 100 units/ml; 2 h) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (less than or equal to 1.0 microM; 1 h), all known agonists of endothelial function, had no significant effect on polyamine uptake. These responses may be of importance in angiogenesis and wound healing, and could have pharmacological significance, for there is a growing interest in the use of polyamines or polyamine analogues as therapeutic agents.
Project description:Adenosine has been reported to be transported by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (ENT4), encoded by the SLC29A4 gene, in an acidic pH-dependent manner. This makes hENT4 of interest as a therapeutic target in acidic pathologies where adenosine is protective (e.g. vascular ischaemia). We examined the pH-sensitivity of nucleoside influx and efflux by hENT4 using a recombinant transfection model that lacks the confounding influences of other nucleoside transporters (PK15-NTD). We established that [3H]2-chloroadenosine, which is resistant to metabolism by adenosine deaminase, is a substrate for hENT4. Transport of [3H]2-chloroadenosine at a pH of 6.0 in PK15-NTD cells stably transfected with SLC29A4 was biphasic, with a low capacity (Vmax ~ 30 pmol/mg/min) high-affinity component (Km ~ 50?µM) apparent at low substrate concentrations, which shifted to a high capacity (Vmax ~ 500 pmol/mg/min) low affinity system (Km?>?600?µM) displaying positive cooperativity at concentrations above 200?µM. Only the low affinity component was observed at a neutral pH of 7.5 (Km ~ 2?mM). Efflux of [3H]2-chloroadenosine from these cells was also enhanced by more than 4-fold at an acidic pH. Enhanced influx and efflux of nucleosides by hENT4 under acidic conditions supports its potential as a therapeutic target in pathologies such as ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
Project description:Secretagogues inhibited adenosine uptake in chromaffin cells without causing apparent changes in the uptake affinity. The inhibition caused by carbachol, nicotine and acetylcholine reached 50%. This inhibition was reproduced by the action of protein kinase C activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 nM), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 100 nM), dicaproin (10 micrograms/ml) and tricaprylin (10 micrograms/ml), with inhibitions of Vmax. of 18, 20, 37 and 47% respectively. No changes in the affinity of uptake were observed with these effectors. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters decreased the inhibitory effects of carbachol on adenosine uptake. Binding studies with nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) showed a similar decrease in the number of transporters when chromaffin cells were treated with the same effectors used for the uptake studies. The high-affinity dissociation constants showed minor changes with respect to the control. The ratio between maximal uptake capacity and the transporter number per cell was not significantly modified by the action of secretagogues or direct effectors of protein kinase C. The number of high-affinity binding sites for NBTI was decreased in cellular homogenates by the direct action of protein kinase C activators, with staurosporine able to reverse this action. Protein kinase C from bovine brain in the presence of ATP and effectors, decreased the number of high-affinity NBTI-binding sites in purified chromaffin cell plasma membranes. These data suggest the possibility of a molecular modification at the transporter level.
Project description:Na(+)-independent hepatic transport of branched-chain amino acids occurs via at least two distinct transport processes. System L1, characterized by micromolar Km values, predominates in hepatoma and fetal hepatocytes, whereas System L2, distinguished by Km values in the millimolar range and sensitivity to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), predominates in adult hepatocytes. To determine the plasma-membrane domain localization and ontogeny of System L activity in the rat, we prepared membrane vesicles from the livers of suckling (10 days old) and adult rats enriched for either basolateral (BLMV) or canalicular (CMV) domains. The initial rate of [3H]leucine uptake into BLMV and CMV derived from adult liver was significantly inhibited by the addition of 5 mM NEM; transport into BLMV and CMV derived from 10-day-old rat liver was not affected. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters estimated in BLMV derived from adult liver were consistent with System L2 (Km = 2.16 +/- 0.62 mM, Vmax. = 781 +/- 109 pmol/5 s per mg of protein), as were those estimated in adult CMV (Km = 0.83 +/- 0.21 mM, Vmax. = 385 +/- 38 pmol/5 s per mg of protein). Conversely, kinetic parameters estimated in BLMV derived from livers of suckling rats were consistent with System L1 (Km = 0.041 +/- 0.024 mM, Vmax. = 8.8 +/- 1.5 pmol/5 s per mg of protein), as were those from CMV of suckling rats (Km = 0.023 +/- 0.09 mM, Vmax. = 28.1 +/- 2.1 pmol/5 s per mg of protein). We conclude that NEM-inhibitable Na(+)-independent leucine transport activity consistent with System L2 is present in both BLMV and CMV derived from adult rat liver, whereas System L1 predominates in 10-day-old rat liver tissue.