Interspecies conservation of retinal guanosine 5'-triphosphatase. Characterization by photoaffinity labelling and tryptic-peptide mapping.
ABSTRACT: Light-activated hydrolysis of cyclic GMP is achieved through the photoexcitation of rhodopsin, a process which then triggers the replacement of GDP for GTP by a retinal guanosine 5'-triphosphatase referred to as 'transducin'. The transducin-GTP complex then switches on the phosphodiesterase [Fung, Hurley & Stryer (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 152-156]. The bovine transducin consists of an alpha-subunit (39000 Mr), which is a GTP-binding component, together with a beta-(37000 Mr) and a gamma-subunit (10000 Mr). We have purified retinal transducin from cow, pig, chick and frog. The enzyme specific activities and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic profiles indicate that this enzyme is similar in all species except the frog. Whereas the bovine, pig and chick transducins consist of major 37000- and 39000-Mr components, that of the frog consists of a single 75000-Mr component. Labelling of the GTP-binding components with the photoaffinity label 8-azidoguanosine [gamma-32P]triphosphate demonstrated that the 37000-Mr components of the cow, pig and chick and the 75000-Mr component of the frog were major GTP-binding components. In addition, peptide maps of radioiodinated tryptic peptides indicate that the frog 75000-Mr protein is highly related to the pig transducin. These results demonstrate evolutionary conservation of retinal transducin and the presence of a higher-Mr, but nonetheless highly conserved form, of transducin in the frog. The relationship of this component to the recently reported rod-outer-segment inhibitor protein [Yamazaki, Stein, Chernoff & Bitensky (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8188-8194] is discussed.
Project description:1. Sephadex G-100 and G-200 gel-filtration columns were calibrated for molecular-weight estimation with proteins of known molecular weights, and used to study the composition of several lipase or esterase preparations. 2. Enzymes from cow's milk, rat adipose tissue and pig pancreas were detected in the column effluents by their ability to liberate free acid from emulsified tributyrin at pH 8.5. 3. Four tributyrinases were detected in preparations from individual cow's milks. Molecular weights 62000, 75000 and 112000 were estimated for three of them, but although the fourth may be of unusually low molecular weight an estimate was not possible. 4. Extracts of rat adipose tissue apparently contained six tributyrinases (molecular weights 39000, 47000, 55000, 68000, 75000 and 200000) but the relative amounts of these enzymes varied widely from rat to rat. 5. Tributyrinase activity in juice expressed from pig pancreatic tissue was due mainly to one enzyme (molecular weight 42000). On the other hand, activity in extracts of acetone-dried pancreas was confined to material of molecular weight > 10(6), which may be an aggregated form of the lower-molecular-weight enzyme. 6. Activity in fractionated wheat-germ extracts was assayed with emulsified triacetin substrate, and was evidently due to one enzyme (molecular weight 51000). 7. Some problems arising in the application of gel filtration to the study of lipase-esterase systems were indicated.
Project description:The taste-specific G-protein alpha-subunit, alpha-gustducin, was expressed using a baculovirus based system. alpha-Gustducin was demonstrated to be myristoylated and was also palmitoylated in insect larval cells. Recombinant alpha-gustducin was purified to homogeneity. Neither receptors nor effectors that interact with gustducin in taste are known. However, alpha-gustducin has a close structural similarity to the visual G-protein, alpha-transducin. Therefore alpha-gustducin was reconstituted with components of the visual system to determine the degree of its functional similarity with alpha-transducin. Despite the fact that the sequences of alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin share only 80% identity with each other, the interactions and functions of these two proteins were quantitatively identical. These included the interaction with receptor, bovine rhodopsin, with effector, bovine retinal cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase, and with bovine brain and retinal G-protein beta gamma-heterodimers; receptor-catalysed GDP-GTP exchange and the intrinsic GTPase activity of alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin were also identical. Gi alpha which is 70% identical with alpha-transducin interacts with different receptor and effector proteins and has very different guanine-nucleotide binding properties. Therefore, the functional equivalence of alpha-gustducin and alpha-transducin suggest that taste buds are likely to contain receptor and effector proteins that share many properties with their retinal equivalents.
Project description:G proteins regulate intracellular signaling by coupling a cycle of guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to transient changes of cellular functions. The mechanisms that control the recycling of transducin, the "pacesetting" G protein that regulates mammalian phototransduction, are unclear. We show that a novel retinal specific RGS-motif protein specifically binds to an intermediate conformation involved in GTP hydrolysis by transducin and accelerates phosphate release and the recycling of transducin. This specific interaction further rationalizes the kinetics of the phototransduction cascade and provides a general hypothesis to explain the mechanism of interaction of RGS proteins with other G proteins.
Project description:AKI is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Unfortunately, there is no effective pharmacologic approach for treating or preventing AKI. In rodents, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). We investigated the specific role of vascular MR in mediating AKI induced by IR. We also assessed the protective effect of MR antagonism in IR-induced AKI in the Large White pig, a model of human AKI. In mice, MR deficiency in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protected against kidney IR injury. MR blockade by the novel nonsteroidal MR antagonist, finerenone, or genetic deletion of MR in SMCs associated with weaker oxidative stress production. Moreover, ischemic kidneys had higher levels of Rac1-GTP, required for NADPH oxidase activation, than sham control kidneys, and genetic deletion of Rac1 in SMCs protected against AKI. Furthermore, genetic deletion of MR in SMCs blunted the production of Rac1-GTP after IR. Pharmacologic inhibition of MR also prevented AKI induced by IR in the Large White pig. Altogether, we show that MR antagonism, or deletion of the MR gene in SMCs, limited the renal injury induced by IR through effects on Rac1-mediated MR signaling. The benefits of MR antagonism in the pig provide a rational basis for future clinical trials assessing the benefits of this approach in patients with IR-mediated AKI.
Project description:Preparations of NADH-ubiquinone reductase from bovine heart mitochondria (Complex I) were shown to contain at least 16 polypeptides by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 2. High-molecular-weight soluble NADH dehydrogenase prepared from Triton X-100 extracts of submitochondrial particles [Baugh & King (1972) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1165-1173] was similar to Complex I in its polypeptide composition. 3. Solubilization of Complex I by phospholipase A treatment and subsequent sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation did not alter the polypeptide composition. 4. Lysophosphatidylcholine treatment of Complex I caused some selective solubilization of a polypeptide of mol.wt. 33000 previosuly postulated to be the transmembrane component of Complex I in the mitochondrial membrane [Ragan (1975) in Energy Transducing Membranes: Structure, Function and Reconstitution (Bennun, Bacila & Najjar, eds.), Junk, The Hague, in the press]. 5. Chaotropic resolution of Complex I caused solubilization of polypeptides of molecular weights 75000, 53000, 29000, 26000 and 15500 and traces of others in the 10000-20000-mol.wt.range. 6. The major components of the iron-protein fraction from chaotropic resolution had molecular weights of 75000, 53000 and 29000, whereas the flavoprotein contained polypeptides of molecular weights 53000 and 26000 in a 1:1 molar ratio. 7. Iodination of Complex I by lactoperoxidase indicated that the water-soluble polypeptides released by chaotropic resolution, in particular those of the flavoprotein fraction, were largely buried in the intact Complex. 8. The polypeptides of molecular weights 75000, 53000, 42000, 39000, 33000, 29000 and 26000 were present in 1:2:1:1:1:1:1 molar proportions. The two subunits of molecular weight 53000 are probably non-identical.
Project description:A number of incurable retinal diseases causing vision impairments derive from alterations in visual phototransduction. Unraveling the structural determinants of even monogenic retinal diseases would require network-centered approaches combined with atomistic simulations. The transducin G38D mutant associated with the Nougaret Congenital Night Blindness (NCNB) was thoroughly investigated by both mathematical modeling of visual phototransduction and atomistic simulations on the major targets of the mutational effect. Mathematical modeling, in line with electrophysiological recordings, indicates reduction of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE) recognition and activation as the main determinants of the pathological phenotype. Sub-microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations coupled with Functional Mode Analysis improve the resolution of information, showing that such impairment is likely due to disruption of the PDE? binding cavity in transducin. Protein Structure Network analyses additionally suggest that the observed slight reduction of theRGS9-catalyzed GTPase activity of transducin depends on perturbed communication between RGS9 and GTP binding site. These findings provide insights into the structural fundamentals of abnormal functioning of visual phototransduction caused by a missense mutation in one component of the signaling network. This combination of network-centered modeling with atomistic simulations represents a paradigm for future studies aimed at thoroughly deciphering the structural determinants of genetic retinal diseases. Analogous approaches are suitable to unveil the mechanism of information transfer in any signaling network either in physiological or pathological conditions.
Project description:Fluoride ion, presumably an Al3+-F- complex, has been proposed to activate the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) of the visual system, transducin, by associating with GDP at the nucleotide-binding site and thus mimicking the effects of non-hydrolysable GTP analogues [Bigay, Deterre, Pfister & Chabre (1985) FEBS Lett. 191, 181-85]. We have examined this proposed model by using the adenylate cyclase complexes of frog erythrocytes, S49 lymphoma cells and human platelets. Preincubation of plasma membranes from frog erythrocytes and S49 cells with 20 mM-fluoride for 20 min at 30 degrees C strongly stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. In contrast, the preactivated membranes were still able to bind beta-adrenergic agonist with high affinity, as determined by radioligand-binding techniques. Moreover, high-affinity agonist binding in fluoride-treated membranes was fully sensitive to guanine nucleotide, which decreased beta-adrenergic-receptor affinity for agonist. Very similar results were obtained for [3H]prostaglandin E1 binding to S49 membranes pretreated with fluoride. Incubation of human platelet membranes with increasing concentrations of fluoride (1-50 mM) resulted in biphasic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity, with inhibition observed at concentrations greater than 10 mM. Preincubation of platelet membranes with 20 mM-fluoride did not affect agonist high-affinity binding to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, nor receptor regulation by guanine nucleotide. These results suggest that the model developed from the study of transducin may not be generally applicable to the G-proteins of the adenylate cyclase system.
Project description:One potential therapy for vision loss from photoreceptor degeneration is cell replacement, but this approach presents a need for photoreceptor cells. This study explores whether the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) could be a convenient source of developing photoreceptors.The RPE of chick embryos was subjected to reprogramming by proneural genes neurogenin (ngn)1 and ngn3. The genes were introduced into the RPE through retrovirus RCAS-mediated transduction, with the virus microinjected into the eye or added to retinal pigment epithelial explant culture. The retinal pigment epithelia were then analyzed for photoreceptor traits.In chick embryos infected with retrovirus RCAS-expressing ngn3 (RCAS-ngn3), the photoreceptor gene visinin (the equivalent of mammalian recoverin) was expressed in cells of the retinal pigment epithelial layer. When isolated and cultured as explants, retinal pigment epithelial tissues from embryos infected with RCAS-ngn3 or RCAS-ngn1 gave rise to layers of visinin-positive cells. These reprogrammed cells expressed genes of phototransduction and synapses, such as red opsin, the alpha-subunit of cone transducin, SNAP-25, and PSD-95. Reprogramming occurred with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from virally infected embryos and with retinal pigment epithelial explants derived from normal embryos, with the recombinant viruses added at the onset of the explant culture. In addition, reprogramming took place in retinal pigment epithelial explants from both young and old embryos, from embryonic day (E)6 to E18, when the visual system becomes functional in the chick.The results support the prospect of exploring the RPE as a convenient source of developing photoreceptors for in situ cell replacement.
Project description:We previously detected in cultured choriocarcinoma cells a 75000-Mr polypeptide defined by immunoblotting with antibody to a synthetic peptide Sp23 (Cys-Glu-Asn-Pro-Ser-Gln-Phe-Tyr-Glu-Asp-Leu) based on a cloned human endogenous proviral nucleotide sequence. On immunohistological staining, anti-Sp23 stains antigen(s) in the syncytiotrophoblasts of first-trimester placentas and in renal-cell adenocarcinoma tissues. The present report describes purification to homogeneity of the protein from cultured choriocarcinoma cells. The procedure involves extraction with non-ionic detergent and h.p.l.c. using, sequentially, gel-permeation, anion-exchange and reverse-phase columns. The yield was 110 micrograms/g of total choriocarcinoma-cell protein. The results indicate that the purified protein is a monomeric and relatively hydrophilic molecule of Mr 75000.
Project description:Vertebrate phototransduction is mediated by cGMP, which is generated by retGC (retinal guanylate cyclase) and degraded by cGMP phosphodiesterase. Light stimulates cGMP hydrolysis via the G-protein transducin, which directly binds to and activates phosphodiesterase. Bright light also causes relocalization of transducin from the OS (outer segments) of the rod cells to the inner compartments. In the present study, we show experimental evidence for a previously unknown interaction between G(alphat) (the transducin alpha subunit) and retGC. G(alphat) co-immunoprecipitates with retGC from the retina or from co-transfected COS-7 cells. The retGC-G(alphat) complex is also present in cones. The interaction also occurs in mice lacking RGS9 (regulator of G-protein signalling 9), a protein previously shown to associate with both G(alphat) and retGC. The G(alphat)-retGC interaction is mediated primarily by the kinase homology domain of retGC, which binds GDP-bound G(alphat) stronger than the GTP[S] (GTPgammaS; guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) form. Neither G(alphat) nor G(betagamma) affect retGC-mediated cGMP synthesis, regardless of the presence of GCAP (guanylate cyclase activating protein) and Ca2+. The rate of light-dependent transducin redistribution from the OS to the inner segments is markedly accelerated in the retGC-1-knockout mice, while the migration of transducin to the OS after the onset of darkness is delayed. Supplementation of permeabilized photoreceptors with cGMP does not affect transducin translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protein-protein interaction between G(alphat) and retGC represents a novel mechanism regulating light-dependent translocation of transducin in rod photoreceptors.