Oxidative metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria from sheep and rat liver. Evidence that sheep conserve linoleate by limiting its oxidation.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondria isolated from the livers of sheep and rats were shown to oxidize palmitate, oleate and linoleate in a tightly coupled manner, by monitoring the oxygen consumption associated with the degradation of these acids in the presence of 2mM-L-malate. Rat liver mitochondria oxidized linoleate and oleate at a rate 1.2-1.8 times that of palmitate. Sheep liver mitochondria had a specific activity for the oxidation of palmitate that was 50-80% of that of rats and a specific activity for the oxidation of oleate and linoleate that was 30-40% that of rats. This would indicate that sheep conserved linoleate by limiting its oxidation. Carnitine acyltransferase I (CAT I) actively esterified palmitoyl-CoA and linoleate to carnitine in both rat and sheep liver mitochondria, and in both cases the rate for linoleate was faster than for palmitate. The CAT I reaction in both rat and sheep liver was inhibited by micromolar amounts of malonyl-CoA. With 90 microM-palmitoyl-CoA as substrate, CAT I was inhibited by 50% with 2.5 microM-malonyl-CoA in rats, and in sheep, 50% inhibition was found with all malonyl-CoA concentrations tested (1-5 microM). With 90 microM-linoleate as substrate for CAT I, a much larger difference in response to malonyl-CoA was seen, the rat enzyme being 50% inhibited at 22 microM-malonyl-CoA, whereas sheep liver CAT I was 91% and 98% inhibited at 1 microM- and 5 microM-malonyl-CoA respectively. We propose that malonyl-CoA may act as an important regulator of beta-oxidation in sheep, discriminating against the use of linoleate as an energy-yielding substrate.
Project description:The characteristics of inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I by malonyl-CoA were studied for the enzyme in mitochondria isolated from sheep liver, a tissue with a very low rate of fatty acid synthesis. Malonyl-CoA was as potent in inhibiting the sheep liver enzyme as in inhibiting the enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. CPT I in guinea-pig liver mitochondria was also similarly inhibited. The inhibition showed the same time-dependent characteristics previously established for the rat liver enzyme. Methylmalonyl-CoA was as effective an inhibitor of CPT I as malonyl-CoA in sheep liver mitochondria, but did not affect CPT I activity in mitochondria from rat or guinea-pig liver. The concentrations of malonyl-CoA required to inhibit CPT I in sheep liver mitochondria in vitro were similar to those found in freeze-clamped sheep liver samples (about 7 nmol of malonyl-CoA/g wet wt.). In sheep liver cells the content of malonyl-CoA was only one-tenth of that observed in vivo when glucose only was added to the incubation medium. Inclusion of acetate and/or insulin increased the malonyl-CoA content about 10-fold, to values similar to those observed in vivo. The rate of fatty acid synthesis in sheep liver cells was about 1% of that observed in rat liver, but was correlated with the concentrations of malonyl-CoA in the cells under various incubation conditions. These observations are discussed in relation to (i) the regulatory role of malonyl-CoA in tissues that have a low capacity for fatty acid synthesis, and (ii) the utilization by sheep liver of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor.
Project description:[14C]Malonyl-CoA bound to intact mitochondria isolated from rat liver and heart in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites in each tissue. The binding characteristics for mitochondria obtained from fed male rats were: for heart, KD(1) = 11-18nM, KD(2) = 30 microM, N1 = 7pmol/mg of protein, N2 = approx. 660pmol/mg of protein; for liver, KD(1) = 0.1 microM, KD(2) = 5.6 microM, N1 = 11pmol/mg of protein, N2 = 165pmol/mg of protein. In the presence of 40 microM-palmitoyl-CoA the characteristics of binding at the high-affinity sites were changed, so that for heart KD(1) = 0.26 microM, with no change in N1 and for liver KD(1) = approx. 2 microM, with N1 increased to approx. 40pmol/mg of protein. Differences between the two tissues in tightness of malonyl-CoA binding at the high-affinity sites explains the considerably greater sensitivity of heart CPT1 (overt form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter, (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 229-232; McGarry, Mills, Long & Foster (1983) Biochem. J. 214, 21-28]. Starvation (24h) did not change the characteristics of [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to liver mitochondria and did not alter the I50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) for displacement of [14C]malonyl-CoA by palmitoyl-CoA. Therefore the decreased sensitivity of liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA in starvation [Saggerson & Carpenter (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 225-228; Bremer (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665, 628-631] is not explained by differences in malonyl-CoA binding. Percentage occupancy of the high-affinity sites in heart mitochondria by malonyl-CoA correlated closely with percentage inhibition of CPT1 measured under similar conditions. This finding supports the proposal that the high-affinity binding sites are the functional sites mediating inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA. Similar experiments with liver mitochondria also suggested that the occupancy of high-affinity sites by malonyl-CoA regulates CPT1 activity. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), which decreased the sensitivity of heart or liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter (1982) FEBS Lett. 137, 124-128], also decreased [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to the high-affinity sites of heart mitochondria. N1 values for [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to high-affinity sites in liver mitochondria were determined in various physiological states which encompassed a 7-fold range of CPT1 maximal activity (fed, starved, pregnant, hypothyroid, foetal). The N1 value did not change in these states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Malonyl-CoA significantly increased the Km for L-carnitine of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in liver mitochondria from fed rats. This effect was observed when the molar palmitoyl-CoA/albumin concentration ratio was low (0.125-1.0), but not when it was higher (2.0). In the absence of malonyl-CoA, the Km for L-carnitine increased with increasing palmitoyl-CoA/albumin ratios. Malonyl-CoA did not increase the Km for L-carnitine in liver mitochondria from 24h-starved rats or in heart mitochondria from fed animals. The Km for L-carnitine of the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase was 3-4 times that for the overt form of the enzyme. At low ratios of palmitoyl-CoA/albumin (0.5), the concentration of malonyl-CoA causing a 50% inhibition of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was decreased by 30% when assays with liver mitochondria from fed rats were performed at 100 microM-instead of 400 microM-carnitine. Such a decrease was not observed with liver mitochondria from starved animals. L-Carnitine displaced [14C]malonyl-CoA from liver mitochondrial binding sites. D-Carnitine was without effect. L-Carnitine did not displace [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart mitochondria. It is concluded that, under appropriate conditions, malonyl-CoA may decrease the effectiveness of L-carnitine as a substrate for the enzyme and that L-carnitine may decrease the effectiveness of malonyl-CoA to regulate the enzyme.
Project description:In newborn-pig hepatocytes, the rate of oleate oxidation is extremely low, despite a very low malonyl-CoA concentration. By contrast, the sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I to malonyl-CoA inhibition is high, as suggested by the very low concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% inhibition of CPT I (IC50). The rates of oleate oxidation and ketogenesis are respectively 70 and 80% lower in mitochondria isolated from newborn-pig liver than from starved-adult-rat liver mitochondria. Using polarographic measurements, we showed that the oxidation of oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-L-carnitine is very low when the acetyl-CoA produced is channelled into the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway by addition of malonate. In contrast, the oxidation of the same substrates is high when the acetyl-CoA produced is directed towards the citric acid cycle by addition of malate. We demonstrate that the limitation of ketogenesis in newborn-pig liver is due to a very low amount and activity of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase as compared with rat liver mitochondria, and suggest that this could promote the accumulation of acetyl-CoA and/or beta-oxidation products that in turn would decrease the overall rate of fatty acid oxidation in newborn- and adult-pig livers.
Project description:The degree of inhibition of CPT I (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, EC 18.104.22.168) in isolated rat liver mitochondria by malonyl-CoA was studied by measuring the activity of the enzyme over a short period (15s) after exposure of the mitochondria to malonyl-CoA for different lengths of time. Inhibition of CPT I by malonyl-CoA was markedly time-dependent, and the increase occurred at the same rate in the presence or absence of palmitoyl-CoA (80 microM), and in the presence of carnitine, such that the time-course of acylcarnitine formation deviated markedly from linearity when CPT I activity was measured in the presence of malonyl-CoA over several minutes. The initial rate of increase in degree of inhibition with time was independent of malonyl-CoA concentration. CPT I in mitochondria from 48 h-starved rats had a lower degree of inhibition by malonyl-CoA at zero time, but was equally capable of being sensitized to malonyl-CoA, as judged by an initial rate of increase of inhibition identical with that of the enzyme in mitochondria from fed rats. Double-reciprocal plots for the degree of inhibition produced by different malonyl-CoA concentrations at zero time for the enzyme in mitochondria from fed or starved animals indicated that the enzyme in the latter mitochondria was predominantly in a state with low affinity for malonyl-CoA (concentration required to give 50% inhibition, I0.5 congruent to 10 microM), whereas that in mitochondria from fed rats displayed two distinct sets of affinities: low (congruent to 10 microM) and high (less than 0.3 microM). Plots for mitochondria after incubation for 0.5 or 1 min with malonyl-CoA indicated that the increased sensitivity observed with time was due to a gradual increase in the high-affinity state in both types of mitochondria. These results suggest that the sensitivity of CPT I in rat liver mitochondria in vitro had two components: (i) an instantaneous sensitivity inherent to the enzyme which depends on the nutritional state of the animal from which the mitochondria are isolated, and (ii) a slow, malonyl-CoA-induced, time-dependent increase in sensitivity. It is suggested that the rate of malonyl-CoA-induced sensitization of the enzyme to malonyl-CoA inhibition is limited by a slow first-order process, which occurs after the primary event of interaction of malonyl-CoA with the mitochondria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Palmitate oxidation by liver mitochondria from fed and starved rats exhibited markedly different sensitivities to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. In the mitochondrial system from fed rats, 50% inhibition required 19 muM-malonyl-CoA, whereas the mitochondria from starved rats were by comparison refractory to malonyl-CoA. Inhibition by malonyl-CoA was completely reversed by increasing the molar ratio of fatty acid to albumin. Results indicate that the potential effectiveness of malonyl-CoA as an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation in the liver is dependent on an unidentified regulatory component of the system. The functional activity of this component is modified by the nutritional state, and its site of action is at the mitochondrial level.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodents may represent an adaptive response to disturbances in hepatic lipid metabolism. The following studies were done to determine the effects of 2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-[6-(tetrazol-5-yl)hexyloxy]acetophenone (4-THA), a tetrazole-substituted acetophenone which induces peroxisomal beta-oxidation in rodent liver, on fatty acid oxidation in vitro. In isolated hepatocytes, 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of oleate (C18:1) and decreased the mitochondrial redox state. The inhibition was more pronounced in the presence of 0.2 mM-oleate than with 0.5 mM, indicating the inhibition may be competitive. 4-THA had no effect on the oxidation of octanoate (C8:0), suggesting that the site of inhibition of oleate oxidation was the carnitine-dependent transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane. In rat liver mitochondria, 4-THA inhibited carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) competitively with respect to the substrate palmitoyl-CoA, increasing the apparent Km from 19 microM to 86 microM. The inhibition of CPT-I by 4-THA was independent of the concentration of the co-substrate carnitine. Whereas fasting attenuated the inhibition of CPT-I by malonyl-CoA, it did not diminish the inhibition by 4-THA. Inhibition of transferase activity by 4-THA and malonyl-CoA was attenuated in mitochondria which had been solubilized with octyl glucoside to expose the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-II), suggesting that the inhibition was specific for CPT-I. The specificity was further demonstrated in studies of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in which 4-THA inhibited the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA but not palmitoylcarnitine. The results demonstrate that 4-THA inhibits fatty acid oxidation in rat liver in vitro at the site of transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane, CPT-I. Whether this disruption in mitochondrial oxidation is causally related to the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is yet to be determined.
Project description:The temporal changes in oleate oxidation, lipogenesis, malonyl-CoA concentration and sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT 1) to malonyl-CoA inhibition were studied in isolated rabbit hepatocytes and mitochondria as a function of time after birth of the animal or time in culture after exposure to glucagon, cyclic AMP or insulin. (1) Oleate oxidation was very low during the first 6 h after birth, whereas lipogenesis rate and malonyl-CoA concentration decreased rapidly during this period to reach levels as low as those found in 24-h-old newborns that show active oleate oxidation. (2) The changes in the activity of CPT I and the IC50 (concn. causing 50% inhibition) for malonyl-CoA paralleled those of oleate oxidation. (3) In cultured fetal hepatocytes, the addition of glucagon or cyclic AMP reproduced the changes that occur spontaneously after birth. A 12 h exposure to glucagon or cyclic AMP was sufficient to inhibit lipogenesis totally and to cause a decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration, but a 24 h exposure was required to induce oleate oxidation. (4) The induction of oleate oxidation by glucagon or cyclic AMP is triggered by the fall in the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I. (5) In cultured hepatocytes from 24 h-old newborns, the addition of insulin inhibits no more than 30% of the high oleate oxidation, whereas it stimulates lipogenesis and increases malonyl-CoA concentration by 4-fold more than in fetal cells (no oleate oxidation). This poor effect of insulin on oleate oxidation seems to be due to the inability of the hormone to increase the sensitivity of CPT I sufficiently. Altogether, these results suggest that the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I is the major site of regulation during the induction of fatty acid oxidation in the fetal rabbit liver.
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat liver mitochondria preincubated with malonyl-CoA was more sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA than was the enzyme in mitochondria preincubated in the absence of malonyl-CoA. For carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in mitochondria from starved animals this increase also resulted in the enzyme becoming significantly more sensitive than that in mitochondria assayed immediately after their isolation. Concentrations of malonyl-CoA that induced half the maximal degree of sensitization observed were 1-3 microM.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. oleate) against the lipotoxic action of saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitate) in skeletal muscle cells remain poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the role of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation in mediating oleate's protective effect against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1), which is the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial LCFA oxidation, is inhibited by malonyl-CoA, an intermediate of lipogenesis. We showed that expression of a mutant form of CPT1 (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA inhibition, in C2C12 myotubes led to increased LCFA oxidation flux even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose and insulin. Furthermore, similar to preincubation with oleate, CPT1mt expression protected muscle cells from palmitate-induced apoptosis and insulin resistance by decreasing the content of deleterious palmitate derivates (i.e. diacylglycerols and ceramides). Oleate preincubation exerted its protective effect by two mechanisms: (i) in contrast to CPT1mt expression, oleate preincubation increased the channeling of palmitate toward triglycerides, as a result of enhanced diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, and (ii) oleate preincubation promoted palmitate oxidation through increasing CPT1 expression and modulating the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and AMP-activated protein kinase. In conclusion, we demonstrated that targeting mitochondrial LCFA oxidation via CPT1mt expression leads to the same protective effect as oleate preincubation, providing strong evidence that redirecting palmitate metabolism toward oxidation is sufficient to protect against palmitate-induced lipotoxicity.