Phospholipid association with the bovine cardiac mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase.
ABSTRACT: The association of different phospholipids with a lipid-depleted oligomycin-sensitive ATPase from bovine cardiac mitochondria [Serrano, Kanner & Racker (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 2453-2461] has been examined using three approaches. First, reconstitution of the ATPase with different synthetic diacyl phospholipids resulted in a 2-10-fold stimulation of ATPase specific activity depending upon the particular phospholipid employed. The phospholipid headgroup region displayed the following order of ATPase reactivation potential: dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol greater than dioleoylphosphatidic acid greater than dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, the ATPase showed higher levels of specific activity when reconstituted with dioleoyl phospholipid derivatives compared with dimyristoyl derivatives. Second, examination of the phospholipid remaining associated with the lipid-depleted ATPase upon purification showed that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were present. No relative enrichment of any of these phospholipids (compared with their distribution in submitochondrial particles) was noted. Therefore, no preferential association between the ATPase and any one phospholipid could be found in the mitochondrial ATPase. Third, the sodium cholate-mediated phospholipid exchange procedure was employed for studying the phospholipid requirements of the ATPase. Replacement of about 50% of the mitochondrial phospholipid remaining with the lipid-depleted ATPase could be achieved utilizing either synthetic phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylcholine. Examination of the displaced mitochondrial phospholipid showed that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were replaced with equal facility.
Project description:Membrane proteins interact with phospholipids either via an annular layer surrounding the transmembrane segments or by specific lipid-protein interactions. Although specifically bound phospholipids are observed in many crystal structures of membrane proteins, their roles are not well understood. Na,K-ATPase is highly dependent on acid phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine, and previous work on purified detergent-soluble recombinant Na,K-ATPase showed that phosphatidylserine stabilizes and specifically interacts with the protein. Most recently the phosphatidylserine binding site has been located between transmembrane segments of ?TM8-10 and the FXYD protein. This paper describes stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity of the purified human ?1?1 or ?1?1FXYD1 complexes by neutral phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylethanolamine. In the presence of phosphatidylserine, soy phosphatidylcholine increases the Na,K-ATPase turnover rate from 5483 ± 144 to 7552 ± 105 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of ?1?1FXYD1 complexes prepared with native or synthetic phospholipids shows that the stimulatory effect is structurally selective for neutral phospholipids with polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains, especially dilinoleoyl phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. By contrast to phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine destabilizes the Na,K-ATPase. Structural selectivity for stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and destabilization by neutral phospholipids distinguish these effects from the stabilizing effects of phosphatidylserine and imply that the phospholipids bind at distinct sites. A re-examination of electron densities of shark Na,K-ATPase is consistent with two bound phospholipids located between transmembrane segments ?TM8-10 and TMFXYD (site A) and between TM2, -4, -6, -and 9 (site B). Comparison of the phospholipid binding pockets in E2 and E1 conformations suggests a possible mechanism of stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity by the neutral phospholipid.
Project description:We examined effects of graded doses of thyroid hormones 3,3', 5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) on the lipid composition of rat brain mitochondria. Neither hormone significantly affected the mitochondrial cholesterol or total phospholipid content, but did increase phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) at the expense of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The phosphatidic acid (PA) content was also elevated, suggesting enhanced phospholipid turnover. Changes in sphingomyelin (SPM) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) were minimal. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity also increased after thyroid-hormone treatment, and the increase was closely correlated with PC/PE and SPM/PE molar ratios.
Project description:The ability in vitro of yeast mitochondrial and microsomal fractions to synthesize lipid de novo was measured. The major phospholipids synthesized from sn-[2-(3)H]glycerol 3-phosphate by the two microsomal fractions were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid. The mitochondrial fraction, which had a higher specific activity for total glycerolipid synthesis, synthesized phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid, together with smaller amounts of neutral lipids and diphosphatidylglycerol. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis from both S-adenosyl[Me-(14)C]methionine and CDP-[Me-(14)C]choline appeared to be localized in the microsomal fraction.
Project description:The sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle contains anionic phospholipids as well as the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Here we study the effects of anionic phospholipids on the activity of the Ca2+-ATPase purified from the membrane. Reconstitution of the Ca2+-ATPase into dioleoylphosphatidylserine [di(C18:1)PS] or dioleoylphosphatidic acid [di(C18:1)PA] leads to a decrease in ATPase activity. Measurements of the quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence of the ATPase by brominated phospholipids give a relative binding constant for the anionic lipids compared with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine close to 1 and suggest that phosphatidic acid only binds to the ATPase at the bulk lipid sites around the ATPase. Addition of di(C18:1)PS or di(C18:1)PA to the ATPase in the short-chain dimyristoleoylphosphatidylcholine [di(C14:1)PC] reverse the effects of the short-chain lipid on ATPase activity and on Ca2+ binding, as revealed by the response of tryptophan fluorescence intensity to Ca2+ binding. It is concluded that the lipid headgroup and lipid fatty acyl chains have separate effects on the function of the ATPase. The anionic phospholipids have no significant effect on Ca2+ binding to the ATPase; the level of Ca2+ binding to the ATPase, the affinity of binding and the rate of dissociation of Ca2+ are unchanged by reconstitution into di(C18:1)PA. The major effect of the anionic lipids is a reduction in the maximal level of binding of MgATP. This is attributed to the formation of oligomers of the Ca2+-ATPase, in which only one molecule of the ATPase can bind MgATP dimers in di(C18:1)PS and trimers or tetramers in di(C18:1)PA. The rates of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation for the proportion of the ATPase still able to bind ATP are unaffected by reconstitution. Larger changes were observed in the level of phosphorylation of the ATPase by Pi, which became very low in the anionic phospholipids. The fluorescence response to Mg2+ for the ATPase labelled with 4-(bromomethyl)-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin was also changed in di(C18:1)PS and di(C18:1)PA, so that effects of Mg2+ became comparable with those seen on phosphorylation for the unreconstituted ATPase. The anionic phospholipids could induce a conformational change in the ATPase on binding Mg2+ equivalent to that normally induced by phosphorylation or by binding inhibitors such as thapsigargin.
Project description:The effects of u.v. A radiations on phospholipid synthesis were studied in the N.C.T.C. 2544 human keratinocyte cell line, by using [14C]arachidonic acid, [14C]oleic acid or sodium [32P]orthophosphate as precursors. Cells were irradiated in Hanks' medium with 365 nm light at doses up to 19 J/cm2, and then phospholipid synthesis from the three precursors was studied. Under these conditions, only small alterations in the incorporation pattern of [14C]arachidonic into phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)] were observed, for u.v. A irradiation doses up to 19 J/cm2. In contrast, with [14C]oleic acid as precursor, two additional spots were observed, which co-migrate with pure phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) standards. The incorporation of [14C]oleic acid into PG and DPG was decreased in a dose-dependent manner after u.v. A exposure, with about 50% and 75% decreases at 9.5 J/cm2 and 19 J/cm2 respectively. As for arachidonic acid incorporation, no significant differences in the synthesis of the major phospholipids (PC, PE, PI) were noted upon u.v. A exposure. The dramatic and selective decrease in PG and DPG syntheses was confirmed with [32P]orthophosphate as precursor. As DPG is a specific component of the mitochondrial inner membrane, it appears that one of the early kinds of damage induced by u.v. A irradiation could be the impairment of mitochondrial functions.
Project description:1. Isolated rat liver mitochondria do not synthesize labelled phosphatidylcholine from CDP-[(14)C]choline or any phospholipid other than phosphatidic acid from [(32)P]phosphate. The minimal labelling of phosphatidylcholine and other phosphoglycerides can be attributed to microsomal contamination. However, when mitochondria and microsomes are incubated together with [(32)P]phosphate, the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine of the reisolated mitochondria become labelled, suggesting a transfer of phospholipids between the two fractions. 2. When liver microsomes or mitochondria containing labelled phosphatidylcholine are independently incubated with the opposite un-labelled fraction, there is a substantial and rapid exchange of the phospholipid between the two membranes. Exchange of phosphatidylinositol also occurs rapidly, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid exchange only slowly. There is no corresponding transfer of marker enzymes. The transfer of phosphatidylcholine does not occur at 0 degrees , and there is no requirement for added substrate, ATP or Mg(2+), but the omission of a heat-labile supernatant fraction markedly decreases the exchange. 3. After intravenous injection of [(32)P]phosphate, short-period labelling experiments of the individual phospholipids of rat liver microsomes and mitochondria in vivo give no evidence for a similar exchange process. However, the incubation of isolated microsomes and mitochondria with [(32)P]phosphate also fails on reisolation of the fractions to demonstrate a precursor-product relationship between the individual phospholipids of the two membranes. 4. The intraperitoneal injection of [(32)P]phosphate results in a far greater proportion of the dose entering the liver than does intravenous administration. After intraperitoneal administration of [(32)P]phosphate the specific radioactivities of the individual phospholipids are in the order microsomes > outer mitochondrial membrane > inner mitochondrial membrane. 5. The incorporation of (32)P into cardiolipin is very slow both in vivo and in vitro. After labelling in vivo the radioactivity in the cardiolipin persists compared with that of the other phospholipids, whose specific radioactivities in the microsomes and mitochondrial fragments decay at a similar rate to that of the acid-soluble phosphate pool. 6. The possibility of phospholipid exchange processes occurring in the liver cell in vivo is discussed, and it is suggested that only a small but highly labelled part of the endoplasmic-reticulum lipoprotein pool is involved in the transfer.
Project description:A normal-phase HPLC-MS method was established to analyze mitochondrial phospholipids quantitatively as well as qualitatively. An efficient extraction procedure and chromatographic conditions were developed using twelve standardized phospholipids and lysophospholipids. The chromatographic conditions provided physical separation of phospholipids by class, and efficient ionization allowed detection of low abundance phospholipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and monolysocardiolipin. The chromatographic separation of each class of phospholipid permitted qualitative identification of molecular species without interference from other classes. This is advantageous for mitochondrial lipidomics because the composition of mitochondrial phospholipids varies depending on tissue source, pathological condition, and nutrition. Using the method, seven classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, and monolysocardiolipin) were detected in rat heart and skeletal muscle mitochondria and all but phosphatidylserine were quantified. The concentration was calculated using standard curves with an internal standard generated for each class of phospholipid. The method was validated for intraday and interday variation and showed excellent reproducibility and accuracy. This new method, with each step documented, provides a powerful tool for accurate quantitation of phospholipids, a basic structural component of mitochondrial membranes.
Project description:1. Phenobarbitone injection did not affect the concentration of phospholipids in the liver endoplasmic reticulum, but it increased the rate of incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into the phospholipids. 20-Methylcholanthrene caused a transient increase in total phospholipid but a decrease in the turnover rate of the phospholipids. 2. Incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into phosphatidylcholine, compared with that into phosphatidylethanolamine, was increased by phenobarbitone injection but decreased by 20-methylcholanthrene injection. 3. The activity of S-adenosylmethionine-phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase increased 12h after phenobarbitone injection, when incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into phosphatidylcholine was a maximum, but at other times, and after 20-methylcholanthrene injection, the activity of the enzyme did not correlate with the rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. 4. [(14)C]Glycerol was incorporated more rapidly into phosphatidylcholine than into phosphatidylethanolamine, whereas [(32)P]orthophosphate and [(14)C]ethanolamine were incorporated more rapidly into phosphatidylethanolamine than into phosphatidylcholine. 5. Incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into phosphatidylethanolamine of liver slices incubated in vitro was much more rapid than into phosphatidylcholine, and incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was markedly stimulated by addition of methionine to the medium. Changes in the incorporation of [(32)P]orthophosphate into phospholipids observed in vivo after injection of phenobarbitone or methylcholanthrene could not be reproduced in slices incubated in vitro. 6. It is concluded that phenobarbitone injection causes an increased rate of turnover of total phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum and an increased conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine, whereas 20-methylcholanthrene injection depresses both the turnover rate of total phospholipids and the formation of phosphatidylcholine.
Project description:1. The amount and types of phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the various phospholipids were examined in intact rat liver mitochondria, in mitochondria devoid of their outer membrane (preparation A) and in very small pieces derived from the disruption of the inner-membrane complexes (preparation B). The latter two preparations were obtained by digitonin treatment and carry out oxidative phosphorylation. 2. The ratio mug.atoms of phospholipid P/mg. of protein was 0.163 for intact mitochondria, decreased to 0.118 on removal of the outer membrane and increased markedly to 0.292 on disruption of the inner-membrane complex. 3. Examination of the various types of phospholipid present showed that the molar proportions cardiolipin:phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine were approx. 1:6:6 for intact mitochondria and 1:3:3 for preparations A and B. 4. There was a correlation between the recovery of cardiolipin and adenosine triphosphatase activity in the conversion of intact mitochondria into preparations A and B. 5. The fatty acid contents of the various types of phospholipid purified by thin-layer chromatography were identical in all three preparations. Our results show a considerably higher content of arachidonic acid and lower content of oleic acid for phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol than have previously been reported for mitochondrial phospholipids.
Project description:Cytochrome oxidase, purified from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was shown to have associated phospholipid, cholate or detergent, which could be varied by dialysis or (NH4)2SO4 precipitation of the protein. Cholate and the detergents Triton X-100 and Tween 80 were shown to differ in their ability to support enzyme activity. Changes in the Vmax, but not the Km, for ferrocytochrome c as the cholate concentration was varied indicate that cholate increases the number of exposed active sites of the enzyme. Cholate was used to introduce chosen phospholipids into the lipid environment of yeast cytochrome oxidase. Kinetic studies clearly showed that cholate can mediate exchange of exogenous for endogenous phospholipid. All phospholipids screened supported activity up to the basal value for the unsubstituted enzyme, whereas mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine and various phosphatidlycholines (except 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) produced enhanced activity. A detailed kinetic examination revealed that the major effect of phosphatidylethanolamine is to increase k+1, whereas the major effect of phosphatidylcholine is to increase K+2 in the minimal kinetic scheme E + S k+1 in equilibrium k-1 ES k+2 leads to E + P Cardiolipin, although supporting activity, does not give any enhancement of k+1 or k+2 over the values for the cholate control. The relevance of these observations to protein-lipid interactions in cytochrome oxidase is discussed.