Carnitine acyltransferase activities in rat brain mitochondria. Bimodal distribution, kinetic constants, regulation by malonyl-CoA and developmental pattern.
ABSTRACT: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine octanoyltransferase activities in brain mitochondrial fractions were approx. 3-4-fold lower than activities in liver. Estimated Km values of CPT1 and CPT2 (the overt and latent forms respectively of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) for L-carnitine were 80 microM and 326 microM, respectively, and K0.5 values for palmitoyl-CoA were 18.5 microM and 12 microM respectively. CPT1 activity was strongly inhibited by malonyl-CoA, with I50 values (concn. giving 50% of maximum inhibition) of approx. 1.5 microM. In the absence of other ligands, [2-14C]malonyl-CoA bound to intact brain mitochondria in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites. Estimated values for KD(1), KD(2), N1 and N2 were 18 nM, 27 microM, 1.3 pmol/mg of protein and 168 pmol/mg of protein respectively. Neither CPT1 activity, nor its sensitivity towards malonyl-CoA, was affected by 72 h starvation. Rates of oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA (in the presence of L-carnitine) or of palmitoylcarnitine by non-synaptic mitochondria were extremely low, indicating that neither CPT1 nor CPT2 was likely to be rate-limiting for beta-oxidation in brain. CPT1 activity relative to mitochondrial protein increased slightly from birth to weaning (20 days) and thereafter decreased by approx. 50%.
Project description:[14C]Malonyl-CoA bound to intact mitochondria isolated from rat liver and heart in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites in each tissue. The binding characteristics for mitochondria obtained from fed male rats were: for heart, KD(1) = 11-18nM, KD(2) = 30 microM, N1 = 7pmol/mg of protein, N2 = approx. 660pmol/mg of protein; for liver, KD(1) = 0.1 microM, KD(2) = 5.6 microM, N1 = 11pmol/mg of protein, N2 = 165pmol/mg of protein. In the presence of 40 microM-palmitoyl-CoA the characteristics of binding at the high-affinity sites were changed, so that for heart KD(1) = 0.26 microM, with no change in N1 and for liver KD(1) = approx. 2 microM, with N1 increased to approx. 40pmol/mg of protein. Differences between the two tissues in tightness of malonyl-CoA binding at the high-affinity sites explains the considerably greater sensitivity of heart CPT1 (overt form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter, (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 229-232; McGarry, Mills, Long & Foster (1983) Biochem. J. 214, 21-28]. Starvation (24h) did not change the characteristics of [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to liver mitochondria and did not alter the I50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) for displacement of [14C]malonyl-CoA by palmitoyl-CoA. Therefore the decreased sensitivity of liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA in starvation [Saggerson & Carpenter (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 225-228; Bremer (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665, 628-631] is not explained by differences in malonyl-CoA binding. Percentage occupancy of the high-affinity sites in heart mitochondria by malonyl-CoA correlated closely with percentage inhibition of CPT1 measured under similar conditions. This finding supports the proposal that the high-affinity binding sites are the functional sites mediating inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA. Similar experiments with liver mitochondria also suggested that the occupancy of high-affinity sites by malonyl-CoA regulates CPT1 activity. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), which decreased the sensitivity of heart or liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter (1982) FEBS Lett. 137, 124-128], also decreased [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to the high-affinity sites of heart mitochondria. N1 values for [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to high-affinity sites in liver mitochondria were determined in various physiological states which encompassed a 7-fold range of CPT1 maximal activity (fed, starved, pregnant, hypothyroid, foetal). The N1 value did not change in these states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:The requirement for carnitine and the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (EC 220.127.116.11) were measured in isolated mitochondria from eight tissues of animal or human origin using fixed concentrations of palmitoyl-CoA (50 microM) and albumin (147 microM). The Km for carnitine spanned a 20-fold range, rising from about 35 microM in adult rat and human foetal liver to 700 microM in dog heart. Intermediate values of increasing magnitude were found for rat heart, guinea pig liver and skeletal muscle of rat, dog and man. Conversely, the concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% suppression of enzyme activity fell from the region of 2-3 microM in human and rat liver to only 20 nM in tissues displaying the highest Km for carnitine. Thus, the requirement for carnitine and sensitivity to malonyl-CoA appeared to be inversely related. The Km of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I for palmitoyl-CoA was similar in tissues showing large differences in requirement for carnitine. Other experiments established that, in addition to liver, heart and skeletal muscle of fed rats contain significant quantities of malonyl-CoA and that in all three tissues the level falls with starvation. Although its intracellular location in heart and skeletal muscle is not known, the possibility is raised that malonyl-CoA (or a related compound) could, under certain circumstances, interact with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in non-hepatic tissues and thereby exert control over long chain fatty acid oxidation.
Project description:Malonyl-CoA significantly increased the Km for L-carnitine of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in liver mitochondria from fed rats. This effect was observed when the molar palmitoyl-CoA/albumin concentration ratio was low (0.125-1.0), but not when it was higher (2.0). In the absence of malonyl-CoA, the Km for L-carnitine increased with increasing palmitoyl-CoA/albumin ratios. Malonyl-CoA did not increase the Km for L-carnitine in liver mitochondria from 24h-starved rats or in heart mitochondria from fed animals. The Km for L-carnitine of the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase was 3-4 times that for the overt form of the enzyme. At low ratios of palmitoyl-CoA/albumin (0.5), the concentration of malonyl-CoA causing a 50% inhibition of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was decreased by 30% when assays with liver mitochondria from fed rats were performed at 100 microM-instead of 400 microM-carnitine. Such a decrease was not observed with liver mitochondria from starved animals. L-Carnitine displaced [14C]malonyl-CoA from liver mitochondrial binding sites. D-Carnitine was without effect. L-Carnitine did not displace [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart mitochondria. It is concluded that, under appropriate conditions, malonyl-CoA may decrease the effectiveness of L-carnitine as a substrate for the enzyme and that L-carnitine may decrease the effectiveness of malonyl-CoA to regulate the enzyme.
Project description:1. Confirming previous work [Murthy & Pande (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 378-382], malonyl-CoA-inhibitable carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1) from rat liver was found to be localized in outer rather than in inner mitochondrial membranes. 2. Antisera were raised against a liver mitochondrial CPT of Mr 68,000, which was presumed to be the latent from of the enzyme (CPT2). These antisera cross-reacted with solubilized CPT extracted from liver inner mitochondrial membranes and with polypeptides of Mr 68,000 and 60,000 in immunoblots of both inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The antisera also precipitated CPT activity from detergent-treated total membrane and outer-membrane preparations. 3. The antisera did not precipitate [14C]malonyl-CoA binding material obtained either from total membranes or from outer membranes. 4. It was concluded that liver CPT1 and CPT2 have some epitopes in common and may have a similar subunit size. In addition, CPT1 and the entity that binds malonyl-CoA must be separated polypeptides.
Project description:1. Liver carnitine acyltransferase activities with palmitoyl-CoA and octanoyl-CoA as substrates and heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase were measured as overt activities in whole mitochondria or in mitochondria disrupted by sonication or detergent treatment. All measurements were made in sucrose/KCl-based media of 300 mosmol/litre. 2. In liver mitochondria, acyltransferase measured with octanoyl-CoA, like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, was found to have latent and overt activities. 3. Liver acyltransferase activities measured with octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA differed in their response to changes in [K+], Triton X-100 treatment and, in particular, in their response to Mg2+. Mg2+ stimulated activity with octanoyl-CoA, but inhibited carnitine palmitoyltransferase. 4. The effects of K+ and Mg2+ on liver overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity were abolished by Triton X-100 treatment. 5. Heart overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity differed from the corresponding activity in liver in that it was more sensitive to changes in [K+] and was stimulated by Mg2+. Heart had less latent carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity than did liver. 6. Overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in heart mitochondria was extremely sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. Triton X-100 abolished the effect of low concentrations of malonyl-CoA on this activity. 7. The inhibitory effect of malonyl-CoA on heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase could be overcome by increasing the concentration of palmitoyl-CoA.
Project description:The effects of 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), TDGA-CoA and TDGA-carnitine were examined in purified hepatic CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) and in hepatic mitochondria and inverted submitochondrial vesicles derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Since TDGA has been reported as a specific inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A (CPT-A), the focus was on kinetics and inhibition of CPT-A, and the relationship of this key enzyme to beta-oxidation. After administration of TDGA in vivo to overnight-starved rats, the Vmax. of CPT in intact mitochondria and in inverted vesicles (CPT-B) was depressed by 66%. The S0.5 for palmitoyl-CoA and Km for carnitine were unchanged. The I50 (concn. giving 50% inhibition) for malonyl-CoA was significantly increased from 20 to 141 microM in intact mitochondria, but unchanged (199 versus 268 microM) in inverted vesicles. The addition in vitro of TDGA-CoA (0-1.0 microM) gave I50 values of 0.29 and 0.27 microM (S.E.M. = 0.19) in intact mitochondria from fed and 48 h-starved rats, and 0.81 and 1.57 microM (S.E.M. = 0.29) for inverted vesicles derived from fed and starved rats. Addition in vitro of TDGA-carnitine to mitochondria from starved rats yielded an I50 value of 27.7 mM (S.E.M. = 12.2) for L-[methyl-14C]carnitine release from palmitoyl-L-[methyl-14C]carnitine and 0.64 mM (S.E.M. = 0.07) for palmitoyl-L-[methyl-14C]carnitine formation from L-[methyl-14C]carnitine in intact mitochondria. Inverted vesicles were not measurably sensitive to TDGA-carnitine up to 500 microM for the assay of L-[methyl-14C]carnitine release, but were as sensitive as intact mitochondria when inhibition was determined in the direction of palmitoyl-L-[methyl-14C]carnitine formation (I50 = 0.54 +/- 0.07 microM). When TDGA-CoA was added to intact mitochondria, then incubated for 5 min at room temperature and subsequently washed out, Vmax. of CPT decreased from 5.8 to 3.5 (S.E.M. = 0.6) in intact mitochondria, and from 17.2 to 6.3 (S.E.M. = 4.8) in inverted vesicles. The Km for L-carnitine and the S0.5 for palmitoyl-CoA increased 2-fold with TDGA-CoA pretreatment in both intact mitochondria and inverted vesicles. Detergent solubilization (0.05% Triton X-100) resulted in a complete loss of TDGA-CoA sensitivity (up to 1.0 microM measured). Sonicated mitochondria exhibited an I50 of 0.72 +/- 0.03 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:The overt form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1) in rat liver and heart mitochondria was inhibited by DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA and bromoacetyl-CoA. S-Methanesulphonyl-CoA inhibited liver CPT1. The inhibitory potency of DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA was 17 times greater with liver than with heart CPT1. Inhibition of CPT1 by DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA was unaffected by 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) or (in liver) by starvation. In experiments in which DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA displaced [14C]malonyl-CoA bound to liver mitochondria, the KD (competing) was 25 times the IC50 for inhibition of CPT1 providing evidence that the malonyl-CoA-binding site is unlikely to be the same as the acyl-CoA substrate site. Bromoacetyl-CoA inhibition of CPT1 was more potent in heart than in liver mitochondria and was diminished by 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) or (in liver) by starvation. Bromoacetyl-CoA displaced bound [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart and liver mitochondria. In heart mitochondria this displacement was competitive with malonyl-CoA and was considerably facilitated by L-carnitine. In liver mitochondria this synergism between carnitine and bromoacetyl-CoA was not observed. It is suggested that bromoacetyl-CoA interacts with the malonyl-CoA-binding site of CPT1. L-Carnitine also facilitated the displacement by DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA of [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart, but not from liver, mitochondria. DL-2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA and bromoacetyl-CoA also inhibited overt carnitine octanoyl-transferase in liver and heart mitochondria. These findings are discussed in relation to inter-tissue differences in (a) the response of CPT1 activity to various inhibitors and (b) the relationship between high-affinity malonyl-CoA-binding sites and those sites for binding of L-carnitine and acyl-CoA substrates.
Project description:1. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine octanoyltransferase activities were measured in mitochondria at various acyl-CoA concentrations before and after sonication, thus permitting assessment of both overt and latent activities. 2. Overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in liver and adipocyte mitochondria and overt carnitine octanoyltransferase in liver mitochondria were inhibited by malonyl-CoA. None of the latent activities were affected by this metabolite. 3. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) stimulated latent hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase at low [palmitoyl-CoA]. 4. Starvation (24 h) decreased overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity in adipocyte mitochondria, but did not alter the sensitivity of this activity to malonyl-CoA.
Project description:Liver microsomal fractions contain a malonyl-CoA-inhibitable carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) activity. It has been proposed [Fraser, Corstorphine, Price and Zammit (1999) FEBS Lett. 446, 69-74] that this microsomal CAT activity is due to the liver form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT1) being targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as well as to mitochondria, possibly by an N-terminal signal sequence [Cohen, Guillerault, Girard and Prip-Buus (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 5403-5411]. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected to express a fusion protein in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was fused to the C-terminus of L-CPT1. Confocal microscopy showed that this fusion protein was localized to mitochondria, and possibly to peroxisomes, but not to the ER. cDNAs corresponding to truncated (amino acids 1-328) or full-length L-CPT1 were transcribed and translated in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes. However, there was no evidence of authentic insertion of CPT1 into the ER membrane. Rat liver microsomal fractions purified by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation contained an 88 kDa protein (p88) which was recognized by an anti-L-CPT1 antibody and by 2,4-dinitrophenol-etomoxiryl-CoA, a covalent inhibitor of L-CPT1. Abundance of p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity were increased approx. 3-fold by starvation for 24 h. Deoxycholate solubilized p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity from microsomes to approximately the same extent. The microsomal fraction contained porin, which, relative to total protein, was as abundant as in crude mitochondrial outer membranes fractions. It is concluded that L-CPT1 is not targeted to the ER membrane and that malonyl-CoA CAT in microsomal fractions is L-CPT1 that is derived from mitochondria, possibly from membrane contact sites.
Project description:A procedure is described for the rapid measurement of the activity of mitochondrial-outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPTo) and peroxisomal carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPTp) in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. CPTo activity was determined as the tetradecylglycidate (TDGA)-sensitive malonyl-CoA-sensitive CPT activity, whereas CPTp activity was monitored as the TDGA-insensitive malonyl-CoA-sensitive CPT activity. Under these experimental conditions, the respective contributions of CPTo and CPTp to total hepatocellular malonyl-CoA-sensitive CPT activity were 74.6 and 25.4%, which correlated well with the values of 76.9 and 23.1% for the respective contributions of the mitochondrial and the peroxisomal compartment to total hepatocellular palmitate oxidation. The sensitivity of CPTo to inhibition by malonyl-CoA was very similar to that of CPTp; thus 50% inhibition of CPTo and CPTp activities was achieved with malonyl-CoA concentrations of 2.6 +/- 0.5 and 3.0 +/- 0.4 microM respectively. Short-term incubation of hepatocytes with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (i) increased the activity of CPTo and the rate of mitochondrial palmitate oxidation, (ii) decreased the affinity of CPTo for palmitoyl-CoA substrate, and (iii) decreased the sensitivity of CPTo to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. By contrast, neither the properties of CPTp nor the rate of peroxisomal palmitate oxidation were changed upon incubation of cells with okadaic acid. Results indicate therefore that CPTo, but not CPTp, may be regulated by a mechanism of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The physiological relevance of these findings is discussed.