Ca2+ transport and Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis by Golgi vesicles from lactating rat mammary glands.
ABSTRACT: Ca2+ transport across mammary-gland Golgi membranes was measured after centrifugation of the membrane vesicles through silicone oil. In the presence of 2.3 microM free Ca2+ the vesicles accumulated 5.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein without added ATP, and this uptake was complete within 0.5 min. In the presence of 1 mM-ATP, Ca2+ was accumulated at a linear rate for 10 min after the precipitation of intravesicular Ca2+ with 10 mM-potassium oxalate. ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake exhibited a Km of 0.14 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 3.1 nmol of Ca2+/min per mg of protein. Ca2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis exhibited a Km of 0.16 microM for Ca2+ and a Vmax. of 10.1 nmol of Pi/min per mg of protein. The stoichiometry between ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase varied between 0.3 and 0.7 over the range 0.03-8.6 microM-Ca2+. Both Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+-stimulated ATPase were strongly inhibited by orthovanadate, which suggests that the major mechanism by which Golgi vesicles accumulate Ca2+ is through the action of the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase. However, Ca2+ uptake was also decreased by the protonophore CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), indicating that it may occur by other mechanisms too. The effect of CCCP may be related to the existence of transmembrane pH gradients (delta pH) in these vesicles: the addition of 30 microM-CCCP reduced delta pH from a control value of 1.06 to 0.73 pH unit. Golgi vesicles also possess a Ca2+-efflux pathway which operated at an initial rate of 0.5-0.57 nmol/min per mg of protein.
Project description:Inside-out plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from rat liver [Prpic, Green, Blackmore & Exton (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 1382-1385] accumulated a substantial amount of 45Ca2+ when they were incubated in a medium whose ionic composition and pH mimicked those of cytosol and which contained MgATP. The Vmax of the initial 45Ca2+ uptake rate was 2.9 +/- 0.6 nmol/min per mg and the Km for Ca2+ was 0.50 +/- 0.08 microM. The ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake by inside-out plasma-membrane vesicles was about 20 times more sensitive to saponin than was the ATP-dependent uptake by a microsomal preparation. The 45Ca2+ efflux from the inside-out vesicles, which is equivalent to the Ca2+ influx in intact cells, was increased when the free Ca2+ concentration in the medium was decreased. The Ca2+ antagonists La3+ and Co2+ inhibited the 45Ca2+ efflux from the vesicles. Neomycin stimulated the Ca2+ efflux in the presence of either a high or a low free Ca2+ concentration. These results confirm that polyvalent cations regulate Ca2+ fluxes through the plasma membrane.
Project description:The characteristics of L-proline transport in the procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei were studied by using L-[14C]proline and a quick separation technique by centrifugation through an oil mixture. L-Proline uptake displayed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km of 19 microM and a maximum transport velocity of 17 nmol/min per 10(8) cells at 27 degrees C. The maximum concentration gradient factor obtained after 1 min of incubation was 270-fold in 0.02 mM proline. Cells permeabilized with 80 microM digitonin were still able to accumulate 14C label, but to a lower extent. The temperature-dependence of proline uptake gave an apparent activation energy of 74.9 kJ.mol-1. In competition studies with a 10-fold excess of structural analogues, L-alanine, L-cysteine and L-azetidine-2-carboxylate were found to inhibit L-proline uptake. Variation of pH or addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone ('CCCP') did not affect proline transport, showing that it is not driven by a protonmotive force. The absence of Na+, with or without monensin, did not affect proline transport. The absence of K+ and the addition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain had no significant effect on proline uptake activity. The thiol-modifying reagent iodoacetate (10 mM) decreased proline uptake by half. KCN (1 mM) inhibited proline uptake to a lesser extent, and the degree of inhibition was proportional to the intracellular ATP concentration. Preliminary experiments on proline transport in plasma-membrane vesicles of the cells, using a filtration technique, showed an uptake of proline (0.67 nmol/mg of protein) by the vesicles, but only in the presence of intravesicular ATP. The results thus obtained suggest that the proline carrier system in T. brucei is ATP-driven and independent of Na+, K+ or H+ co-transport.
Project description:Two microsomal subfractions from isolated rat pancreatic acini were produced by centrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and characterized by biochemical markers. The denser fraction ( SF2 ) was a highly purified preparation of rough endoplasmic reticulum; the less-dense fraction ( SF1 ) was heterogeneous and contained Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. 45Ca2+ accumulation in the presence of ATP and its rapid release after treatment with the bivalent-cation ionophore A23187 were demonstrated in both fractions. The pH optimum for active 45Ca2+ uptake was approx. 6.8 for the rough endoplasmic reticulum ( SF2 ) and approx. 7.5 for SF1 . Initial rate measurements were used to determine the affinity of the rough-endoplasmic-reticulum uptake system for free Ca2+. An apparent Km of 0.16 +/- 0.06 microM and Vmax. of 21.5 +/- 5.6 nmol of Ca2+/min per mg of protein were obtained. 45Ca2+ uptake by SF1 was less sensitive to Ca2+, half-maximal uptake occurring at 1-2 microM-free Ca2+. When fractions were prepared from isolated acini stimulated with 3 microM-carbamylcholine, 45Ca2+ uptake was increased in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The increased uptake was due to a higher Vmax. with no significant change in Km. No effect was observed on 45Ca2+ uptake by SF1 . In conclusion, two distinct non-mitochondrial, ATP-dependent calcium-uptake systems have been demonstrated in rat pancreatic acini. One of these is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, but the precise location of the other has not been determined. We have shown that the Ca2+-transporting activity in the rough endoplasmic reticulum may have an important role in maintaining the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration in resting acinar cells and is involved in Ca2+ movements which occur during stimulation of enzyme secretion.
Project description:1. By using Ca-EGTA buffers, the Km for Ca2+ uptake into rat liver heavy microsomes (microsomal fraction) was found to be 0.2 microM free Ca2+. 2. In the absence of oxalate, these vesicles accumulate about 20 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. Efflux of Ca2+ from the vesicles is much faster at pH 7.6 than at pH 6.8, but does not apparently show saturation kinetics or any stringent requirement for external ions. 3. The steady-state distribution of Ca2+ between the microsomes and the medium in the presence of ATP and the absence of oxalate is dependent on Ca2+ load. When the vesicles are loaded to 50% capacity, the external free Ca2+ concentration is 70 nM. 4. The affinity of heavy microsomes for Ca2+ is such that is seems likely that they has a dominant role in the determination of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Coated microvesicles isolated from bovine neurohypophyses could be loaded with Ca2+ in two different ways, either by incubation in the presence of ATP or by imposition of an outwardly directed Na+ gradient. Na+, but not K+, was able to release Ca2+ accumulated by the coated microvesicles. These results suggest the existence of an ATP-dependent Ca2+-transport system as well as of a Na+/Ca2+ carrier in the membrane of coated microvesicles similar to that present in the membranes of secretory vesicles from the neurohypophysis. A kinetic analysis of transport indicates that the apparent Km for free Ca2+ of the ATP-dependent uptake was 0.8 microM. The average Vmax. was 2 nmol of Ca2+/5 min per mg of protein. The total capacity of microvesicles for Ca2+ uptake was 3.7 nmol/mg of protein. Both nifedipine (10 microM) and NH4Cl (50 mM) inhibited Ca2+ uptake. The ATPase activity in purified coated-microvesicles fractions from brain and neurohypophysis was characterized. Micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ in the presence of millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ did not change enzyme activity. Ionophores increasing the proton permeability across membranes activated the ATPase activity in preparations of coated microvesicles from brain as well as from the neurohypophysis. Thus the enzyme exhibits properties of a proton-transporting ATPase. This enzyme seems to be linked to the ion accumulation by coated microvesicles, although the precise coupling of the proton transport to Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes remains to be determined.
Project description:Administration of methoxamine (10 microM, 2 min) to perfused rat hearts increased the rate at which subsequently isolated mitochondria accumulated Ca2+. Methoxamine did not change significantly the development of delta phi with time or the basal rates of Ca2+ flux on inhibition of the uniporter with Ruthenium Red. With 200 microM-Pi, the rates of Ca2+ uptake at constant delta phi were unaffected by the small variations in endogenous [Pi] between mitochondrial preparations, and were also unaffected by changes in internal Ca2+ over the approximate range 8-43 nmol of Ca2+/mg. At low internal Ca2+ (about 8 nmol/mg of protein) the rates of Ca2+ uptake at constant delta phi were unaffected by addition of 200 microM-Pi. Under these conditions, the uniporter activity and the uniporter conductance were increased by 38-40% by methoxamine pretreatment. The endogenous Ca2+ content of mitochondria from control heart was about 1.8 nmol of Ca2+/mg of protein. Perfusion with agonist increased the Ca2+ content as follows: 10 microM-methoxamine (2 min), 48%; 1 microM-isoprenaline (2 min), 100%; 1 microM-adrenaline (2 min), 140%. The implications of the data for the adrenergic control of oxidative metabolism by intramitochondrial Ca2+ is discussed.
Project description:Despite previous reports [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar and Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351; Mazumder, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Ray and Bhaduri (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18440-18446] that the plasma membrane of different trypanosomatids only contains Ca(2+)-ATPase that does not show any demonstrable dependence on Mg2+, a high-affinity (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase was demonstrated in the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei. The enzyme became saturated with micromolar amounts of Ca2+, reaching a Vmax. of 3.45 +/- 0.66 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein. The Km,app. for Ca2+ was 0.52 +/- 0.03 microM. This was decreased to 0.23 +/- 0.05 microM, and the Vmax. was increased to 6.36 +/- 0.22 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein (about 85%), when calmodulin was present. T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles accumulated Ca2+ on addition of ATP only when Mg2+ was present, and released it to addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. In addition, this Ca2+ transport was stimulated by calmodulin. Addition of NaCl to Ca(2+)-loaded T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles did not result in Ca2+ release, thus suggesting the absence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in these parasites. Therefore the (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase would be the only mechanism so far described that is responsible for the long-term fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of these parasites. The trypanocidal drug pentamidine inhibited the T. brucei plasma-membrane (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ transport at concentrations that had no effect on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of human or pig erythrocytes. In this latter case, pentamidine behaved as a weak calmodulin antagonist, since it inhibited the stimulation of the erythrocyte Ca(2+)-ATPase by calmodulin.
Project description:A possible role in secretory processes is proposed for inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), based upon investigations of the Ca2+ steady state maintained by "leaky', insulin-secreting RINm5F cells. These cells had been treated with digitonin to permeabilize their plasma membranes and thereby ensure that only intracellular Ca2+ buffering mechanisms were active. When placed in a medium with a cation composition resembling that of the cytosol, cells rapidly took up Ca2+ as measured by a Ca2+-specific minielectrode. Two Ca2+ steady states were observed. A lower level of around 120nM required ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and was probably determined by the endoplasmic reticulum. The higher steady state (approx. 800 nM), seen only in the absence of ATP, was shown to be due to mitochondrial activity. IP3 specifically released Ca2+ accumulated in the ATP-dependent pool, but not from mitochondria, since Ca2+ release was demonstrated in the presence of the respiratory poison antimycin. The IP3-induced Ca2+ release was rapid, with 50% of the response being seen within 15s. The apparent Km was 0.5 microM and maximal concentrations of IP3 (2.5 microM) produced a peak Ca2+ release of 10 nmol/mg of cell protein, which was followed by re-uptake. A full Ca2+ response was seen if sequential pulses of 2.5 microM-IP3 were added at 20 min intervals, although there was a slight (less than 20%) attenuation if the intervening period was decreased to 10 min. These observations could be related to the rate of IP3 degradation which, in this system, corresponded to a 25% loss of added 32P label within 2 min, and a 75% loss within 20 min. The results suggest that IP3 might act as a link between metabolic, cationic and secretory events during the stimulation of insulin release.
Project description:By using density-gradient fractionation and high-voltage free-flow electrophoresis, human platelet membranes were separated into highly purified subfractions of surface (SM) and intracellular (IM) origin. Associated exclusively with the IM fraction is an ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake that, in the absence of oxalate, reaches steady-state levels in 5-10 min. When Ca2+-EGTA buffers were used to control the external Ca2+ concentrations (range 0.1-50 microM) there was an increase in the intravesicle steady-state level of Ca2+ up to 10 microM external Ca2+ concentration. Above this level the intravesicle space becomes saturated at a concentration between 10 and 20 nmol of Ca2+ X (mg of protein)-1. The ionophore A23187 promotes a rapid and almost total release of the sequestered Ca2+ (greater than 90%, t1/2 1-2 min). The presence of oxalate in the external medium greatly enhances the Ca2+ accumulation to levels as high as 200 nmol X (mg of protein)-1, but the uptake process is more variable and rarely reaches steady-state level even after 2 h incubation. Moreover, accumulation in the presence of oxalate effects ionophore release with less than 80% depletion in 45-60 min. These findings, taken together with the known presence in the platelet of a wide variety of functional and metabolic processes triggered by this cation, suggest that the platelet IM has a key role in controlling cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:A membrane fraction isolated from lactating murine mammary tissue and enriched for the Golgi membrane marker enzyme galactosyltransferase exhibited Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity (Ca-ATPase) in 20 microM-free Mg2+ and 10 microM-MgATP, with an apparent Km for Ca2+ of 0.8 microM. Exogenous calmodulin did not enhance Ca2+ stimulation, nor could Ca-ATPase activities be detected in millimolar total Mg2+ and ATP. When assayed with micromolar Mg2+ and MgATP the Ca-ATPases of skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and of calmodulin-enriched red blood cell plasma membranes were half-maximally activated by 0.1 microM- and 0.6 microM-Ca2+ respectively. All three Ca-ATPases were inhibited by similar micromolar concentrations of trifluoperazine, but the Golgi activity was unaffected by quercetin in concentrations which completely inhibited both the sarcoplasmic-reticulum and red-blood-cell enzymes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the high-affinity Ca-ATPase is responsible for the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport exhibited by Golgi-enriched vesicles derived from lactating mammary gland [Neville, Selker, Semple & Watters (1981) J. Membr. Biol. 61, 97-105; West (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 673, 374-386].