High concentrations of aldehydes slow the reaction of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase with thiol-group modifiers.
ABSTRACT: High concentrations of aldehydes slow the inactivation of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase by disulfiram and also slow the reaction of the enzyme with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine. It is concluded that a low-affinity aldehyde-binding site is probably the site at which thiol-group modifiers react with aldehyde dehydrogenase, as well as being the active site for hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate.
Project description:Small concentrations of 2,2'-dithiodipyridine cause a rapid activation of sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase in the presence of NAD+. Enzyme pre-modified by 2,2'-dithiodipyridine is largely protected against the potent inactivatory effect of disulfiram. 2,2'-Dithiobis-(5-nitropyridine) inactivates the enzyme. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to various possible classes of thiol group in aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Project description:The effect of disulfiram, [1-14C]disulfiram and some other thiol reagents on the activity of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase from sheep liver was studied. The results are consistent with a rapid covalent interaction between disulfiram and the enzyme, and inconsistent with the notion that disulfiram is a reversible competitive inhibitor of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase. There is a non-linear relationship between loss of about 90% of the enzyme activity and amount of disulfiram added; possible reasons for this are discussed. The remaining approx. 10% of activity is relatively insensitive to disulfiram. It is found that modification of only a small number of groups (one to two) per tetrameric enzyme molecule is responsible for the observed loss of activity. The dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme is affected more severely by disulfiram than is the esterase activity. Negatively charged thiol reagents have little or no effect on cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase. 2,2'-Dithiodipyridine is an activator of the enzyme.
Project description:Sheep liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase reacts with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine in a two-step process: an initial rapid labelling reaction is followed by slow displacement of the thiopyridone moiety. With the 4,4'-isomer the first step results in an activated form of the enzyme, which then loses activity simultaneously with loss of the label (as has been shown to occur with the cytoplasmic enzyme). With 2,2'-dithiodipyridine, however, neither of the two steps of the reaction has any effect on the enzymic activity, showing that the mitochondrial enzyme possesses two cysteine residues that must be more accessible or reactive (to this reagent at least) than the postulated catalytically essential residue. The symmetrical reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-(1-methyltetrazole) activates mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase approximately 4-fold, whereas the smaller related compound methyl l-methyltetrazol-5-yl disulphide is a potent inactivator. These results support the involvement of mixed methyl disulphides in causing unpleasant physiological responses to ethanol after the ingestion of certain antibiotics.
Project description:1. Pre-modification of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase by disulfiram results in the same extent of inactivation when the enzyme is subsequently assayed as a dehydrogenase or as an esterase. 2. 4-Nitrophenyl acetate protects the enzyme against inactivation by disulfiram, particularly well in the absence of NAD+. Some protection is also provided by chloral hydrate and indol-3-ylacetaldehyde (in the absence of NAD+). 3. When disulfiram is prevented from reacting at its usual site by the presence of 4-nitrophenyl acetate, it reacts elsewhere on the enzyme molecule without causing inactivation. 4. Enzyme in the presence of aldehyde and NAD+ is not at all protected against disulfiram. It is proposed that, under these circumstances, disulfiram reacts with the enzyme-NADH complex formed in the enzyme-catalysed reaction. 5. Modification by disulfiram results in a decrease in the amplitude of the burst of NADH formation during the dehydrogenase reaction, as well as a decrease in the steady-state rate. 6. 2,2'-Dithiodipyridine reacts with the enzyme both in the absence and presence of NAD+. Under the former circumstances the activity of the enzyme is little affected, but when the reaction is conducted in the presence of NAD+ the enzyme is activated by approximately 2-fold and is then relatively insensitive to the inactivatory effect of disulfiram. 7. Enzyme activated by 2,2'-dithiodipyridine loses most of its activity when stored over a period of a few days at 4 degrees C, or within 30 min when treated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. 8. Points for and against the proposal that the disulfiram-sensitive groups are catalytically essential are discussed.
Project description:It is shown that in vitro glutathione provides little protection of cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase against the inactivatory action of disulfiram. This observation provides support for the current explanation of how disulfiram acts in vivo. The results show that the disulfiram-sensitive thiol groups of aldehyde dehydrogenase have an unusually high reactivity; possible mechanisms by which this might arise are discussed.
Project description:The pI approximately 5.2 isoenzymes of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase were separated from the other isoenzymes by pH-gradient chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. The pI approximately 5.2 material is immunologically identical with cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase. It also shows sensitivity to 20 microM-disulfiram and insensitivity to 4M-urea in assays. These and other criteria seem to establish that the material is identical with the cytosolic enzyme. Mitochondrial enzyme that had been purified to remove pI approximately 5.2 isoenzymes shows concentration-dependent lag phases in assays. These effects are possibly due to the slow establishment of equilibrium between tetramer and either dimers or monomers, with the dissociated species being intrinsically more active than the tetramer.
Project description:Stoicheiometric amounts of [14C]disulfiram react rapidly with sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase to give loss of catalytic activity and incorporation of the expected amount of radioactivity. In a subsequent slower reaction the label is lost from the enzyme without re-emergence of enzymic activity. The results imply that in vivo disulfiram may act as an oxidation-reduction catalyst for the inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Project description:Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyses the hydrolysis of methyl p-nitrophenyl (PNP) carbonate at an appreciable rate that is markedly stimualted by NAD+ or NADH. The nuleotides accelerate the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate while slowing the observed burst of p-nitrophenoxide production. With PNP dimethylcarbamate the enzyme catalyses the slow release of approx. 1 molecule of p-nitrophenoxide per tetrameric enzyme molecule; during the reaction the enzyme becomes effectively inactivated, as the rate of hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme is virtually zero. The presence of NAD+, NADH, propionaldehyde, chloral hydrate, diethylstilboestrol or disulfiram slows the reaction of enzyme with PNP dimethylcarbamate. The reaction appears to be dependent on a group of pKa 7.6, possibly a cysteine residue. The effect of PNP dimethylcarbamate on the dehydrogenase activity of the enzyme is consistent with there being a single type of active site for the enzyme's dehydrogenase and esterase activities. Steric and electronic factors that govern reaction of the enzyme with PNP substrates are discussed.
Project description:The effects of S-methyl diethyldithiocarbamate, S-methyl diethylmonothiocarbamate and bis(diethylcarbamoyl) disulphide on sheep liver cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase were investigated in vitro. The first compound has negligible effect. The second one is a weak inhibitor of the esterase activity of the enzyme and a weaker inhibitor of the dehydrogenase activity. A very low concentration of the third compound, however, acts as a potent inactivator of aldehyde dehydrogenase, similar in this respect to disulfiram, although somewhat slower to react. The possible involvement of these compounds in the physiological phenomenon known as the disulfiram ethanol reaction is discussed.
Project description:1. The effect of disulfiram on the activity of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases of sheep liver was studied. 2. Disulfiram causes an immediate inhibition of the enzyme reaction. The effect on the cytoplasmic enzyme is much greater than on the mitochondrial enzyme. 3. In both cases, the initial partial inhibition is followed by a gradual irreversible loss of activity. 4. The pH-rate profile of the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme by disulfiram and the pH-dependence of the maximum velocity of the enzyme-catalysed reaction are both consistent with the involvement of a thiol group. 5. Excess of 2-mercaptoethanol or GSH abolishes the effect of disulfiram. However, equimolar amounts of either of these reagents and disulfiram cause an effect greater than does disulfiram alone. It was shown that the mixed disulphide, Et2N-CS-SS-CH2-CH2OH, strongly inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase. 6. The inhibitory effect of diethyldithiocarbamate in vitro is due mainly to contamination by disulfiram.