Macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from brain and lymphoid tissues predicts neurotropism independent of coreceptor specificity.
ABSTRACT: The viral determinants that underlie human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neurotropism are unknown, due in part to limited studies on viruses isolated from brain. Previous studies suggest that brain-derived viruses are macrophage tropic (M-tropic) and principally use CCR5 for virus entry. To better understand HIV-1 neurotropism, we isolated primary viruses from autopsy brain, cerebral spinal fluid, blood, spleen, and lymph node samples from AIDS patients with dementia and HIV-1 encephalitis. Isolates were characterized to determine coreceptor usage and replication capacity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and microglia. Env V1/V2 and V3 heteroduplex tracking assay and sequence analyses were performed to characterize distinct variants in viral quasispecies. Viruses isolated from brain, which consisted of variants that were distinct from those in lymphoid tissues, used CCR5 (R5), CXCR4 (X4), or both coreceptors (R5X4). Minor usage of CCR2b, CCR3, CCR8, and Apj was also observed. Primary brain and lymphoid isolates that replicated to high levels in MDM showed a similar capacity to replicate in microglia. Six of 11 R5 isolates that replicated efficiently in PBMC could not replicate in MDM or microglia due to a block in virus entry. CD4 overexpression in microglia transduced with retroviral vectors had no effect on the restricted replication of these virus strains. Furthermore, infection of transfected cells expressing different amounts of CD4 or CCR5 with M-tropic and non-M-tropic R5 isolates revealed a similar dependence on CD4 and CCR5 levels for entry, suggesting that the entry block was not due to low levels of either receptor. Studies using TAK-779 and AMD3100 showed that two highly M-tropic isolates entered microglia primarily via CXCR4. These results suggest that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages and microglia is restricted at the entry level by a mechanism independent of coreceptor specificity. These findings provide evidence that M-tropism rather than CCR5 usage predicts HIV-1 neurotropism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dual/mixed-tropic HIV-1 strains are predominant in a significant proportion of patients, though little information is available regarding their replication-capacity and susceptibility against CCR5-antagonists in-vitro. The aim of the study was to analyze the replication-capacity and susceptibility to maraviroc of HIV-1 clinical isolates with different tropism characteristics in primary monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM), peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMC), and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-three HIV-1 isolates were phenotipically and genotipically characterized as R5, X4 or dual (discriminated as R5(+)/X4, R5/X4, R5/X4(+)). Phenotypic-tropism was evaluated by multiple-cycles-assay on U87MG-CD4(+)-CCR5(+)-/CXCR4(+)-expressing cells. Genotypic-tropism prediction was obtained using Geno2Pheno-algorithm (false-positive-rate [FPR]?=?10%). Replication-capacity and susceptibility to maraviroc were investigated in human-primary MDM, PBMC and CD4(+) T-cells. AMD3100 was used as CXCR4-inhibitor. Infectivity of R5/Dual/X4-viruses in presence/absence of maraviroc was assessed also by total HIV-DNA, quantified by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction.<h4>Results</h4>Among 23 HIV-1 clinical isolates, phenotypic-tropism-assay distinguished 4, 17 and 2 viruses with R5-tropic, dual/mixed-, and X4-tropic characteristics, respectively. Overall, viruses defined as R5(+)/X4-tropic were found with the highest prevalence (10/23, 43.5%). The majority of isolates efficiently replicated in both PBMC and CD4(+) T-cells, regardless of their tropism, while MDM mainly sustained replication of R5- or R5(+)/X4-tropic isolates; strong correlation between viral-replication and genotypic-FPR-values was observed in MDM (rho?=?0.710;p-value?=?1.4e-4). In all primary cells, maraviroc inhibited viral-replication of isolates not only with pure R5- but also with dual/mixed tropism (mainly R5(+)/X4 and, to a lesser extent R5/X4 and R5/X4(+)). Finally, no main differences by comparing the total HIV-DNA with the p24-production in presence/absence of maraviroc were found.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Maraviroc is effective in-vitro against viruses with dual-characteristics in both MDM and lymphocytes, despite the potential X4-mediated escape. This suggests that the concept of HIV-entry through one of the two coreceptors "separately" may require revision, and that the use of CCR5-antagonists in patients with dual/mixed-tropic viruses may be a therapeutic-option that deserves further investigations in different clinical settings.
Project description:Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruses in the brain use CCR5 as the principal coreceptor for entry into a cell. However, additional phenotypic characteristics are necessary for HIV-1 neurotropism. Furthermore, neurotropic strains are not necessarily neurovirulent. To better understand the determinants of HIV-1 neurovirulence, we isolated viruses from brain tissue samples from three AIDS patients with dementia and HIV-1 encephalitis and analyzed their ability to induce syncytia in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and neuronal apoptosis in primary brain cultures. Two R5X4 viruses (MACS1-br and MACS1-spln) were highly fusogenic in MDM and induced neuronal apoptosis. The R5 viruses UK1-br and MACS2-br are both neurotropic. However, only UK1-br induced high levels of fusion in MDM and neuronal apoptosis. Full-length Env clones from UK1-br required lower CCR5 and CD4 levels than Env clones from MACS2-br to function efficiently in cell-to-cell fusion and single-round infection assays. UK1-br Envs also had a greater affinity for CCR5 than MACS2-br Envs in binding assays. Relatively high levels of UK1-br and MACS2-br Envs bound to CCR5 in the absence of soluble CD4. However, these Envs could not mediate CD4-independent infection, and MACS2-br Envs were unable to mediate fusion or infection in cells expressing low levels of CD4. The UK1-br virus was more resistant than MACS2-br to inhibition by the CCR5-targeted inhibitors TAK-779 and Sch-C. UK1-br was more sensitive than MACS2-br to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (2F5 and immunoglobulin G1b12 [IgG1b12]) and CD4-IgG2. These results predict the presence of HIV-1 variants with increased CCR5 affinity and reduced dependence on CCR5 and CD4 in the brains of some AIDS patients with central nervous system disease and suggest that R5 variants with increased CCR5 affinity may represent a pathogenic viral phenotype contributing to the neurodegenerative manifestations of AIDS.
Project description:Blocking the binding of the envelope HIV-1 protein to immune cells is a popular concept for development of anti-HIV therapeutics. R5 HIV-1 binds CCR5, X4 HIV-1 binds CXCR4, and dual-tropic HIV-1 can bind either coreceptor for cellular entry. R5 viruses are associated with early infection and over time can evolve to X4 viruses that are associated with immune failure. Dual-tropic HIV-1 is less studied; however, it represents functional antigenic intermediates during the transition of R5 to X4 viruses. Viral tropism is linked partly to the HIV-1 envelope V3 domain, where the amino acid sequence helps dictate the receptor a particular virus will target; however, using V3 sequence information to identify dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates has remained difficult. Our goal in this study was to elucidate features of dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates that assist in the biological understanding of dual-tropism and develop an approach for their detection. Over 1559 HIV-1 subtype B sequences with known tropisms were analyzed. Each sequence was represented by 73 structural, biochemical and regional features. These features were provided to an evolved neural network classifier and evaluated using balanced and unbalanced data sets. The study resolved R5X4 viruses from R5 with an accuracy of 81.8% and from X4 with an accuracy of 78.8%. The approach also identified a set of V3 features (hydrophobicity, structural and polarity) that are associated with tropism transitions. The ability to distinguish R5X4 isolates will improve computational tropism decisions for R5 vs. X4 and assist in HIV-1 research and drug development efforts.
Project description:While CCR5 is the principal coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1, not all primary CCR5-using (R5) viruses enter macrophages efficiently. Here, we used functionally-diverse R5 envelope (Env) clones to characterize virus-cell interactions important for efficient CCR5-mediated macrophage entry. The magnitude of macrophage entry by Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses correlated with increased immunoreactivity of CD4-induced gp120 epitopes, increased ability to scavenge low levels of cell-surface CCR5, reduced sensitivity to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, and increased dependence on specific residues in the CCR5 ECL2 region. These results are consistent with an altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement. Structural studies revealed potential alterations within the gp120 V3 loop, the gp41 interaction sites at the gp120 C- and N-termini, and within the gp120 CD4 binding site which may directly or indirectly lead to more efficient CCR5-usage. Thus, enhanced gp120-CCR5 interactions may contribute to M-tropism of R5 HIV-1 strains through different structural mechanisms.
Project description:CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization states. We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. We show that envelope glycoproteins (gp120s) from different HIV-1 strains exhibit divergent binding levels to CCR5 on cell lines and primary cells, but not to CD4 or the CD4i monoclonal antibody E51. This owed to differential binding of the gp120s to different CCR5 populations, which exist in varying quantities at the cell surface and are differentially expressed between different cell types. Some, but not all, of these populations are antigenically distinct conformations of the coreceptor. The different binding levels of gp120s also correspond to differences in their capacity to bind CCR5 dimers/oligomers. Mutating the CCR5 dimerization interface changed conformation of the CCR5 homodimers and modulated differentially the binding of distinct gp120s. Env-pseudotyped viruses also use particular CCR5 conformations for entry, which may differ between different viruses and represent a subset of those binding gp120s. In particular, even if gp120s can bind both CCR5 monomers and oligomers, impairment of CCR5 oligomerization improved viral entry, suggesting that HIV-1 prefers monomers for entry. From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity to inhibition by CCR5 ligands and cellular tropism. Differences exist in the CCR5 populations between T-cells and macrophages, and this is associated with differential capacity to bind gp120s and to support viral entry. In macrophages, CCR5 structural plasticity is critical for entry of blood-derived R5 isolates, which, in contrast to prototypical M-tropic strains from brain tissues, cannot benefit from enhanced affinity for CD4. Collectively, our results support a role for CCR5 heterogeneity in diversifying the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 isolates and provide new clues for development of CCR5-targeting drugs.
Project description:CCR5 (R5)-tropic, but not CXCR4 (X4)-tropic, HIV-1 is associated with primary HIV-1 infection and transmission. Recent studies have shown that IFN-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, including IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, restrict a broad range of viruses. Here, we demonstrate that an IFITM2 isoform (?20 IFITM2) lacking 20 amino acids at the N terminus differentially restricts X4 and R5 HIV-1. ?20 IFITM2 suppresses replication of X4 HIV-1 strains by inhibiting their entry. High levels of ?20 IFITM2 expression could be detected in CD4+ T cells and in monocytes. Infection of X4 viruses in monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells is enhanced upon depletion of IFITM2 isoforms. Furthermore, we also show that coreceptor use is the determining factor for differential HIV-1 restriction of ?20 IFITM2. When we replace the C terminus of CCR5 with the C terminus of CXCR4, R5 viruses become more susceptible to ?20 IFITM2-mediated restriction. In contrast to previous studies, our research reveals that neither X4 nor R5 HIV-1 is suppressed by IFITM2 and IFITM3. The multifactor gatekeeping model has been proposed to explain restriction of X4 viruses in the early stage of HIV-1 diseases. Our findings indicate that ?20 IFITM2 may serve as a major contributor to this gatekeeping mechanism.
Project description:Infection with HIV-1 perturbs homeostasis of human T cell subsets, leading to accelerated immunologic deterioration. While studying changes in CD4(+) memory and naïve T cells during HIV-1 infection, we found that a subset of CD4(+) effector memory T cells that are CCR7(-)CD45RO(-)CD45RA(+) (referred to as TEMRA cells), was significantly increased in some HIV-infected individuals. This T cell subset displayed a differentiated phenotype and skewed Th1-type cytokine production. Despite expressing high levels of CCR5, TEMRA cells were strikingly resistant to infection with CCR5 (R5)-tropic HIV-1, but remained highly susceptible to CXCR4 (X4)-tropic HIV-1. The resistance of TEMRA cells to R5-tropic viruses was determined to be post-entry of the virus and prior to early viral reverse transcription, suggesting a block at the uncoating stage. Remarkably, in a subset of the HIV-infected individuals, the relatively high proportion of TEMRA cells within effector T cells strongly correlated with higher CD4(+) T cell numbers. These data provide compelling evidence for selection of an HIV-1-resistant CD4(+) T cell population during the course of HIV-1 infection. Determining the host factors within TEMRA cells that restrict R5-tropic viruses and endow HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells with this ability may result in novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection.
Project description:<i>Background and objectives:</i> To enter the target cell, HIV-1 binds not only CD4 but also a co-receptor ?-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or ? chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Limited information is available on the impact of co-receptor usage on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and on the homeostasis of this important cellular reservoir. <i>Materials and Methods:</i> Replication (measured by p24 production) of the CCR5-tropic 81A strain increased up to 10 days post-infection and then reached a plateau. Conversely, the replication of the CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 strain (after an initial increase up to day 7) underwent a drastic decrease becoming almost undetectable after 10 days post-infection. The ability of CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic strains to induce cell death in MDM was then evaluated. While for CCR5-tropic 81A the rate of apoptosis in MDM was comparable to uninfected MDM, the infection of CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 in MDM was associated with a rate of 14.3% of apoptotic cells at day 6 reaching a peak of 43.5% at day 10 post-infection. <i>Results:</i> This suggests that the decrease in CXCR4-tropic strain replication in MDM can be due to their ability to induce cell death in MDM. The increase in apoptosis was paralleled with a 2-fold increase in the phosphorylated form of p38 compared to WT. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed modulation of proapoptotic and cancer-related genes induced by CXCR4-tropic strains starting from 24 h after infection, whereas CCR5 viruses modulated the expression of genes not correlated with apoptotic-pathways. <i>Conclusions:</i> In conclusion, CXCR4-tropic strains can induce a remarkable depletion of MDM. Conversely, MDM can represent an important cellular reservoir for CCR5-tropic strains supporting the role of CCR5-usage in HIV-1 pathogenesis and as a pharmacological target to contribute to an HIV-1 cure.
Project description:Aminooxypentane (AOP)-RANTES efficiently and specifically blocks entry of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI), CCR5-tropic (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into host cells. Inhibition appears to be mediated by increased intracellular retention of the CCR5 coreceptor- AOP-RANTES complex and/or competitive binding of AOP-RANTES with NSI R5 HIV-1 isolates for CCR5. Although AOP-RANTES and other beta-chemokine analogs are potent inhibitors, the extreme heterogeneity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41) and variable coreceptor usage may affect the susceptibility of variant HIV-1 strains to these drugs. Using the same peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with all isolates, we observed a significant variation in AOP-RANTES inhibition of 13 primary NSI R5 isolates; 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) ranged from 0.04 nM with HIV-1(A-92RW009) to 1.3 nM with HIV-1(B-BaL). Experiments performed on the same isolate (HIV-1(B-BaL)) with PBMC from different donors revealed no isolate-specific variation in AOP-RANTES IC(50) values but did show a considerable difference in virus replication efficiency. Exclusive entry via the CCR5 coreceptor by these NSI R5 isolates suggests that variable inhibition by AOP-RANTES is not due to alternative coreceptor usage but rather differential CCR5 binding. Analysis of the envelope V3 loop sequence linked a threonine or arginine at position 319 (numbering based on the HXB2 genome) with AOP-RANTES resistance. With the exception of one isolate, A319 was associated with increased sensitivity to AOP-RANTES inhibition. Distribution of AOP-RANTES IC(50) values with these isolates has promoted ongoing screens for new CCR5 agonists that show broad inhibition of HIV-1 variants.
Project description:HIV-1 R5 variants exploit CCR5 as a coreceptor to infect both T cells and macrophages. R5 viruses that are transmitted or derived from immune tissue and peripheral blood are mainly inefficient at mediating infection of macrophages. In contrast, highly macrophage-tropic (mac-tropic) R5 viruses predominate in brain tissue and can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid but are infrequent in immune tissue or blood even in late disease. These mac-tropic R5 variants carry envelope glycoproteins (Envs) adapted to exploit low levels of CD4 on macrophages to induce infection. However, it is unclear whether this adaptation is conferred by an increased affinity of the Env trimer for CD4 or is mediated by postbinding structural rearrangements in the trimer that enhance the exposure of the coreceptor binding site and facilitate events leading to fusion and virus entry. In this study, we investigated CD4 binding to mac-tropic and non-mac-tropic Env trimers and showed that CD4-IgG binds efficiently to mac-tropic R5 Env trimers, while binding to non-mac-tropic trimers was undetectable. Our data indicated that the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) is highly occluded on Env trimers of non-mac-tropic R5 viruses. Such viruses may therefore infect T cells via viral synapses where Env and CD4 become highly concentrated. This environment will enable high-avidity interactions that overcome extremely low Env-CD4 affinities.IMPORTANCE HIV R5 variants bind to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on T cells and macrophages to initiate infection. Transmitted HIV variants infect T cells but not macrophages, and these viral strains persist in immune tissue even in late disease. Here we show that the binding site for CD4 present on HIV's envelope protein is occluded on viruses replicating in immune tissue. This occlusion likely prevents antibody binding to this site and neutralization of the virus, but it makes it difficult for virus-CD4 interactions to occur. Such viruses probably pass from T cell to T cell via cell contacts where CD4 is highly concentrated and allows infection via inefficient envelope-CD4 binding. Our data are highly relevant for vaccines that aim to induce antibodies targeting the CD4 binding site on the envelope protein.