The effect of GTP on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-stimulated Ca2+ efflux from a rat liver microsomal fraction. Is a GTP-dependent protein phosphorylation involved?
ABSTRACT: GTP, when added to a rat liver microsomal fraction that had previously been allowed to accumulate Ca2+, causes a slow release of Ca2+, which is greatly enhanced by addition of inositol trisphosphate (IP3). The Ca2+ release caused by IP3 under these conditions is very much greater than that observed in the absence of GTP. The effect of GTP is dependent on the presence of polyethylene glycol in the incubation medium and is not due to inhibition of the Ca2+-accumulation system. The response to GTP is time-dependent, particularly at low (4 microM) GTP concentrations, and cannot be mimicked by ATP, ITP, CTP, UTP and GDP. Studies with [gamma-32P]GTP show that, during incubation with microsomal fractions, the terminal phosphate of GTP is transferred to two protein species, of Mr 38 000 and 17 000. These protein phosphorylations are still present when an excess of unlabelled ATP is included in the incubation mixture, but appear to be unaffected by the presence or absence of IP3 and polyethylene glycol. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that a protein, phosphorylated by GTP, has to bind to the microsomal membranes before IP3 can stimulate Ca2+ release, and that, in vitro, the binding of this protein is favoured by the presence of polyethylene glycol.
Project description:1. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), if added before GTP, blocks both Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP and the effect of GTP on enhancement of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-promoted Ca2+ release from preloaded microsomal vesicles. If, however, GTP[S] is added after GTP, it does not reverse the Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP, nor does it inhibit IP3-promoted Ca2+ release. 2. The effect of GTP in enhancing IP3-promoted Ca2+ release is maintained after washing the microsomal vesicles free of added GTP. After this treatment, enhancement of IP3-promoted Ca2+ efflux can be observed in the absence of poly(ethylene glycol). 3. Electron microscopy shows that during GTP treatment of microsomal vesicles there is rapid production of very large vesicular structures, apparently produced by fusion of smaller vesicles. 4. Light-scattering changes are detectable during the fusion process. 5. Both Ca2+ efflux promoted by GTP and the enhancement of IP3-promoted Ca2+ release seen in the presence of GTP can probably be attributed to GTP-dependent vesicle fusion.
Project description:Guanine nucleotides have been reported to stimulate reticular Ca2+ release. By using the structure-linked latency of microsomal mannose-6-phosphate phosphatase as an index of microsomal permeability [Arion, Ballas, Lange & Wallin (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 4901-4907], the effects of GTP on Ca2+ release and membrane permeability were compared in liver microsomes. In a stripped rough-microsome preparation, GTP caused a dose-dependent increase in mannose 6-phosphate permeability. Half-maximal and maximal effects were observed at 3 microM- and 10 microM-GTP respectively. The time course of the change in membrane permeability coincided with the time course of GTP-dependent Ca2+ release. This increase in microsomal permeability displayed positive to-operativity with respect to GTP (Hill coefficient = 1.8). By analogy to the GTP-dependent Ca2+ release process, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]-triphosphate inhibited the ability of GTP to alter microsomal permeability, but were without effect when added alone. In the presence of 50 microM-GTP, complete inhibition of the GTP-dependent increase in microsomal permeability was achieved with 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, whereas a 25% inhibition was observed with 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. In contrast with previous observations in crude microsomal preparations, GTP-dependent Ca2+ release in the stripped rough-microsome preparation did not require the addition of poly(ethylene glycol), although the latter did stimulate the rate of Ca2+ release. The ability of GTP to alter microsomal permeability was blocked by prior treatment with the thiol reagent p-hydroxymercuribenzoate; complete inhibition was observed after a 10 min exposure to 50 microM. Inhibition was reversed by subsequent treatment with dithiothreitol. The marked similarities between the two GTP-sensitive processes indicate that they may function via the same mechanism.
Project description:The effect of the guanine nucleotide GTP on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum of digitonin-permeabilized islets was investigated. maximal and half-maximal Ca2+ release were observed at 5 microM- and 2.5 microM-GTP respectively. GTP caused a rapid release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, which was complete within 1 min. GTP-induced Ca2+ release was structurally specific and required the hydrolysis of GTP. The combination of maximal concentrations of GTP (10 microM) and myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) (10 microM) resulted in an additive effect on Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. GDP (100 microM), which inhibits GTP-induced Ca2+ release, did not affect IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Furthermore, GTP-induced Ca2+ release was not independent on submicromolar free Ca2+ concentrations, unlike IP3-induced Ca2+ release. These observations suggest that mechanistically GTP-induced Ca2+ release is different from IP3-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:1. GTP-promoted fusion between microsomal vesicles was studied by using fluorescence-resonance-energy transfer between the fluorescent membrane probes octadecanoyl-aminofluorescein and octadecyl-rhodamine. 2. The fluorescence increase after GTP addition does not require the presence of ATP, is unaffected by changes in free [Ca2+] in the range 10 microM-1 nM, but requires Mg2+, although higher Mg2+ concentrations are inhibitory. 3. In terms of requirements for poly(ethylene glycol), dependence on GTP concentration and inhibition by high Mg2+ concentrations, there is excellent correlation between rate of increase in fluorescence and rate of GTP-promoted Ca2+ efflux measured under Ca2+ transport conditions. 4. The observations support our previous conclusions that GTP-induced membrane fusion plays a major role in causing GTP-promoted Ca2+ efflux from microsomal vesicles.
Project description:Electrically permeabilized rat pancreatic acini were used to evaluate the contributions of GTP and Ins(1,4,5) P3 to hormone-stimulated Ca2+ uptake and release from intracellular pools. Treatment of permeabilized acini with Ca2+-mobilizing hormones, GTP or GTP[S] resulted in stimulation of an ATP-dependent, VO4(2-)-sensitive Ca2+ uptake into a non-mitochondrial intracellular pool. GTP and GTP[S] also augmented the hormone-mediated stimulation of Ca2+ uptake. Including oxalate in the uptake medium increased Ca2+ uptake into this pool but did not modify the stimulation of Ca2+ uptake induced by hormones or GTP. Ins(1,4,5)P3 released all the extra Ca2+ accumulated as a result of hormone, GTP or GTP[S] stimulation. Hence, these stimuli activated the Ca2+ pump localized in the membrane of the hormone and Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool. Including 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (PGA) [an inhibitor of Ins(1,4,5)P3 hydrolysis] in the incubation medium blunted the GTP and GTP[S]-stimulated Ca2+ uptake. In the presence of PGA, the hormones inhibited Ca2+ accumulation, and GTP and GTP[S] augmented this effect. Accordingly, PGA stabilized the Ins(1,4,5)P3-evoked Ca2+ release from intracellular pools. Only in the presence of PGA was it possible to demonstrate hormonally-evoked Ca2+ release from permeabilized cells. GTP, and more importantly GTP[S], augmented the hormone-evoked Ca2+ release. Hormones and Ins(1,4,5)P3 in the presence or absence of GTP or GTP[S] released Ca2+ from the same intracellular pool. The extent of Ca2+ release caused by the combination of hormones and GTP or GTP[S] was similar to that evoked by Ins(1,4,5)P3 alone. Taken together, these results suggest that GTP or GTP[S] facilitates stimulation of phospholipase C by hormones. Such stimulation results in stimulation of protein kinase C and increased levels of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and is sufficient to explain the effects of GTP and GTP[S] on Ca2+ uptake and release from pancreatic acinar cells.
Project description:The effects of GTP, with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the release and uptake of Ca2+ were examined by using saponin-treated macrophages and sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from skeletal muscles. The application of GTP in concentrations in the range 0.1-10 microM induced a gradual, small but sustained release of Ca2+ from the saponin-treated macrophages. The addition of PEG to GTP markedly enhanced the GTP-mediated Ca2+ release. GTP at the same concentration ranges used for Ca2+ release decreased the amount of Ca2+ uptake, at a steady state, but stimulated the rate of Ca2+ accumulation in the presence of oxalate, the Ca2+-precipitating anion. The addition of PEG abolished the GTP-evoked stimulation of Ca2+ accumulation in the presence of oxalate. The stimulating effect on the rate of Ca2+ accumulation by GTP and its elimination by PEG were not due to changes in the permeability of oxalate by either GTP or PEG, or both. The Ca2+-releasing effect of GTP without PEG was enhanced by eliminating the uptake activity by decreasing the content of ATP. These results indicate that GTP has an inherent activity to release Ca2+ from non-mitochondrial intracellular stores of saponin-treated macrophages, and PEG enhances the GTP-mediated Ca2+ release, partly owing to its eliminating effect on GTP-stimulated Ca2+ uptake activity. These effects of GTP observed with saponin-permeabilized macrophages were not apparent in the isolated skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:Rabbit platelets were labelled with [3H]inositol and a membrane fraction was isolated in the presence of ATP, MgCl2 and EGTA. Incubation of samples for 10 min with 0.1 microM-Ca2+free released [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to about 2.0% of the membrane [3H]phosphoinositides. Addition of 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) caused an additional formation of [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to 6.6% of the [3H]phosphoinositides. A half-maximal effect was observed with 0.4 microM-GTP[S]. The [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated consisted of 10% [3H]inositol monophosphate, 88% [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]IP2) and 2% [3H]inositol trisphosphate ([3H]IP3). Omission of ATP and MgCl2 led to depletion of membrane [3H]polyphosphoinositides and marked decreases in the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates. Thrombin (2 units/ml) or GTP (4-100 microM) alone weakly stimulated [3H]IP2 formation, but together they acted synergistically to exert an effect comparable with that of 10 microM-GTP[S]. The action of thrombin was also potentiated by 0.1 microM-GTP[S]. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate not only inhibited the effects of GTP[S], GTP and GTP with thrombin, but also blocked the action of thrombin alone, suggesting that this depended on residual GTP. Incubation with either GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP decreased membrane [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate ([H]PIP) and prevented an increase in [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ([3H]PIP2) observed in controls. Addition of unlabelled IP3 to trap [3H]IP3 before it was degraded to [3H]IP2 showed that only about 20% of the additional [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated with GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP were derived from the action of phospholipase C on [3H]PIP2. The results provide further evidence that guanine-nucleotide-binding protein mediates signal transduction between the thrombin receptor and phospholipase C, and suggest that PIP may be a major substrate of this enzyme in the platelet.
Project description:1. Limited proteolytic digestion of rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) with trypsin (5 micrograms/ml), proteinase K (1.0 microgram/ml) and Pronase (20 micrograms/ml final concns.) resulted in abolition of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 2. Vesicle fusion could be partially restored to microsomes which had undergone limited tryptic digestion, by the addition of untreated microsomal vesicles. 3. GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux from rat liver microsomes was also observed to be inhibited by limited proteolysis with trypsin and proteinase K. 4. Limited proteolysis of rat liver microsomes had no effect on subsequent GTP-dependent phosphorylation of polypeptides of Mr 17,000 and 38,000, and thus it is unlikely that the phosphorylation of these proteins is involved in GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and GTP-dependent vesicle fusion. 5. GTP binding by Gn proteins [proteins which bind GTP after transfer to nitrocellulose, as defined by Bhullar & Haslam (1986) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620] was inhibited by pre-treatment of microsomes with trypsin, proteinase K and Pronase at concentrations similar to those which abolished GTP-dependent Ca2+ efflux and vesicle fusion. 6. We suggest that one or more of the Gn proteins may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion and Ca2+ efflux in rat liver microsomes and that limited proteolytic digestion may be a useful tool in further investigation of these processes.
Project description:The present study investigates the pathway of metabolism of inositol phospholipids in human platelets exposed to collagen. Platelet activation by collagen was preceded by a lag phase usually lasting 10-20 s. Formation of [3H]inositol trisphosphate (IP3) was not observed during this period, but occurred in parallel with the onset of aggregation, release of ATP and phosphorylation of a 20 000 Da and a 40 000 Da protein. Indomethacin treatment partially inhibited all of these responses. Aggregation and ATP release, but not IP3 formation, were further inhibited in indomethacin-treated platelets loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, quin2. Under these conditions there was no detectable mobilization of Ca2+. These results demonstrate that activation of platelets by collagen is associated with rapid hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides by phospholipase C, thereby producing IP3. This observation is discussed in relation to IP3 as a possible Ca2+-mobilizing agent.
Project description:The roles of a monomeric GTP-binding regulatory protein in the activation of store-activated plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and in the release of Ca2+ from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) in rat liver parenchymal cells were investigated with the use of freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes. A low concentration (approx. 130 microM intracellular) of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) activated Ca2+ inflow in intact hepatocytes in the absence of an agonist, whereas a high concentration (approx. 530 microM intracellular) of GTP-S- or guanosine 5'-[betagamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) inhibited the Ca2+ inflow induced by inhibitors of the activity of the endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) and by vasopressin. GTP (530 microM) prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ inflow by GTP-S- and p[NH]ppG. Brefeldin A and the peptide human Arf-1-(2-17), which inhibit many functions of ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins, inhibited the Ca2+ inflow induced by SERCA inhibitors and vasopressin, and altered the profile of Ca2+ release from the SER. These effects were observed at concentrations of Brefeldin A and Arf-1-(2-17) comparable with those that inhibit the functions of Arf proteins in other systems. Succinylated Arf-1-(2-17) had a negligible effect on Ca2+ inflow. GTP[S] and Arf-1-(2-17) completely inhibited the synergistic action of GTP and Ins(1,4,5)P3 in releasing 45Ca2+ from rat liver microsomes loaded with 45Ca2+. AlF4(-) (under conditions expected to activate trimeric G-proteins) and succinylated Arf-1-(2-17) had no effect on GTP/Ins(1,4,5))3-induced 45Ca2+ release, and a mastoparan analogue caused partial inhibition. Arf-1-(2-17) did not inhibit 45Ca2+ release induced by either thapsigargin or ionomycin. It is concluded that a low-molecular-mass G-protein, most probably a member of the Arf protein family, is required for store-activated Ca2+ inflow in rat hepatocytes. The idea that the role of this G-protein is to maintain a region of the SER in the correct intracellular location is discussed briefly.