Effect of parathyroid hormone on phospholipid metabolism in osteoblast-like rat osteogenic sarcoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Previous results have shown that 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] enhances the synthesis of phosphatidylserine (PS) and suppresses the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in osteoblast-like rat osteogenic sarcoma UMR 106 cells [Matsumoto, Kawanobe, Morita & Ogata (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13704-13709]. In the present study, the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on phospholipid metabolism is examined by using these cells. Treatment of UMR 106 cells with human PTH-(1-34)-peptide suppresses the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting the synthesis of PS. The maximal effect on PE synthesis is obtained with 2.4 nM-human PTH-(1-34)-peptide when the cells are treated for 48 h or longer. In addition, when human PTH-(1-34)-peptide is added together with the maximal dose of 1,25(OH)2D3, there is a further decline in PE synthesis, whereas the stimulation of PS synthesis by 1,25(OH)2D3 is not altered. Because methylation of PE is suggested to affect hormone receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling, the observed change in PE metabolism by PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 may be, at least in part, involved in the development of desensitization phenomenon to PTH in these cells.
Project description:The endocrine feedback loop between vitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in skeletal development. PTH-related protein (PTHrP) shares homology and its receptor (PTHR1) with PTH. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a functional paracrine feedback loop between 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTHrP in the growth plate, in parallel with the endocrine feedback loop between 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH. This was investigated in ATDC5 cells treated with 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTHrP, Col2-pd2EGFP transgenic mice, and primary Col2-pd2EGFP growth plate chondrocytes isolated by FACS, using RT-qPCR, Western blot, PTHrP ELISA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, silencing of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR), immunofluorescent staining, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis of the growth plate. The ChIP assay confirmed functional binding of the VDR to the PTHrP promoter, but not to the PTHR1 promoter. Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased PTHrP protein production, an effect which was prevented by silencing of the VDR. Treatment with PTHrP significantly induced VDR production, but did not affect 1?- and 24-hydroxylase expression. Hypertrophic differentiation was inhibited by PTHrP and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate that there is a functional paracrine feedback loop between 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTHrP in the growth plate. 1,25(OH)2D3 decreases PTHrP production, while PTHrP increases chondrocyte sensitivity to 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing VDR production. In light of the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTHrP in modulating chondrocyte differentiation, 1,25(OH)2D3 in addition to PTHrP could potentially be used to prevent undesirable hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation during cartilage repair or regeneration.
Project description:The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis is mediated by hydroxylases of the cytochrome P450 (Cyp) family. Vitamin D is first modified in the liver by the 25-hydroxylases CYP2R1 and CYP27A1 and further activated in the kidney by the 1?-hydroxylase CYP27B1, while the renal 24-hydroxylase CYP24A1 catalyzes the first step of its inactivation. While the kidney is the main organ responsible for circulating levels of active 1,25(OH)2D3, other organs also express some of these enzymes. Their regulation, however, has been studied less.Here we investigated the effect of several Pi-regulating factors including dietary Pi, PTH and FGF23 on the expression of the vitamin D hydroxylases and the vitamin D receptor VDR in renal and extrarenal tissues of mice. We found that with the exception of Cyp24a1, all the other analyzed mRNAs show a wide tissue distribution. High dietary Pi mainly upregulated the hepatic expression of Cyp27a1 and Cyp2r1 without changing plasma 1,25(OH)2D3. FGF23 failed to regulate the expression of any of the studied hydroxylases at the used dosage and treatment length. As expected, renal mRNA expression of Cyp27b1 was reduced and Cyp24a1 was increased in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. However, the 25-hydroxylases were rather unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment.The analyzed vitamin D hydroxylases are regulated in a tissue and treatment-specific manner.
Project description:The human 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-OHase) gene has been cloned. It contained nine exons and eight introns spanning approximately 6.5 kb and a 1.4-kb 5'-flanking region. The 5'-flanking region contains consensus or highly conserved sequences for TATA, Pu, and CCAAT boxes, four cAMP response elements, two activator protein-1 (AP-1) response elements, two AP-2 response elements, three specific protein-1 (Sp1) response elements, and four NF-kappaB binding sites, but no vitamin D response element. By using luciferase reporter gene constructs of truncated forms of the 1alpha-OHase promoter transfected into a modified pig kidney cell line, AOK-B50, we identified regulatory regions of the 1.4-kb 1alpha-OHase promoter for parathyroid hormone 1-34 [PTH(1-34)], forskolin, and 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. The 1.4-kb 1alpha-OHase promoter (AN1) modestly (1.7-fold) induced luciferase activity, whereas 1,100- (AN2), 827- (AN3), 672- (AN4), 463-(AN5), and 363-bp (AN6)-truncated promoters greatly stimulated luciferase activity by 494-fold, 18.4-fold, 55.3-fold, 643-fold, and 56.4-fold, respectively. PTH(1-34) and forskolin stimulated the activity of all constructs to varying degrees with significantly greater responsiveness for both compounds on AN2 and AN5. 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed PTH(1-34)-induced activity on AN2 and AN5 constructs by 58% and 52%, respectively, but had no effect on the other constructs. These studies characterize the regulatory regions of the human 1alpha-OHase gene and provide insight into the physiologic basis for regulation of the expression of this gene by PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3.
Project description:Hypocalcemia is a frequent abnormality that has been associated with disease severity and outcome in hospitalized foals. However, the pathogenesis of equine neonatal hypocalcemia is poorly understood. Hypovitaminosis D in critically ill people has been linked to hypocalcemia and mortality; however, information on vitamin D metabolites and their association with clinical findings and outcome in critically ill foals is lacking. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D) and its association with serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalized newborn foals.One hundred newborn foals ?72 hours old divided into hospitalized (n = 83; 59 septic, 24 sick non-septic [SNS]) and healthy (n = 17) groups were included. Blood samples were collected on admission to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH) 2D3], and PTH concentrations. Data were analyzed by nonparametric methods and univariate logistic regression. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OH)D3 <9.51 ng/mL] was 63% for hospitalized, 64% for septic, and 63% for SNS foals. Serum 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH) 2D3 concentrations were significantly lower in septic and SNS compared to healthy foals (P<0.0001; P = 0.037). Septic foals had significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus and PTH concentrations than healthy and SNS foals (P<0.05). In hospitalized and septic foals, low 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were associated with increased PTH but not with calcium or phosphorus concentrations. Septic foals with 25(OH)D3 <9.51 ng/mL and 1,25(OH) 2D3 <7.09 pmol/L were more likely to die (OR=3.62; 95% CI = 1.1-12.40; OR = 5.41; 95% CI = 1.19-24.52, respectively).Low 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations are associated with disease severity and mortality in hospitalized foals. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to a pro-inflammatory state in equine perinatal diseases. Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia together with decreased 1,25(OH)2D3 but increased PTH concentrations in septic foals indicates that PTH resistance may be associated with the development of these abnormalities.
Project description:Surgical stress reduces concentrations of most proteins in serum and necessitates a rapid adjustment of hormones dependent on protein binding. Activation of vitamin D by renal 1?-hydroxylation is dependent on protein binding because 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed after megalin-mediated reabsorption of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Postoperative alterations in serum concentrations of DBP and albumin may therefore impair 1,25(OH)2D3 production. Our objective was to determine sex-specific changes in serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and sex steroids 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 3 weeks postoperatively. Fourteen women and eleven men aged 45 to 77 years without severe comorbidities undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty participated in this prospective study in a tertiary center for arthroplasty (trial ID: NCT02336932). The main outcome measures were total and free serum concentrations of 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, DBP, albumin, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), calcium, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum albumin and SHBG decreased postoperatively (?albumin48h -18% [-22%; -14%]). Unexpectedly, concentrations of DBP and 25OHD remained unaltered, but 1,25(OH)2D3 declined postoperatively. 1,25(OH)2D3 was 3 weeks after surgery -24% (-40%; -8%) lower than preoperative levels, whereas 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D remained unchanged in postmenopausal women. The calculated conversion rate of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)2D3 was strongly associated with serum 25-OHD and PTH preoperatively, whereas serum calcium was most predictive postoperatively. In conclusion, surgery had no effect on serum concentrations of DBP, 25OHD, and PTH, whereas production of 1,25(OH)2D3 was markedly reduced. Further studies are needed to determine duration and putative outcome effects of this postoperative 1,25(OH)2D3 deficit in women, which in part may be due to discordance in CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 activity.
Project description:Vitamin D3 is terminally bioactivated in the kidney to 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) via cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1), whose gene is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3 Our recent genomic studies in the mouse have revealed a complex kidney-specific enhancer module within the introns of adjacent methyltransferase-like 1 (Mettl1) and Mettl21b that mediate basal and PTH-induced expression of Cyp27b1 and FGF23- and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated repression. Gross deletion of these segments in mice has severe effects on Cyp27b1 regulation and skeletal phenotype but does not affect Cyp27b1 expression in nonrenal target cells (NRTCs). Here, we report a bimodal activity in the Mettl1 intronic enhancer with components responsible for PTH-mediated Cyp27b1 induction and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated repression and additional activities, including FGF23 repression, within the Mettl21b enhancers. Deletion of both submodules eliminated basal Cyp27b1 expression and regulation in the kidney, leading to systemic and skeletal phenotypes similar to those of Cyp27b1-null mice. However, basal expression and lipopolysaccharide-induced regulation of Cyp27b1 in NRTCs was unperturbed. Importantly, dietary normalization of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and FGF23 rescued the skeletal phenotype of this mutant mouse, creating an ideal in vivo model to study nonrenal 1,25(OH)2D3 production in health and disease. Finally, we confirmed a conserved chromatin landscape in human kidney that is similar to that in mouse. These findings define a finely balanced homeostatic mechanism involving PTH and FGF23 together with protection from 1,25(OH)2D3 toxicity that is responsible for both adaptive vitamin D metabolism and mineral regulation.
Project description:Although localized to the mineralized matrix of bone, osteocytes are able to respond to systemic factors such as the calciotropic hormones 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH. In the present studies, we examined the transcriptomic response to PTH in an osteocyte cell model and found that this hormone regulated an extensive panel of genes. Surprisingly, PTH uniquely modulated two cohorts of genes, one that was expressed and associated with the osteoblast to osteocyte transition and the other a cohort that was expressed only in the mature osteocyte. Interestingly, PTH's effects were largely to oppose the expression of differentiation-related genes in the former cohort, while potentiating the expression of osteocyte-specific genes in the latter cohort. A comparison of the transcriptional effects of PTH with those obtained previously with 1,25(OH)2D3 revealed a subset of genes that was strongly overlapping. While 1,25(OH)2D3 potentiated the expression of osteocyte-specific genes similar to that seen with PTH, the overlap between the two hormones was more limited. Additional experiments identified the PKA-activated phospho-CREB (pCREB) cistrome, revealing that while many of the differentiation-related PTH regulated genes were apparent targets of a PKA-mediated signaling pathway, a reduction in pCREB binding at sites associated with osteocyte-specific PTH targets appeared to involve alternative PTH activation pathways. That pCREB binding activities positioned near important hormone-regulated gene cohorts were localized to control regions of genes was reinforced by the presence of epigenetic enhancer signatures exemplified by unique modifications at histones H3 and H4. These studies suggest that both PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 may play important and perhaps cooperative roles in limiting osteocyte differentiation from its precursors while simultaneously exerting distinct roles in regulating mature osteocyte function. Our results provide new insight into transcription factor-associated mechanisms through which PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate a plethora of genes important to the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) and CYP24A1 function to maintain physiological levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney. Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 expression levels are transcriptionally regulated in a highly reciprocal manner by parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and 1,25(OH)2D3 In contrast, Cyp24a1 regulation in nonrenal target cells (NRTCs) is limited to induction by 1,25(OH)2D3 Herein, we used ChIP-Seq analyses of mouse tissues to identify regulatory regions within the Cyp24a1 gene locus. We found an extended region downstream of Cyp24a1 containing a cluster of sites, termed C24-DS1, binding PTH-sensitive cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and a cluster termed C24-DS2 binding the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR-occupied sites were present in both the kidney and NRTCs, but pCREB sites were occupied only in the kidney. We deleted each segment in the mouse and observed that although the overt phenotypes of both cluster deletions were unremarkable, RNA analysis in the C24-DS1-deleted strain revealed a loss of basal renal Cyp24a1 expression, total resistance to FGF23 and PTH regulation, and secondary suppression of renal Cyp27b1; 1,25(OH)2D3 induction remained unaffected in all tissues. In contrast, loss of the VDR cluster in the C24-DS2-deleted strain did not affect 1,25(OH)2D3 induction of renal Cyp24a1 expression yet reduced but did not eliminate Cyp24a1 responses in NRTCs. We conclude that a chromatin-based mechanism differentially regulates Cyp24a1 in the kidney and NRTCs and is essential for the specific functions of Cyp24a1 in these two tissue types.
Project description:ChIP-seq was performed in triplicate on isolated tissues (kidney, thyroparathyroid (TPTG), peripheral blood monocytes) from hormone treated (vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23, or PTH) mice from wildtype (WT), M1-IKO, M21-IKO, VDR-KO, or Cyp27b1-KO mice as indicated in the sample listings. The pBMC samples were isolated from untreated mice and subsequently treated ex vivo in cell culture with the indicated concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 or forskolin. Studies are published under PMID 28808057 and PMID 31053643. Overall design: ChIP-seq was performed in triplicate on isolated tissues (kidney, thyroparathyroid (TPTG), peripheral blood monocytes) from hormone treated (vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D3, FGF23, or PTH) mice from wildtype (WT), M1-IKO, M21-IKO, VDR-KO, or Cyp27b1-KO mice as indicated in the sample listings. The pBMC samples were isolated from untreated mice and subsequently treated ex vivo in cell culture with the indicated concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 or forskolin. Studies are published under PMID 28808057 and PMID 31053643.
Project description:Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is a TNF-like factor that is both produced by osteoblasts, mesenchymal cells, and activated T cells and required for osteoclast maturation and survival. The gene is up-regulated by the two primary calcemic hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and PTH. Previous studies have indicated that five enhancer regions located significantly upstream of the mouse Rankl transcriptional start site mediate up-regulation by 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH. The most distal of these, termed mRLD5, is highly conserved in the human gene at -96 kb where it was also shown to be functionally active. Four additional mouse Rankl upstream enhancers are also highly conserved in the human gene at -20, -25, -75, and -87 kb. In the present studies, we characterized the activity of these regions, explored their capacity to mediate the actions of 1,25(OH)2D3, and identified the vitamin D response elements contained within the two most proximal segments. Interestingly, whereas the most distal of the five enhancers is the dominant mediator of 1,25(OH)2D3 activity in the mouse Rankl gene, that role in the human gene is manifested by the most proximal element at -20 kb. Importantly, activity at this region in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 was associated with a significant increase in histone acetylation as well as the enhanced recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Both likely reflect the primary role of this enhancer in human RANKL gene expression. Our studies confirm the complex nature of RANKL regulation and indicate that although the five enhancers are evolutionarily conserved across several species, their relative contributions to RANKL expression in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 may be different.