Purification of the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus uberis and an investigation of its existence in different forms.
ABSTRACT: The fructose 1,6-bisphosphate [Fru(1,6)P2]-dependent lactate dehydrogenase in cells of Streptococcus uberis N.C.D.O. 2039 was purified by a procedure that included chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Blue Sepharose CL-6B in phosphate buffers. The enzyme appeared to interact with Blue Sepharose through NADH-binding sites. The homogeneous enzyme had catalytic properties that were generally similar to those of other Fru(1,6)P2-dependent lactate dehydrogenases, and it had no catalytic activity in the absence of Fru(1,6)P2. Its existence in different forms, depending on conditions, was investigated by ultracentrifugation, analytical gel filtration and activity measurements. It consisted of subunits with Mr 35,900 +/- 500 and, in the presence of adequate concentrations of Fru(1,6)P2, phosphate or NADH, it existed as a tetramer, whereas when these ligands were in lower concentrations or absent, the subunits were in a concentration-dependent association-dissociation equilibrium. Dissociation occurred slowly and inactivated the enzyme, and although added ligands reversed the dissociation, the lost activity was at best only partly restored. An exception occurred when dissociation was caused by a decrease in temperature, in which case the lost activity was fully restored at the original temperature. The tetramer also lost activity at certain ligand concentrations without dissociating. The results together indicated the presence on the enzyme of two classes of binding site for both Fru(1,6)P2 and NADH, and the likelihood that phosphate bound at the same sites as Fru(1,6)P2. Two different ligands together were much more effective at preventing inactivation and dissociation than was expected from their effectiveness when present separately. It was concluded that tetrameric forms of the enzyme rather than the enzyme in association-dissociation equilibrium were involved in the regulation of its activity in vivo.
Project description:D-Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168) [Fru(1,6)Pase] was isolated from human muscle in an electrophoretically homogeneous form, free of aldolase contamination. The enzyme is inhibited by the substrate [fructose (1,6)-bisphosphate]. Km is 0.77 microM; Kis is 90 microM. The fructose-2,6-bisphosphate [Fru(2,6)P2], a regulator of gluconeogenesis, inhibits human muscle Fru(1,6)Pase with Ki = 0.13 microM. To determine Km, Kis and Ki the integrated method was used. AMP is an allosteric inhibitor of Fru(1,6)Pase. As with other mammalian isoenzymes, the human muscle enzyme is more strongly inhibited by AMP than is the liver isoenzyme [Dzugaj and Kochman (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 614, 407-412]. Both of the inhibitors [AMP and Fru(2,6)P2] act synergistically on human muscle Fru(1,6)Pase. Ki for Fru(2,6)P2 determined in the presence of 0.4 microM AMP was 0.028 microM. The human muscle enzyme, like other mammalian Fru(1,6)Pases, requires Mg2+ for its activity. The Ka for magnesium was 232 microM, and h (Hill coefficient) = 2.0.
Project description:Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 22.214.171.124) requires two divalent metal ions to hydrolyze alpha-D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Although not required for catalysis, monovalent cations modify the enzyme activity; K+ and Tl+ ions are activators, whereas Li+ ions are inhibitors. Their mechanisms of action are still unknown. We report here crystallographic structures of pig kidney Fru-1,6-Pase complexed with K+, Tl+, or both Tl+ and Li+. In the T form Fru-1,6-Pase complexed with the substrate analogue 2,5-anhydro-D-glucitol 1,6-bisphosphate (AhG-1,6-P2) and Tl+ or K+ ions, three Tl+ or K+ binding sites are found. Site 1 is defined by Glu-97, Asp-118, Asp-121, Glu-280, and a 1-phosphate oxygen of AhG-1,6-P2; site 2 is defined by Glu-97, Glu-98, Asp-118, and Leu-120. Finally, site 3 is defined by Arg-276, Glu-280, and the 1-phosphate group of AhG-1,6-P2. The Tl+ or K+ ions at sites 1 and 2 are very close to the positions previously identified for the divalent metal ions. Site 3 is specific to K+ or Tl+. In the divalent metal ion complexes, site 3 is occupied by the guanidinium group of Arg-276. These observations suggest that Tl+ or K+ ions can substitute for Arg-276 in the active site and polarize the 1-phosphate group, thus facilitating nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus center. In the T form complexed with both Tl+ and Li+ ions, Li+ replaces Tl+ at metal site 1. Inhibition by lithium very likely occurs as it binds to this site, thus retarding turnover or phosphate release. The present study provides a structural basis for a similar mechanism of inhibition for inositol monophosphatase, one of the potential targets of lithium ions in the treatment of manic depression.
Project description:The three-dimensional structure of the complex between fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) and the physiological inhibitor beta-D-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), an analogue of the substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), has been refined at 2.6-A resolution to a residual error (R) factor of 0.171. The rms deviations are 0.012 A and 2.88 degrees from ideal geometries of bond lengths and angles, respectively. The Fru-2,6-P2 occupies the active sites of both polypeptides C1 and C2 in the crystallographic asymmetric unit in the space group P3(2)21. The furanose and 6-phosphate of Fru-2,6-P2 are located at the fructose 6-phosphate site established earlier, and the 2-phosphate binds to the OH of Ser-124, the NH3+ of Lys-274, and the backbone NH of Gly-122 and Ser-123. Backbone displacements of 1 A occur for residues from Asp-121 to Asn-125. Model building of substrate alpha-D-Fru-1,6-P2 based on the binding structure of Fru-2,6-P2 in the active site shows interactions of the 1-phosphate with the backbone NH of Ser-123 and Ser-124. In the AMP sites, density peaks attributed to Fru-2,6-P2 are seen in C1 (and C4) but not in C2 (and C3). This minor binding of Fru-2,6-P2 to AMP sites partially explains the synergistic interaction between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2 and the protection of the AMP site from acetylation in the presence of Fru-2,6-P2. In the synergistic interaction between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2, inhibition of catalytic metal binding by the presence of Fru-2,6-P2 at the active site, and propagation of structural changes over some 28 A along beta-strand B3 from residues 121 to 125 in the active site to Lys-112 and Tyr-113 in the AMP site, as well as movement of helices across the interdimeric interfaces, may affect AMP binding and the subsequent R-to-T transition. In addition, occupancy of Fru-2,6-P2 at the AMP sites of C1 and C4 may favor binding of AMP to the remaining unoccupied AMP sites and thus promote the accompanying quaternary conformational changes.
Project description:The crystal structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; EC 188.8.131.52) complexed with Zn2+ and two allosteric regulators, AMP and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) has been determined at 2.0-A resolution. In the refined model, the crystallographic R factor is 0.189 with rms deviations of 0.014 A and 2.8 degrees from ideal geometries for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. A 15 degrees rotation is observed between the upper dimer C1C2 and the lower dimer C3C4 relative to the R-form structure (fructose 6-phosphate complex), consistent with that expected from a T-form structure. The major difference between the structure of the previously determined Fru-2,6-P2 complex (R form) and that of the current quaternary T-form complex lies in the active site domain. A zinc binding site distinct from the three binding sites established earlier was identified within each monomer. Helix H4 (residues 123-127) was found to be better defined than in previously studied ligated Fru-1,6-Pase structures. Interactions between monomers in the active site domain were found involving H4 residues from one monomer and residues Tyr-258 and Arg-243 from the adjacent monomer. Cooperativity between AMP and Fru-2,6-P2 in signal transmission probably involves the following features: an AMP site, the adjacent B3 strand (residues 113-118), the metal site, the immediate active site, the short helix H4 (residues 123-127), and Tyr-258 and Arg-243 from the adjacent monomer within the upper (or lower) dimer. The closest distance between the immediate active site and that on the adjacent monomer is only 5 A. Thus, the involvement of H4 in signal transmission adds another important pathway to the scheme of the allosteric mechanism of Fru-1,6-Pase.
Project description:In order to examine the role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) in non-esterified-fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis, Fru-2,6-P2 levels were measured in cultured rat hepatocytes under conditions mimicking the fasted state. After addition of either 1.5 mM-palmitate or 10 nM-glucagon, [U-14C]lactate incorporation into glucose increased 2-fold, but only glucagon suppressed Fru-2,6-P2. Prevention of palmitate oxidation with a carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I inhibitor (2-bromopalmitate) diminished glucose production and Fru-2,6-P2 levels. Addition of exogenous glucose to the media increased Fru-2,6-P2 in a dose-related manner, which was further augmented by addition of palmitate. When Fru-2,6-P2 levels were examined in cells cultured under conditions mimicking the fed state (significantly higher basal Fru-2,6-P2 levels and lower glucose production), palmitate oxidation was associated with a significant fall in Fru-2,6-P2. In conclusion, the present studies have demonstrated a dissociation between fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis and changes in Fru-2,6-P2 in cultured rat hepatocytes. Further experiments suggest that the accumulation of intracellular hexose 6-phosphate as a result of fatty-acid-stimulated gluconeogenesis masks a putative inhibitory effect of fatty acids on Fru-2,6-P2 concentrations.
Project description:The effect of treatment of rats with bacterial endotoxin on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) metabolism was investigated in isolated liver cells prepared from 18 h-starved animals. The results obtained support the hypothesis that a stimulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1) activity and an inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) may be one mechanism underlying the inhibition of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate by endotoxin. We suggest that the stimulation of PFK-1 and inhibition of Fru-1,6-P2ase activity is the result of a 2-3-fold increase in Fru-2,6-P2. The latter is not due to changes in the total activity or phosphorylation state of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, but appears to be the result of a decrease in the cytosolic concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), an inhibitor of PFK-2 activity. The effect of endotoxin is resistant to the presence of glucagon, which has comparable effects in cells prepared from both control and endotoxin-treated animals. The mechanism by which endotoxin treatment of the rat decreases PEP and gluconeogenesis remains to be established. However, it does not involve alterations in either the total activity or the phosphorylation state of pyruvate kinase, nor does it involve increased flux through this enzyme in the intact cell, which is in fact decreased in this model of septic shock. It is suggested that the decreased flux may result from a lower rate of formation of PEP, suggesting that the prime lesion in sepsis is an inhibition of one or more of the steps leading to PEP formation.
Project description:Kinetic properties of phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) and regulation of glycolysis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and insulin were investigated in highly glycolytic HT29 colon cancer cells. PFK2 was found to be inhibited by citrate and, to a lesser extent, by phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, but to be insensitive to inhibition by sn-glycerol phosphate. From these kinetic data, PFK2 from HT29 cells appears different from the liver form, but resembles somewhat the heart isoenzyme. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels, glucose consumption and lactate production are increased in a dose-dependent manner in HT29 cells treated with PMA or insulin. The increase in Fru-2,6-P2 can be related to an increase in the Vmax. of PFK2, persisting after the enzyme has been precipitated with poly(ethylene glycol), without change in the Km for fructose 6-phosphate. The most striking effects of PMA and insulin on Fru-2,6-P2 production are observed after long-term treatment (24 h) and are abolished by actinomycin, cycloheximide and puromycin, suggesting that protein synthesis is involved. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and PMA on glucose consumption, lactate production, Fru-2,6-P2 levels and PFK2 activity are additive, and the effect of insulin on Fru-2,6-P2 production is not altered by pre-treatment of the cells with the phorbol ester. This suggests that these effects are exerted by separate mechanisms.
Project description:31P-NMR spectroscopy was used to identify reaction intermediates during catalytic turn-over of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Fru-2,6-P2ase) of the bifunctional enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. When fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) was added to the enzyme, the 31P-NMR spectrum showed three resonances in addition to those of free substrate: the phosphohistidine (His-P) intermediate, the C-6 phosphoryl group of fructose-6-phosphate bound to the phosphoenzyme, and phosphate generated by the hydrolysis of substrate. Direct analysis of the alkali-denatured phospho-enzyme intermediate by 1H-31P heteronuclear multiple quantum-filtered coherence spectroscopy confirmed the formation of 3-N-phosphohistidine. Binding of fructose 6-phosphate to the bisphosphatase was detected by a down-field shift and broadening of the C-6 phosphoryl resonance. The down-field shift was greater in the presence of the phosphoenzyme intermediate. Inhibition of Fru-2,6-P2 hydrolysis by fructose 6-phosphate and Fru-2,6-P2 was shown to involve binding of the sugar phosphates to the phosphoenzyme. This study provides new experimental evidence in support of the reaction mechanism of Fru-2,6-P2ase and suggests that the steady-state His-P intermediate exists primarily in the E-P.fructose 6-phosphate complex. These results lay a solid foundation for the use of 31P-NMR magnetization transfer studies to provide an in-depth analysis of the bisphosphatase reaction mechanism.
Project description:In the study of allosteric proteins, understanding which effector-protein interactions contribute to allosteric activation is important both for designing allosteric drugs and for understanding allosteric mechanisms. The antihyperglycemic target, human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK), binds its allosteric activator, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP), such that the 1'-phosphate interacts with side chains of Arg501 and Trp494 and the 6'-phosphate interacts with Thr444, Thr446, Ser449 (i.e., the 444-449 loop), and Ser531. Additionally, backbone atoms from the 527-533 loop interact with a sugar ring hydroxyl and the two effector phosphate moieties. An effector analogue series indicates that only one phosphate on the sugar is required for activation. However, singly phosphorylated sugars, including Fru-1-P and Fru-6-P, bind with a Kix in the range of 0.07-1 mM. The second phosphate of Fru-1,6-BP causes tight effector binding, because this native effector has a Kix of 0.061 ?M. Glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate bind in the 0.07-1 mM range. The contrast with a higher Fru-1,6-BP binding indicates specificity for the fructose sugar conformation. Site-directed random mutagenesis at each residue that contacts bound Fru-1,6-BP showed that a negative charge introduced at position 531 mimics allosteric activation, even in the absence of Fru-1,6-BP. Collectively, analogue and mutagenesis studies are consistent with the 527-533 loop playing a key role in allosteric function. Deletion mutations that shortened the 527-533 loop were expected to prevent formation of hydrogen bonds between backbone atoms on the loop and Fru-1,6-BP. Indeed, Fru-1,6-BP did not activate these loop-shortened mutant proteins. Previous structural comparisons of M1-PYK and M2-PYK indicate that the 527-533 loop makes interactions across a subunit interface when an activator is not present. Mutating the hL-PYK subunit interface interactions among Trp527, Arg528, and Asp499 mimics allosteric activation. Considered with published structures, these results are consistent with (1) the two phosphates of Fru-1,6-BP docking to Arg501/Trp494 and the 444-449 loop, respectively, and (2) the formation of hydrogen bonds among Fru-1,6-BP and backbone atoms of the 527-533 loop pulling this loop away from the subunit interface, which results in breaking of the Trp527-Arg528-Asp499 interactions to elicit an allosteric response.
Project description:Three isogenic strains of Lactococcus lactis with different levels of H(2)O-forming NADH oxidase activity were used to study the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism: the parent strain L. lactis MG1363, a NOX(-) strain harboring a deletion of the gene coding for H(2)O-forming NADH oxidase, and a NOX(+) strain with the NADH oxidase activity enhanced by about 100-fold. A comprehensive description of the metabolic events was obtained by using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance in vivo. The most noticeable results of this study are as follows: (i) under aerobic conditions the level of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate [Fru(1,6)P(2)] was lower than the level under anaerobic conditions, and the rate of Fru(1,6)P(2) depletion was very high; (ii) the levels of 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate were considerably enhanced under aerobic conditions and significantly lower in the NOX(-) strain; and (iii) the glycolytic flux decreased in the presence of saturating levels of oxygen, but it was not altered in response to changes in the NADH oxidase activity. In particular, the observation that the glycolytic flux was not enhanced in the NOX(+) strain indicated that glycolytic flux was not primarily determined by the level of NADH in the cell. The patterns of end products were identical for the NOX(-) and parent strains; in the NOX(+) strain the carbon flux was diverted to the production of alpha-acetolactate-derived compounds, and at a low pH this strain produced diacetyl at concentrations up to 1.6 mM. The data were integrated with the goal of identifying the main regulatory aspects of glucose metabolism in the presence of oxygen.