Identification of aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid sequences mediating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, virus neutralization, and immune complex formation.
ABSTRACT: Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) causes a persistent infection associated with circulating immune complexes, immune complex disease, hypergammaglobulinemia, and high levels of antiviral antibody. Although antibody can neutralize ADV infectivity in Crandell feline kidney cells in vitro, virus is not cleared in vivo, and capsid-based vaccines have proven uniformly ineffective. Antiviral antibody also enables ADV to infect macrophages, the target cells for persistent infection, by Fc-receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The antibodies involved in these unique aspects of ADV pathogenesis may have specific targets on the ADV capsid. Prominent differences exist between the structure of ADV and other, more-typical parvoviruses, which can be accounted for by short peptide sequences in the flexible loop regions of the capsid proteins. In order to determine whether these short sequences are targets for antibodies involved in ADV pathogenesis, we studied heterologous antibodies against several peptides present in the major capsid protein, VP2. Of these antibodies, a polyclonal rabbit antibody to peptide VP2:428-446 was the most interesting. The anti-VP2:428-446 antibody aggregated virus particles into immune complexes, mediated ADE, and neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Thus, antibody against this short peptide can be implicated in key facets of ADV pathogenesis. Structural modeling suggested that surface-exposed residues of VP2:428-446 are readily accessible for antibody binding. The observation that antibodies against a single target peptide in the ADV capsid can mediate both neutralization and ADE may explain the failure of capsid-based vaccines.
Project description:Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) DNA was identified by PCR in samples from mink and raccoons on commercial ranches during an outbreak of Aleutian disease (AD). Comparison of DNA sequences of the hypervariable portion of VP2, the major capsid protein of ADV, indicated that both mink and raccoons were infected by a new isolate of ADV, designated ADV-TR. Because the capsid proteins of other parvoviruses play a prominent role in the determination of viral pathogenicity and host range, we decided to examine the relationship between the capsid protein sequences and pathogenicity of ADV. Comparison of the ADV-TR hypervariable region sequence with sequences of other isolates of ADV revealed that ADV-TR was 94 to 100% related to the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G at both the DNA and amino acid levels but less than 90% related to other pathogenic ADVs like the type 2 ADV-Utah, the type 3 ADV-ZK8, or ADV-Pullman. This finding indicated that a virus with a type 1 hypervariable region could be pathogenic. To perform a more comprehensive analysis, the complete VP2 sequence of ADV-TR was obtained and compared with that of the 647-amino-acid VP2 of ADV-G and the corresponding VP2 sequences of the pathogenic ADV-Utah, ADV-Pullman, and ADV-ZK8. Although the hypervariable region amino acid sequence of ADV-TR was identical to that of ADV-G, there were 12 amino acid differences between ADV-G and ADV-TR. Each of these differences was at a position where other pathogenic isolates also differed from ADV-G. Thus, although ADV-TR had the hypervariable sequence of the nonpathogenic type 1 ADV-G, the remainder of the VP2 sequence resembled sequences of other pathogenic ADVs. Under experimental conditions, ADV-TR and ADV-Utah were highly pathogenic and induced typical AD in trios of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian mink, whereas ADV-Pullman was pathogenic only for Aleutian mink and ADV-G was noninfectious. Trios of raccoons experimentally inoculated with ADV-TR and ADV-Utah all became infected with ADV, but only a single ADV-Pullman-inoculated raccoon showed evidence of infection. Furthermore, none of the ADV isolates induced pathological findings of AD in raccoons. Finally, when a preparation of ADV-TR prepared from infected raccoon lymph nodes was inoculated into mink and raccoons, typical AD was induced in Aleutian and non-Aleutian mink, but raccoons failed to show serological or pathological evidence of infection. These results indicated that raccoons can become infected with ADV and may have a role in the transmission of virus to mink but that raccoon-to-raccoon transmission of ADV is unlikely.
Project description:Direct insertion of amino acid sequences into the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) capsid open reading frame (cap ORF) is one strategy currently being developed for retargeting this prototypical gene therapy vector. While this approach has successfully resulted in the formation of AAV particles that have expanded or retargeted viral tropism, the inserted sequences have been relatively short, linear receptor binding ligands. Since many receptor-ligand interactions involve nonlinear, conformation-dependent binding domains, we investigated the insertion of full-length peptides into the AAV cap ORF. To minimize disruption of critical VP3 structural domains, we confined the insertions to residue 138 within the VP1-VP2 overlap, which has been shown to be on the surface of the particle following insertion of smaller epitopes. The insertion of coding sequences for the 8-kDa chemokine binding domain of rat fractalkine (CX3CL1), the 18-kDa human hormone leptin, and the 30-kDa green fluorescent protein (GFP) after residue 138 failed to lead to formation of particles due to the loss of VP3 expression. To test the ability to complement these insertions with the missing capsid proteins in trans, we designed a system for producing AAV vectors in which expression of one capsid protein is isolated and combined with the remaining two capsid proteins expressed separately. Such an approach allows for genetic modification of a specific capsid protein across its entire coding sequence leaving the remaining capsid proteins unaffected. An examination of particle formation from the individual components of the system revealed that genome-containing particles formed as long as the VP3 capsid protein was present and demonstrated that the VP2 capsid protein is nonessential for viral infectivity. Viable particles composed of all three capsid proteins were obtained from the capsid complementation groups regardless of which capsid proteins were supplied separately in trans. Significant overexpression of VP2 resulted in the formation of particles with altered capsid protein stoichiometry. The key finding was that by using this system we successfully obtained nearly wild-type levels of recombinant AAV-like particles with large ligands inserted after residue 138 in VP1 and VP2 or in VP2 exclusively. While insertions at residue 138 in VP1 significantly decreased infectivity, insertions at residue 138 that were exclusively in VP2 had a minimal effect on viral assembly or infectivity. Finally, insertion of GFP into VP1 and VP2 resulted in a particle whose trafficking could be temporally monitored by using confocal microscopy. Thus, we have demonstrated a method that can be used to insert large (up to 30-kDa) peptide ligands into the AAV particle. This system allows greater flexibility than current approaches in genetically manipulating the composition of the AAV particle and, in particular, may allow vector retargeting to alternative receptors requiring interaction with full-length conformation-dependent peptide ligands.
Project description:BACKGROUND: JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a widespread human polyomavirus that usually resides latently in its host, but can be reactivated under immune-compromised conditions potentially causing Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). Detection of antibodies against the major capsid protein VP1 currently is the main marker for assessment of infection with JCPyV. METHODS: Based on a peptide microarray, peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer was selected and a peptide ELISA was developed for detection of antibodies directed against this peptide. Epitope mapping and computational modelling was performed to further characterize this peptide. In a cohort of 204 healthy subjects it was investigated whether antibodies against JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer were correlated with VP1 serology or urinary viral load. RESULTS: Epitope mapping of peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer showed that the minimal epitope consisted of L173PALTSQEI181 with amino acids P174, L176 and E180 being essential for antibody recognition. Computational analysis was used to predict that this epitope is located at an exposed domain of the VP2 capsid protein, readily accessible for immune recognition upon infection. No correlation could be observed with JCPyV VP1 antibody levels, or urinary viral load. CONCLUSION: This work indicates that specific antibodies against JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer might be considered as a novel serological marker for infection with JCPyV.
Project description:Diagnostic tests for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the detection of antibodies against either the viral nonstructural proteins or the capsid. The detection of antibodies against the structural proteins (SP) of the capsid can be used to monitor seroconversion in both infected and vaccinated animals. However, SP tests need to be tailored to the individual FMD virus (FMDV) serotype and their sensitivity may be affected by antigenic variability within each serotype and mismatching between test reagents. As a consequence, FMD reference laboratories are required to maintain multiple type-specific SP assays and reagents. A universal SP test would simplify frontline diagnostics and facilitate large-scale serological surveillance and postvaccination monitoring. In this study, a highly conserved region in the N terminus of FMDV capsid protein VP2 (VP2N) was characterized using a panel of intertype-reactive monoclonal antibodies. This revealed a universal epitope in VP2N which could be used as a peptide antigen to detect FMDV-specific antibodies against all types of the virus. A VP2-peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VP2-ELISA) was optimized using experimental and reference antisera from immunized, convalescent, and naïve animals (n?=?172). The VP2-ELISA is universal and simple and provided sensitive (99%) and specific (93%) detection of antibodies to all FMDV strains used in this study. We anticipate that this SP test could have utility for serosurveillance during virus incursions in FMD-free countries and as an additional screening tool to assess FMD virus circulation in countries where the disease is endemic.
Project description:Group A rotaviruses are classified into serotypes, based on the reactivity pattern of neutralizing antibodies to VP4 and VP7, as well as into subgroups (SGs), based on non-neutralizing antibodies directed against VP6. The inner capsid protein (VP2) has also been described as a SG antigen; however, little is known regarding the molecular determinants of VP2 SG specificity. In this study, we characterize VP2 SGs by correlating genetic markers with the immunoreactivity of the SG-specific monoclonal antibody (YO-60). Our results show that VP2 proteins similar in sequence to that of the prototypic human strain Wa are recognized by YO-60, classifying them as VP2 SG-II. In contrast, proteins not bound by YO-60 are similar to those of human strains DS-1 or AU-1 and represent VP2 SG-I. Using a mutagenesis approach, we identified residues that determine recognition by either YO-60 or the group A-specific VP2 monoclonal antibody (6E8). We found that YO-60 binds to a conformationally dependent epitope that includes Wa VP2 residue M328. The epitope for 6E8 is also contingent upon VP2 conformation and resides within a single region of the protein (Wa VP2 residues A440 to T530). Using a high-resolution structure of bovine rotavirus double-layered particles, we predicted these epitopes to be spatially distinct from each other and located on opposite surfaces of VP2. This study reveals the extent of genetic variation among group A rotavirus VP2 proteins and illuminates the molecular basis for a previously described SG specificity associated with the rotavirus inner capsid protein.
Project description:The initial interaction of murine polyomavirus (Py) with host cells occurs through direct binding of the major capsid protein VP1 with cell membrane molecules containing terminal sialic acids; however, these Py receptor molecules have not yet been identified. Analysis of the capsid protein primary sequences of all murine strains revealed the presence of integrin ligand motifs in the DE and EF loops of VP1 (LDV and DLXXL, respectively) and at the N terminus of VP2 (DGE). We show that infectivity of the Py A2 strain in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts is significantly reduced only in the presence of natural integrin ligands carrying an LDV motif or antibodies directed against the alpha4 and beta1 integrin subunits. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression of the alpha4 subunit in the alpha4-deficient BALB/c 3T3 cells increases viral infectivity. Addition of alpha4 function-blocking antibodies, prior to or after virus adsorption, blocks this increased infectivity without affecting virus binding to cells. Taken together, these data indicate that expression of alpha4 integrin enhances permissivity to Py, probably by acting as one of the postattachment receptors.
Project description:Antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) has most often been associated with dengue virus (DENV). Studies using leukemia cell lines suggest that DENV specific antibodies can enhance Zika virus (ZIKV) infectivity, and vice versa. To examine the mechanisms of ADE of ZIKV infection in primary human cells, we assessed 40 serum samples obtained from convalescent DENV-1 or DENV-3 infected subjects. All sera tested exhibited high binding potency, while modest or none neutralization activities against ZIKV. Primary CD14+ monocytes, rather than B and T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), were found to be the mediators of the enhancement of ZIKV infectivity by DENV immune sera. Monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs), but not mature DCs were highly permissive to ZIKV infection, whereas neither immature nor mature DCs could mediate enhanced ZIKV infection in the presence of DENV immune sera. In addition, antibody blocking of either Fc?RI (CD64), or Fc?RII (CD32), or Fc?RIII (CD16) resulted in diminished ADE of ZIKV infection. Our findings provide an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection, and inform rational vaccine design.
Project description:The surface of polyomavirus virions is composed of pentameric knobs of the major capsid protein, VP1. In previously studied polyomavirus species, such as SV40, two interior capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, emerge from the virion to play important roles during the infectious entry process. Translation of the VP3 protein initiates at a highly conserved Met-Ala-Leu motif within the VP2 open reading frame. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a member of a divergent clade of polyomaviruses that lack the conserved VP3 N-terminal motif. Consistent with this observation, we show that VP3 is not detectable in MCV-infected cells, VP3 is not found in native MCV virions, and mutation of possible alternative VP3-initiating methionine codons did not significantly affect MCV infectivity in culture. In contrast, VP2 knockout resulted in a >100-fold decrease in native MCV infectivity, despite normal virion assembly, viral DNA packaging, and cell attachment. Although pseudovirus-based experiments confirmed that VP2 plays an essential role for infection of some cell lines, other cell lines were readily transduced by pseudovirions lacking VP2. In cell lines where VP2 was needed for efficient infectious entry, the presence of a conserved myristoyl modification on the N-terminus of VP2 was important for its function. The results show that a single minor capsid protein, VP2, facilitates a post-attachment stage of MCV infectious entry into some, but not all, cell types.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the Fc?RII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis.
Project description:As many tumor cells synthetize vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) that promote neo-vascularization and metastasis, frontline cancer therapies often administer anti-VEGF (?-VEGF) antibodies. To target the oncolytic parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) to the tumor vasculature, we studied the functional tolerance, evasion of neutralization, and induction of ?-VEGF antibodies of chimeric viruses in which the footprint of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody within the 3-fold capsid spike was replaced by VEGF-blocking peptides: P6L (PQPRPL) and A7R (ATWLPPR). Both peptides allowed viral genome replication and nuclear translocation of chimeric capsid subunits. MVM-P6L efficiently propagated in culture, exposing the heterologous peptide on the capsid surface, and evaded neutralization by the anti-spike monoclonal antibody. In contrast, MVM-A7R yielded low infectious titers and was poorly recognized by an ?-A7R monoclonal antibody. MVM-A7R showed a deficient assembly pattern, suggesting that A7R impaired a transitional configuration that the subunits must undergo in the 3-fold axis to close up the capsid shell. The MVM-A7R chimeric virus consistently evolved in culture into a mutant carrying the P6Q amino acid substitution within the A7R sequence, which restored normal capsid assembly and infectivity. Consistent with this finding, anti-native VEGF antibodies were induced in mice by a single injection of MVM-A7R empty capsids, but not by MVM-A7R virions. This fundamental study provides insights to endow an infectious parvovirus with immune antineovascularization and evasion capacities by replacing an antibody footprint in the capsid 3-fold axis with VEGF-blocking peptides, and it also illustrates the evolutionary capacity of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses to overcome engineered capsid structural restrictions.IMPORTANCE Targeting the VEGF signaling required for neovascularization by vaccination with chimeric capsids of oncolytic viruses may boost therapy for solid tumors. VEGF-blocking peptides (VEbp) engineered in the capsid 3-fold axis endowed the infectious parvovirus MVM with the ability to induce ?-VEGF antibodies without adjuvant and to evade neutralization by MVM-specific antibodies. However, these properties may be compromised by structural restraints that the capsid imposes on the peptide configuration and by misassembly caused by the heterologous peptides. Significantly, chimeric MVM-VEbp resolved the structural restrictions by selecting mutations within the engineered peptides that restored efficient capsid assembly. These data show the promise of antineovascularization vaccines using chimeric VEbp-icosahedral capsids of oncolytic viruses but also raise safety concerns regarding the genetic stability of manipulated infectious parvoviruses in cancer and gene therapies.