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Identification of aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid sequences mediating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, virus neutralization, and immune complex formation.

ABSTRACT: Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) causes a persistent infection associated with circulating immune complexes, immune complex disease, hypergammaglobulinemia, and high levels of antiviral antibody. Although antibody can neutralize ADV infectivity in Crandell feline kidney cells in vitro, virus is not cleared in vivo, and capsid-based vaccines have proven uniformly ineffective. Antiviral antibody also enables ADV to infect macrophages, the target cells for persistent infection, by Fc-receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The antibodies involved in these unique aspects of ADV pathogenesis may have specific targets on the ADV capsid. Prominent differences exist between the structure of ADV and other, more-typical parvoviruses, which can be accounted for by short peptide sequences in the flexible loop regions of the capsid proteins. In order to determine whether these short sequences are targets for antibodies involved in ADV pathogenesis, we studied heterologous antibodies against several peptides present in the major capsid protein, VP2. Of these antibodies, a polyclonal rabbit antibody to peptide VP2:428-446 was the most interesting. The anti-VP2:428-446 antibody aggregated virus particles into immune complexes, mediated ADE, and neutralized virus infectivity in vitro. Thus, antibody against this short peptide can be implicated in key facets of ADV pathogenesis. Structural modeling suggested that surface-exposed residues of VP2:428-446 are readily accessible for antibody binding. The observation that antibodies against a single target peptide in the ADV capsid can mediate both neutralization and ADE may explain the failure of capsid-based vaccines.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC114691 | BioStudies | 2001-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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