Structure-function relationships in the free insulin monomer.
ABSTRACT: The chemical properties of the functional groups of insulin were determined at a concentration (0.5 microM) where the predominant species of insulin is the free (unassociated) monomeric unit. The glycine N-terminus and the four tyrosine phenolic groups had the same properties as in the associated forms of insulin. On the other hand the lysine epsilon-amino group and the two histidine imidazole groups had substantially altered properties. Some alteration in the properties of the phenylalanine N-terminus was also observed. The reactivity-pH profile for the imidazole groups showed a second ionization with a pKa of 10.1 in addition to an ionization with a pKa of 6.8. On the basis of the X-ray-crystallographic structure of hexameric insulin the observed changes can be accounted for by disruption of monomer-monomer or dimer-dimer interactions in the associated states of insulin. It is concluded that the conformation of the monomeric unit of insulin is essentially the same in its free and associated states in solution.
Project description:The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) ?-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, ?-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric ?-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric ?-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of ?-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.
Project description:A modification to the competitive labelling procedure of Duggleby and Kaplan [(1975) Biochemistry 14, 5168-5175] was used to study the reactivity of the N-termini, lysine, histidine and tyrosine groups of insulin over the concentration range 1 X 10(-3)-1 X 10(-7)M. Reactions were carried out with acetic anhydride and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in 0.1 M-KCl at 37 degrees C using Pyrex glass, Tefzel and polystyrene reaction vessels. At high concentrations all groups had either normal or enhanced reactivity but at high dilution the reactivities of all functional groups became negligible. This behaviour is attributed to the adsorption of insulin to the reaction vessels. The histidine residues show a large decrease in reactivity in all reaction vessels in the concentration range 1 X 10(-3)-1 X 10(-5)M where there are no adsorption effects and where the reactivities of all other functional groups are independent of concentration. With polystyrene, where adsorption effects become significant only below 1 X 10(-6)M, the reactivity of the phenylalanine N-terminus also shows a decrease in reactivity between 1 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-6)M. In 1 M-KCl insulin does not absorb to Pyrex glass and under these conditions the histidine reactivity is concentration-dependent from 1 X 10(-3) to 5 X 10(-6)M and the B1 phenylalanine alpha-amino and the B29 lysine epsilon-amino reactivities from 5 X 10(-6) to 1 X 10(-7)M, whereas the reactivities of all other groups are constant. These alterations in reactivity on dilution are attributed to disruption of dimer-dimer interactions for histidine and to monomer-monomer interactions for the phenylalanine and lysine amino groups. It is concluded that the monomeric unit of insulin has essentially the same conformation in its free and associated states.
Project description:A central theme in prion protein research is the detection of the process that underlies the conformational transition from the normal cellular prion form (PrP(C)) to its pathogenic isoform (PrP(Sc)). Although the three-dimensional structures of monomeric and dimeric human prion protein (HuPrP) have been revealed by NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography, the process underlying the conformational change from PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) and the dynamics and functions of PrP(C) remain unknown. The dimeric form is thought to play an important role in the conformational transition. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on monomeric and dimeric HuPrP at 300 K and 500 K for 10 ns to investigate the differences in the properties of the monomer and the dimer from the perspective of dynamic and structural behaviors. Simulations were also undertaken with Asp178Asn and acidic pH, which is known as a disease-associated factor. Our results indicate that the dynamics of the dimer and monomer were similar (e.g., denaturation of helices and elongation of the beta-sheet). However, additional secondary structure elements formed in the dimer might result in showing the differences in dynamics and properties between the monomer and dimer (e.g., the greater retention of dimeric than monomeric tertiary structure).
Project description:In this study, the acid-base properties of the adenine cation radical are investigated by means of experiment and theory. Adenine cation radical (A*(+)) is produced by one-electron oxidation of dAdo and of the stacked DNA-oligomer (dA)6 by Cl2*(-) in aqueous glass (7.5 M LiCl in H2O and in D2O) and investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations and deuterium substitution at C8-H and N6-H in dAdo aid in our assignments of structure. We find the pKa value of A*(+) in this system to be ca. 8 at 150 K in seeming contradiction to the accepted value of < or = 1 at ambient temperature. However, upon thermal annealing to > or = 160 K, complete deprotonation of A*(+) occurs in dAdo in these glassy systems even at pH ca. 3. A*(+) found in (dA)6 at 150 K also deprotonates on thermal annealing. The stability of A*(+) at 150 K in these systems is attributed to charge delocalization between stacked bases. Theoretical calculations at various levels (DFT B3LYP/6-31G*, MPWB95, and HF-MP2) predict binding energies for the adenine stacked dimer cation radical of 12 to 16 kcal/mol. Further DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations predict that, in aqueous solution, monomeric A*(+) should deprotonate spontaneously (a predicted pKa of ca. -0.3 for A*(+)). However, the charge resonance stabilized dimer AA*(+) is predicted to result in a significant barrier to deprotonation and a calculated pKa of ca. 7 for the AA*(+) dimer which is 7 pH units higher than the monomer. These theoretical and experimental results suggest that A*(+) isolated in solution and A*(+) in adenine stacks have highly differing acid-base properties resulting from the stabilization induced by hole delocalization within adenine stacks.
Project description:Equilibrium and kinetic properties of cyanide and imidazole binding to the heme domains of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL (SmFixLH and BjFixLH) have been investigated between pH5 and 11. KD determinations were made at integral pH values, with the strongest binding at pH9 for both ligands. KD for the cyanide complexes of BjFixLH and SmFixLH is 0.15±0.09 and 0.50±0.20?M, respectively, and 0.70±0.01mM for imido-BjFixLH. The association rate constants are pH dependent with maximum values of 443±8 and 252±61M(-1)s(-1) for cyano complexes of BjFixLH and SmFixLH and (5.0±0.3)×10(4) and (7.0±1.4)×10(4)M(-1)s(-1) for the imidazole complexes. The dissociation rate constants are essentially independent of pH above pH5; (1.2±0.3)×10(-4) and (1.7±0.3)×10(-4)s(-1) for the cyano complexes of BjFixLH and SmFixLH, and (73±19) and (77±14) s(-1) for the imidazole complexes. Two ionizable groups in FixLH affect the rate of ligand binding. The more acidic group, identified as the heme 6 propionic acid, has a pKa of 7.6±0.2 in BjFixLH and 6.8±0.2 in SmFixLH. The second ionization is due to formation of hydroxy-FixLH with pKa values of 9.64±0.05 for BjFixLH and 9.61±0.05 for SmFixLH. Imidazole binding is limited by the rate of heme pocket opening with maximum observed values of 680 and 1270s(-1) for BjFixLH and SmFixLH, respectively.
Project description:Serum extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) concentrations are elevated in type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between abnormally elevated serum eNAMPT and type 2 diabetes pathophysiology is unclear. eNAMPT circulates in functionally and structurally distinct monomeric and dimeric forms. Dimeric eNAMPT promotes NAD biosynthesis. The role of eNAMPT-monomer is unclear but it may have NAD-independent proinflammatory effects. However, studies of eNAMPT in type 2 diabetes have not distinguished between monomeric and dimeric forms. Since type 2 diabetes is characterised by chronic inflammation, we hypothesised a selective NAD-independent role for eNAMPT-monomer in type 2 diabetes.Two mouse models were used to examine the role of eNAMPT-monomer in type 2 diabetes; (1) a mouse model of diabetes fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks received i.p. injections with an anti-monomeric-eNAMPT antibody; and (2) lean non-diabetic mice received i.p. injections with recombinant monomeric eNAMPT daily for 14 days.Serum monomeric eNAMPT levels were elevated in HFD-fed mouse models of diabetes, whilst eNAMPT-dimer levels were unchanged. eNAMPT-monomer neutralisation in HFD-fed mice resulted in lower blood glucose levels, amelioration of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and whole-body insulin resistance, improved pancreatic islet function, and reduced inflammation. These effects were maintained for at least 3 weeks post-treatment. eNAMPT-monomer administration induced a diabetic phenotype in mice, characterised by elevated blood glucose, IGT, impaired pancreatic insulin secretion and the presence of systemic and tissue inflammation, without changes in NAD levels.We demonstrate that elevation of monomeric-eNAMPT plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diet-induced diabetes via proinflammatory mechanisms. These data provide proof-of-concept evidence that the eNAMPT-monomer represents a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The oligoHis-tagged versions of glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase from Giardia lamblia (GlmNagB-HisN, GlmNagB-HisC) were constructed and purified to hear homogeneity, and their kinetic and structural properties were compared to those of the wild-type enzyme (GlmNagB). Introduction of the oligoHis tag at the GlmNagB C-terminus resulted in almost complete loss of the catalytic activity, while the catalytic properties of GlmNagB-HisN and GlmNagB were very similar. The recombinant and wild-type enzyme exhibits heterogeneity of the quaternary structure and in solution exists in three interconvertible forms, namely, monomeric, homodimeric, and homotetrameric. Although the monomeric form is prevalent, the monomer/dimer/tetramer ratios depended on protein concentration and fell within the range from 72:27:1 to 39:23:38. The enzyme is fully active in each of the oligomeric structures, efficiently catalyzes synthesis of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate from D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonia, and its activity is not modified by GlcNAc6P, UDP-GlcNAc, or UDP-GalNAc. GlcN6P deaminase of G. lamblia represents a novel structural and functional type of enzyme of the NagB subfamily.
Project description:The phenomenon that SARS coronavirus main protease (SARS M(pro)) dimer is the main functional form has been confirmed by experiment. However, because of the absence of structural information of the monomer, the reasons for this remain unknown. To investigate it, two molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in water for dimer and monomer models have been carried out, using the crystal structure of protomer A of the dimer as the starting structure for the monomer. During the MD simulation of dimer, three interest phenomena of protomer A have been observed: (i) the distance between NE2 of His41 and SG of Cys145 averages 3.72 A, which agrees well with the experimental observations made by X-ray crystallography; (ii) His163 and Glu166 form the "tooth" conformational properties, resulting in the specificity for glutamine at substrate P1 site; and (iii) the substrate-binding pocket formed by loop 140-146 and loop 184-197 is large enough to accommodate the substrate analog. However, during the MD simulation of the monomer complex, the three structural characteristics are all absent, which results directly in the inactivation of the monomer. Throughout the MD simulation of the dimer, the N-terminus of protomer B forms stable hydrogen bonds with Phe140 and Glu166, through which His163, Glu166, and loop 140-146 are kept active form. Furthermore, a water-bridge has been found between the N-terminus of protomer B and Gly170, which stabilizes His172 and avoids it moving toward Tyr161 to disrupt the H-bond between Tyr161 and His163, stabilizing the conformation of His163. The interactions between the N-terminus and another monomer maintain the activity of dimer.
Project description:In this report, we establish that Drosophila ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) forms a dimer on double-stranded (ds) RNA, a process essential for editing activity. The minimum region required for dimerization is the N-terminus and dsRNA-binding domain 1 (dsRBD1). Single point mutations within dsRBD1 abolish RNA-binding activity and dimer formation. These mutations and glycerol gradient analysis indicate that binding to dsRNA is important for dimerization. However, dimerization can be uncoupled from dsRNA-binding activity, as a deletion of the N-terminus (amino acids 1-46) yields a monomeric ADAR that retains the ability to bind dsRNA but is inactive in an editing assay, demonstrating that ADAR is only active as a dimer. Different isoforms of ADAR with different editing activities can form heterodimers and this can have a significant effect on editing in vitro as well as in vivo. We propose a model for ADAR dimerization whereby ADAR monomers first contact dsRNA; however, it is only when the second monomer binds and a dimer is formed that deamination occurs.
Project description:The polypyrimidine tract binding (PTB) protein is a potent regulator of alternative mRNA splicing. It also participates in other essential cellular functions, including translation initiation and polyadenylation. Several published reports have suggested that the protein forms a dimer in solution, a feature that has been widely incorporated into mechanistic models of protein function. However, recent studies have provided indications that full-length PTB is a monomer. Here we present new biophysical and biochemical evidence supporting the monomeric status of the protein. By use of blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography, PTB was observed as a single molecular species under native reducing environments, though in oxidizing conditions, a larger protein species was also detected. Further analyses of wild-type and mutant PTB molecules with SDS-PAGE and time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy confirmed these observations. They also identified the single reduced species as monomeric PTB and the higher-molecular-weight nonreduced species as disulphide-linked PTB dimer mediated by Cys23. Our results indicate that the use of oxidizing environments in previous studies is likely to have contributed to the mis-assignment of PTB as a dimer. Although purified PTB may form disulphide-linked dimers under these conditions, in the reducing intracellular environment the protein will be monomeric. These findings have implications for the construction of models of PTB function in regulating mRNA metabolism.