Effects of Ca2+ on phosphoinositide breakdown in exocrine pancreas.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have established that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P3] provides the link between receptor-regulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Here, we report the effects of Ca2+ on inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation from phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) catalysed by phospholipase C in intact and electrically permeabilized rat pancreatic acinar cells. In permeabilized cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing agonist caerulein stimulated [3H]IP3 formation when the free [Ca2+] was buffered at 140 nM, the cytosolic free [Ca2+] of unstimulated pancreatic acinar cells. When the free [Ca2+] was reduced to less than 10 nM, caerulein did not stimulate [3H]IP3 formation. Ca2+ in the physiological range stimulated [3H]IP3 formation and reduced the amount of [3H]PIP2 in permeabilized cells. The effects of Ca2+ and the receptor agonist caerulein were additive, but we have not established whether this reflects independent effects on the same or different enzymes. The effect of Ca2+ on [3H]IP3 formation by permeabilized cells was unaffected by inhibitors of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism; nor were the effects of Ca2+ mimicked by addition of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that the effects of Ca2+ on phospholipase C activity are not a secondary consequence of Ca2+ activation of phospholipase A2. Changes in free [Ca2+] (less than 10 nM-1.2 mM) did not affect the metabolism of exogenous [3H]I(1,4,5)P3 by permeabilized cells. In permeabilized cells, breakdown of exogenous [3H]IP3 to [3H]IP2 (inositol bisphosphate), and formation of [3H]IP3 in response to receptor agonists were equally inhibited by 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid. This suggests that the [3H]IP2 formed in response to receptor agonists is entirely derived from [3H]IP3. In intact cells, [3H]IP3 formation was stimulated when ionomycin was used to increase the cytosolic free [Ca2+]. However, a maximal concentration of caerulein elicited ten times as much IP3 formation as did the highest physiologically relevant [Ca2+]. We conclude that the major effect of receptor agonists on IP3 formation does not require an elevation of cytosolic free [Ca2+], although the increase in free [Ca2+] that normally follows IP3 formation may itself have a small stimulatory effect on phospholipase C.
Project description:In rat pancreatic acinar cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing receptor-agonist, caerulein, at both maximal and submaximal concentrations, stimulated a rapid, transient, increase in [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3], followed by a slower, sustained, increase in [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [(1,3,4)IP3]. Neither activation of protein kinase C by phorbol dibutyrate nor prevention of the caerulein-stimulated elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] significantly affected the pattern of formation of the two isomers of IP3. Although carbachol evoked an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], it did not significantly stimulate [3H](1,4,5)IP3 accumulation, but did promote [3H](1,3,4)IP3 accumulation. Moreover, both carbachol and caerulein maintained hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools in a Ca2+-depleted state after [3H](1,4,5)IP3 had returned to basal concentrations. One interpretation of these findings is that total cellular concentrations of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 may not accurately reflect the concentration of this putative mediator in biologically relevant compartments.
Project description:Various experimental strategies were employed in an effort to explain the previously reported [Horstman, Takemura & Putney (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15297-15303] paradoxically high levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3] in resting and substance-P-stimulated AR4-2J cells. The concentration-effect curves for substance-P-induced [3H](1,4,5)IP3 formation in [3H]inositol-labelled cells and substance-P-induced increase in intracellular [Ca2+] were essentially superimposable, suggesting that formation of (1,4,5)IP3 is limiting for cellular Ca2+ mobilization. In electrically permeabilized AR4-2J cells, (1,4,5)IP3 and other inositol polyphosphates stimulated Ca2+ release with potencies similar to those reported for other cell types, including the parent pancreatic acinar cell. Compartmentalization of basal (1,4,5)IP3 was suggested by the fact that this material was stable in the presence of antimycin A, although this toxin completely blocked agonist stimulation of phospholipase C. However, subcellular fractionation as well as permeabilization of the cells with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin failed to provide evidence for binding or sequestration of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 in AR4-2J cells. The density of (1,4,5)IP3 receptors in AR4-2J cells was not sufficiently large to impose non-linearity in the relationship between (1,4,5)IP3 concentration and (1,4,5)IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Thus the apparent high concentrations of (1,4,5)IP3 in resting and stimulated AR4-2J cells are not indicative of atypically low sensitivity or high concentration of (1,4,5)IP3 receptors, nor is there evidence for compartmentalization of (1,4,5)IP3 outside of the cytoplasm in these cells. It is possible that soluble factors in the cytoplasm of AR4-2J cells regulate the free concentration of (1,4,5)IP3 or the sensitivity of receptors to (1,4,5)IP3.
Project description:Rabbit platelets were labelled with [3H]inositol and a membrane fraction was isolated in the presence of ATP, MgCl2 and EGTA. Incubation of samples for 10 min with 0.1 microM-Ca2+free released [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to about 2.0% of the membrane [3H]phosphoinositides. Addition of 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) caused an additional formation of [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to 6.6% of the [3H]phosphoinositides. A half-maximal effect was observed with 0.4 microM-GTP[S]. The [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated consisted of 10% [3H]inositol monophosphate, 88% [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]IP2) and 2% [3H]inositol trisphosphate ([3H]IP3). Omission of ATP and MgCl2 led to depletion of membrane [3H]polyphosphoinositides and marked decreases in the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates. Thrombin (2 units/ml) or GTP (4-100 microM) alone weakly stimulated [3H]IP2 formation, but together they acted synergistically to exert an effect comparable with that of 10 microM-GTP[S]. The action of thrombin was also potentiated by 0.1 microM-GTP[S]. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate not only inhibited the effects of GTP[S], GTP and GTP with thrombin, but also blocked the action of thrombin alone, suggesting that this depended on residual GTP. Incubation with either GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP decreased membrane [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate ([H]PIP) and prevented an increase in [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ([3H]PIP2) observed in controls. Addition of unlabelled IP3 to trap [3H]IP3 before it was degraded to [3H]IP2 showed that only about 20% of the additional [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated with GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP were derived from the action of phospholipase C on [3H]PIP2. The results provide further evidence that guanine-nucleotide-binding protein mediates signal transduction between the thrombin receptor and phospholipase C, and suggest that PIP may be a major substrate of this enzyme in the platelet.
Project description:Swiss 3T3 cells incubated for 60 h with [3H]inositol incorporated radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and the two polyphosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). On stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) there were significant increases in the levels of inositol 1-phosphate (IP1), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The effect of PDGF and IP3 on Ca2+ mobilization was studied in both intact cells and in 'leaky' cells that had been permeabilized with saponin. In intact cells, PDGF stimulated the efflux of 45Ca2+, whereas IP3 had no effect. Conversely, IP3 stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from 'leaky' cells, which were insensitive to PDGF. 'Leaky' cells, which accumulated 45Ca2+ to a steady state within 20 min, were found to release approx. 40% of the label within 1 min after addition of 10 microM-IP3. This stimulation of 45Ca2+ release by IP3 was reversible and was also dose-dependent, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 0.3 microM. It seems likely that an important action of PDGF on Swiss 3T3 cells is to stimulate the hydrolysis of PIP2 to form IP3 and diacylglycerol, both of which may function as second messengers. Our results indicate that IP3 mobilizes intracellular Ca2+, and we propose that diacylglycerol may act through C-kinase to activate the Na+/H+ antiport. By generating two second messengers, PDGF can simultaneously elevate the intracellular level of Ca2+ and alkalinize the cytoplasm by lowering the level of H+.
Project description:The initial response of many cells to 'Ca2+-mobilizing' agonists is phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate to inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. It has been suggested, by analogy with receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase, that 'Ca2+-mobilizing' receptors may interact with a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) to regulate phospholipase C activity. Here we report increased accumulation of IP3 in response to caerulein or carbachol in electrically permeabilized rat pancreatic acinar cells. The stable analogues of GTP (guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]trisphosphate and guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate) stimulate IP3 accumulation and potentiate the effects of caerulein and carbachol. This synergism demonstrates an interaction between receptors, a G protein and phospholipase C. These responses are unaffected by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis or cholera toxins under conditions that produce substantial covalent modification of Gi and Gs, the proteins that couple receptors to adenylate cyclase. We therefore conclude that the G protein that couples receptors to phospholipase C in exocrine pancreas is probably neither Gi nor Gs; instead, we propose that a different G protein mediates this effect.
Project description:Activation of phospholipase C by angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle has been postulated to be mediated by an unidentified GTP-binding protein (G-protein). Using a permeabilized preparation of myo-[3H]inositol-labelled cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, we examined the ability of a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), to stimulate inositol phosphate formation. GTP[S] (5 min exposure) stimulated inositol polyphosphate release by up to 3.8-fold in a dose-dependent manner, with an EC50 (concn. producing half-maximal stimulation) of approx. 50 microM. Inositol bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) accumulations were also stimulated by NaF (5-20 mM). Furthermore, angiotensin II-induced inositol phosphate formation could be potentiated by a submaximal concentration of GTP[S] (10 microM), and this treatment appeared to interfere with the normal termination mechanism of the initial hormonal signal. The G-protein mediating angiotensin II-stimulated phospholipase C activation was insensitive to pertussis toxin at an exposure time and concentration which were sufficient to completely ADP-ribosylate all available substrate (100 ng/ml, 16 h). In contrast, a similar incubation with cholera toxin markedly inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated IP2 and IP3 release by 67 +/- 6% and 62 +/- 6% respectively. Cholera toxin appeared to inhibit angiotensin II stimulation of phospholipase C by a dual mechanism: it caused a 45% decrease in angiotensin II receptor number, and also inhibited G-protein transduction as assessed by GTP[S]-stimulated IP2 formation. This latter inhibition may be secondary to an increase in cyclic AMP, since it could be simulated by addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Thus angiotensin II-stimulated inositol phosphate formation is cholera-toxin-sensitive, and is mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein, which may be involved directly in termination of early signal generation.
Project description:The effect of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding and the activity of IP3-gated Ca2+ channels was examined in permeabilized hepatocytes. The permeability properties of the channel were measured by using Mn2+ quenching of compartmentalized fura-2 at 37 degrees C and at 4 degrees C for comparison with IP3-binding measurements. GSSG (2 mM) increased the IP3-sensitivity of Mn2+ quenching, consistent with previous studies based on Ca(2+)-release measurements [Renard, Seitz and Thomas (1992) Biochem. J. 284, 507-512]. Measurements of [3H]IP3 binding were made at 4 degrees C after preincubation of permeabilized hepatocytes at 37 degrees C in the absence or presence of GSSG. Under these conditions GSSG stimulated IP3 binding by increasing the number of binding sites without changing the Kd. This effect was observed in the absence or presence of Ca2+, but was abolished when the preincubation with GSSG was carried out at 4 degrees C. Thimerosal also stimulated [3H]IP3 binding, but this effect was mediated both by an increase in the maximum number of binding sites and by a decrease in the Kd. The effects of thimerosal and GSSG were not additive. Further analysis of the effect of GSSG revealed that preincubation of permeabilized hepatocytes at 37 degrees C results in a progressive loss of [3H]IP3-binding sites that can be prevented and reversed by inclusion of GSSG. A parallel loss of IP3-sensitive Mn(2+)-quenchable stores was observed after incubation at 37 degrees C, and this could also be reversed by adding back GSSG. The loss of IP3 binding was not the result of IP3-receptor proteolysis, as judged by Western blotting of immunoreactive protein. The sensitivity of [3H]IP3 binding in permeabilized hepatocytes to varied ratios of GSSG and GSH suggests that the IP3 receptor responds to an oxidized redox environment such as that found in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. GSSG had no direct effect on the ligand-binding activity of detergent-solubilized and partially purified IP3 receptors. We conclude that GSSG exerts an indirect effect on the IP3 receptors in permeabilized hepatocytes by preventing a temperature-dependent loss of IP3-binding sites. We suggest that the hepatic IP3 receptors may interact with a thiol-disulphide oxidoreductase that utilizes GSSG as a substrate and prevents inappropriate unfolding of the ligand-binding domain occurring after incubation of the receptor at 37 degrees C in vitro.
Project description:A high-performance-liquid-chromatography (h.p.l.c.) separation was developed, which resolves isomers of inositol monophosphate (IP), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in a single run. In GH3 cells labelled with [3H]inositol, treated with Li+ and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), radiolabelled components identified as inositol 1-phosphate (I1P), inositol 2-phosphate (I2P), inositol 4-phosphate (I4P), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [I(1,4)P2], inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [I(1,3,4)P3] and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P3] are present, as are multiple unidentified IP2 peaks. After TRH stimulation, both I1P and I4P increase, the increase in I4P preceding that of I1P; I(1,4)P2 and an unknown IP2 increase; and both I(1,3,4)P3 and I(1,4,5)P3 increase, the increase in I(1,4,5)P3 being rapid and transient, whereas the increase in I(1,3,4)P3 is slower and more sustained. The most rapidly appearing inositol phosphates produced after TRH stimulation are I(1,4)P2 and I(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:The effects of sphingosine derivatives on Ca2+ fluxes were investigated in thyroid FRTL-5 cells labelled with Fura 2. Addition of sphingosylphosphocholine (SPC) or sphingosine (SP) increased intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose tested (30 microM), the response was biphasic: a rapid transient increase in [Ca2+]i, followed by a new, elevated, level of [Ca2+]i. Both phases of the SPC-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i were dependent on extracellular Ca2+, whereas only the SP-evoked elevated level of [Ca2+]i was dependent on the influx of Ca2+. Both compounds released sequestered Ca2+ from thapsigargin- and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ pools. In addition, the increase in [Ca2+]i in response to SPC, but not to SP, was attenuated in cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate or with the putative Ca(2+)-channel blocker SKF 96365, and in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin for 24 h. SPC did not activate the production of IP3. Furthermore, both SPC and SP released sequestered Ca2+ from permeabilized cells. We observed that SPC, but not SP, stimulated release of [3H]arachidonate from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonate for 24 h. Both SPC and SP stimulated the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in cells grown in the absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The results suggest that sphingosine derivatives are putative regulators of Ca2+ fluxes in FRTL-5 cells, and that SP and SPC may act on [Ca2+]i via different mechanisms. Furthermore, both SP and SPC may be of importance in modulating thyroid-cell proliferation.
Project description:Calmodulin inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to, and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by, cerebellar IP3 receptors [Patel, Morris, Adkins, O'Beirne and Taylor (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.A. 94, 11627-11632]. In the present study, full-length rat type-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed at high levels in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and the effects of calmodulin were examined. In the absence of Ca2+, calmodulin caused a concentration-dependent and reversible inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors by decreasing their apparent affinity for IP3. The effect was not reproduced by high concentrations of troponin C, parvalbumin or S-100. Increasing the medium free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) inhibited [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 receptors, but the further inhibition caused by a submaximal concentration of calmodulin was similar at each [Ca2+]m. In the absence of Ca2+, 125I-calmodulin bound to a single site on each type-1 receptor subunit and to an additional site in the presence of Ca2+. There was no detectable binding of 125I-calmodulin to type-3 receptors and binding of [3H]IP3 was insensitive to calmodulin at all [Ca2+]m. Both peptide and conventional Ca2+-calmodulin antagonists affected neither [3H]IP3 binding directly nor the inhibitory effect of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+, but each caused a [Ca2+]m-dependent reversal of the inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding caused by calmodulin. Camstatin, a peptide that binds to calmodulin equally well in the presence or absence of Ca2+, reversed the inhibitory effects of calmodulin on [3H]IP3 binding at all [Ca2+]m. We conclude that calmodulin specifically inhibits [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors: the first example of a protein regulated by calmodulin in an entirely Ca2+-independent manner. Inhibition of type-1 IP3 receptors by calmodulin may dynamically regulate their sensitivity to IP3 in response to the changes in cytosolic free calmodulin concentration thought to accompany stimulation of neurones.