Isomers of inositol trisphosphate in exocrine pancreas.
ABSTRACT: In rat pancreatic acinar cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing receptor-agonist, caerulein, at both maximal and submaximal concentrations, stimulated a rapid, transient, increase in [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3], followed by a slower, sustained, increase in [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [(1,3,4)IP3]. Neither activation of protein kinase C by phorbol dibutyrate nor prevention of the caerulein-stimulated elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] significantly affected the pattern of formation of the two isomers of IP3. Although carbachol evoked an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], it did not significantly stimulate [3H](1,4,5)IP3 accumulation, but did promote [3H](1,3,4)IP3 accumulation. Moreover, both carbachol and caerulein maintained hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools in a Ca2+-depleted state after [3H](1,4,5)IP3 had returned to basal concentrations. One interpretation of these findings is that total cellular concentrations of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 may not accurately reflect the concentration of this putative mediator in biologically relevant compartments.
Project description:Recent studies have established that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P3] provides the link between receptor-regulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Here, we report the effects of Ca2+ on inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation from phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) catalysed by phospholipase C in intact and electrically permeabilized rat pancreatic acinar cells. In permeabilized cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing agonist caerulein stimulated [3H]IP3 formation when the free [Ca2+] was buffered at 140 nM, the cytosolic free [Ca2+] of unstimulated pancreatic acinar cells. When the free [Ca2+] was reduced to less than 10 nM, caerulein did not stimulate [3H]IP3 formation. Ca2+ in the physiological range stimulated [3H]IP3 formation and reduced the amount of [3H]PIP2 in permeabilized cells. The effects of Ca2+ and the receptor agonist caerulein were additive, but we have not established whether this reflects independent effects on the same or different enzymes. The effect of Ca2+ on [3H]IP3 formation by permeabilized cells was unaffected by inhibitors of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism; nor were the effects of Ca2+ mimicked by addition of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that the effects of Ca2+ on phospholipase C activity are not a secondary consequence of Ca2+ activation of phospholipase A2. Changes in free [Ca2+] (less than 10 nM-1.2 mM) did not affect the metabolism of exogenous [3H]I(1,4,5)P3 by permeabilized cells. In permeabilized cells, breakdown of exogenous [3H]IP3 to [3H]IP2 (inositol bisphosphate), and formation of [3H]IP3 in response to receptor agonists were equally inhibited by 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid. This suggests that the [3H]IP2 formed in response to receptor agonists is entirely derived from [3H]IP3. In intact cells, [3H]IP3 formation was stimulated when ionomycin was used to increase the cytosolic free [Ca2+]. However, a maximal concentration of caerulein elicited ten times as much IP3 formation as did the highest physiologically relevant [Ca2+]. We conclude that the major effect of receptor agonists on IP3 formation does not require an elevation of cytosolic free [Ca2+], although the increase in free [Ca2+] that normally follows IP3 formation may itself have a small stimulatory effect on phospholipase C.
Project description:We compared the time course of increases in isomers of inositol trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and Ins(1,3,4)P3] and the tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] with changes in cytosolic free Ca2+ [( Ca2+]i) in dispersed pancreatic acini of the rat. There were rapid (5s) increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in response to carbachol, caerulein and secretin, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 increased more slowly. All three secretagogues induced increases in [Ca2+]i, which reached a peak at 15-20 s. Our results indicate that the very rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 is compatible with its second-messenger role in the initial elevation of [Ca2+]i.
Project description:A complete separation of myo-inositol 1,4,5-[4,5-(32)P]trisphosphate prepared from human erythrocytes, and myo-[2-3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate prepared from carbachol-stimulated rat parotid glands [Irvine, Letcher, Lander & Downes (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 237-243], was achieved by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. This separation technique was then used to study the metabolism of these two isomers of inositol trisphosphate in carbachol-stimulated rat parotid glands. Fragments of glands were pre-labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol, washed, and then stimulated with carbachol. At 5s after stimulation a clear increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate was detected, with no significant increase in inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. After this initial lag however, inositol 1,3,4-phosphate rose rapidly; by 15s it predominated over inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and continued to rise so that after 15 min it was at 10-20 times the radiolabelling level of the 1,4,5-isomer. In contrast, after the initial rapid rise (maximal within 15s), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels declined to near control levels after 1 min and then rose again very gradually over the next 15 min. When a muscarinic blocker (atropine) was added after 15 min of carbachol stimulation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels dropped to control levels within 2-3 min, whereas inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate levels took at least 15 min to fall, consistent with the kinetics observed earlier for total parotid inositol trisphosphates [Downes & Wusteman (1983) Biochem. J. 216, 633-640]. Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) from stimulated and control cells were degraded chemically to inositol trisphosphate to seek evidence for 3H-labelled PtdIns(3,4)P2. No evidence could be obtained that a significant proportion of PtdInsP2 was this isomer; in control tissues it must be less than 5% of the total PtdInsP2 radiolabelled by myo-[2-3H]inositol. These data indicate that, provided that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is studied independently of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, the former shows metabolic characteristics consistent with its proposed role as a second messenger for calcium mobilization. The metabolic profile of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate is entirely different, and its function and source remain unclear.
Project description:Addition of 1 mM-carbachol to [3H]inositol-labelled rat parotid slices stimulated rapid formation of [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, the accumulation of which reached a peak 20 s after stimulation, and then declined rapidly towards a new steady state. The initial rate of formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was slower than that for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The radioactivity in [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate fell quickly in carbachol-stimulated and then atropine-blocked parotid slices, suggesting that it is rapidly metabolized during stimulation. Parotid homogenates rapidly dephosphorylated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and, less rapidly, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was specifically hydrolysed to a compound with the chromatographic properties of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. The only 3H-labelled phospholipids that we could detect in parotid slices labelled with [3H]inositol for 90 min were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Parotid homogenates synthesized inositol tetrakisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. This activity was dependent on the presence of ATP. We suggest that, during carbachol stimulation of parotid slices, the key event in inositol lipid metabolism is the activation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-specific phospholipase C. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate thus liberated is metabolized in two distinct ways; by direct hydrolysis of the 5-phosphate to form inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and by phosphorylation to form inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and hence, by hydrolysis of this tetrakisphosphate, to form inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate.
Project description:The effects of Li+ on carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism were examined in rat cerebral-cortex slices labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. The muscarinic agonist carbachol evoked an enhanced steady-state accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP1), [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]InsP2), [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3), [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) and [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4). Li+ (5 mM), after a 10 min lag, severely attenuated carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsP4 accumulation while simultaneously potentiating accumulation of both [3H]InsP1 and [3H]InsP2 and, at least initially, of [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3. These data are consistent with inhibition of inositol mono-, bis- and 1,3,4-tris-phosphate phosphatases to different degrees by Li+ in brain, but are not considered to be completely accounted for in this way. Potential direct and indirect mechanisms of the inhibitory action of Li+ on [3H]InsP4 accumulation are considered. The present results stress the complex action of Li+ on cerebral inositol metabolism and indicate that more complex mechanisms than are yet evident may regulate this process.
Project description:In longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea-pig intestine prelabelled with [3H]inositol, carbachol produced a 3-fold increase in [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate within 2 s, and there was also a simultaneous increase in [3H]inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. 3H-labelling of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was not significantly increased until 60 s after carbachol stimulation, and the accumulation of [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate was relatively small.
Project description:The metabolism of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) was studied in permeabilized rat aortic smooth-muscle cells. Addition of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 to the leaky cells led to formation of several labelled metabolites. Amounts of [3H]inositol bisphosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4) reached a maximum within 2 min of incubation, whereas production of [3H]inositol monophosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3) was delayed. Formation of InsP4 and Ins(1,3,4)P3 was Ca2+-sensitive in the physiological intracellular range (0.06-5 microM), showing a maximum at 1 microM-Ca2+. A correlation between the formation of InsP4 and that of Ins(1,3,4)P3 was observed, suggesting that the former is the precursor of the latter. These results suggest that, in vascular smooth-muscle cells, Ins(1,4,5)P3 is metabolized via two distinct pathways: (1) a dephosphorylation pathway, leading to formation of inositol bis- and mono-phosphate; and (2) a Ca2+-sensitive phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway, involving formation of InsP4 and leading to formation of Ins(1,3,4)P3.
Project description:When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands.
Project description:1. Basal and carbachol-stimulated accumulations of isomeric [3H]inositol mono-, bis-, tris- and tetrakis-phosphates were examined in rat cerebral-cortex slices labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. 2. In control samples the major [3H]inositol phosphates detected were co-eluted on h.p.l.c. with Ins(1)P, Ins(4)P (inositol 1- and 4-monophosphate respectively), Ins(1,4)P2 (inositol 1,4-bisphosphate), Ins(1,4,5)P3 (inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate) and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate). 3. After stimulation to steady state with carbachol, accumulation of each of these products was markedly increased. 4. Agonist stimulation, however, also evoked much more dramatic increased accumulations of a second [3H]inositol trisphosphate, which was co-eluted on h.p.l.c. with authentic Ins(1,3,4)P3 (inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate) and of three further [3H]inositol bisphosphates ([3H]InsP2(s]. 5. Examination of the latter by chemical degradation by periodate oxidation and/or h.p.l.c. allowed identification of these as [3H]Ins(1,3)P2, [3H]Ins(3,4)P2 and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 (inositol 1,3-, 3,4- and 4,5-bisphosphates respectively), which respectively accounted for about 22%, 8% and 3% of total [3H]InsP2 in extracts from stimulated tissue slices. 6. By using a h.p.l.c. method which clearly resolves Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 (inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate), only the former isomer could be detected in extracts from either control or stimulated tissue slices. Similarly, [3H]inositol pentakis- and hexakis-phosphates were not detectable either in the presence or absence of carbachol under the radiolabelling conditions described. 7. The catabolism of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 by cell-free preparations from cerebral cortex was also studied. 8. In the presence of Mg2+, [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was specifically dephosphorylated via [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 and [3H]Ins(4)P to free [3H]inositol, whereas [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 was degraded via [3H]Ins(3,4)P2 and, to a lesser extent, via [3H]Ins(1,3)P2 to D- and/or L-[3H]Ins(1)P and [3H]inositol. 9. In the presence of EDTA, hydrolysis of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was greater than or equal to 95% inhibited, whereas [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 was still degraded, but yielded only a single [3H]InsP2 identified as [3H]Ins(1,3)P2. 10. The significance of these observations with cell-free preparations is discussed in relation to the proportions of the separate isomeric [3H]inositol phosphates measured in stimulated tissue slices.
Project description:A high-performance-liquid-chromatography (h.p.l.c.) separation was developed, which resolves isomers of inositol monophosphate (IP), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in a single run. In GH3 cells labelled with [3H]inositol, treated with Li+ and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), radiolabelled components identified as inositol 1-phosphate (I1P), inositol 2-phosphate (I2P), inositol 4-phosphate (I4P), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [I(1,4)P2], inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [I(1,3,4)P3] and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P3] are present, as are multiple unidentified IP2 peaks. After TRH stimulation, both I1P and I4P increase, the increase in I4P preceding that of I1P; I(1,4)P2 and an unknown IP2 increase; and both I(1,3,4)P3 and I(1,4,5)P3 increase, the increase in I(1,4,5)P3 being rapid and transient, whereas the increase in I(1,3,4)P3 is slower and more sustained. The most rapidly appearing inositol phosphates produced after TRH stimulation are I(1,4)P2 and I(1,4,5)P3.