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Regulation of ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and the mitochondrial redox state by dexamethasone in hepatocyte monolayer cultures.


ABSTRACT: The effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on fatty acid and pyruvate metabolism were studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Parenchymal hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h with nanomolar concentrations of dexamethasone in either the absence or the presence of insulin (10 nM) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 microM BcAMP). Dexamethasone (1-100 nM) increased the rate of formation of ketone bodies from 0.5 mM-palmitate in both the absence and the presence of BcAMP, but inhibited ketogenesis in the presence of insulin. Dexamethasone increased the proportion of the palmitate metabolized that was partitioned towards oxidation to ketone bodies, and decreased the cellular [glycerol 3-phosphate]. The latter suggests that the increased partitioning of palmitate to ketone bodies may be associated with decreased esterification to glycerolipid. The Vmax. of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) and the affinity of CPT for palmitoyl-CoA were not affected by dexamethasone, indicating that the increased ketogenesis was not due to an increase in enzymic capacity for long-chain acylcarnitine formation. Dexamethasone and BcAMP, separately and in combination, increased gluconeogenesis. In the presence of insulin, however, dexamethasone inhibited gluconeogenesis. Changes in gluconeogenesis thus paralleled changes in ketogenesis. Dexamethasone decreased the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, despite increasing the rate of ketogenesis and presumably the mitochondrial production of reducing equivalents. The more oxidized mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox couple with dexamethasone is probably due either to an increased rate of electron transport or to increased transfer of mitochondrial reducing equivalents to the cytoplasm.

SUBMITTER: Agius L 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1147328 | BioStudies | 1986-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): 10.1042/bj2390593

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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