Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP content and rate of lipogenesis in mammary acini in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Relationships between the cyclic AMP content, the rate of lipogenesis and the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in acini prepared from lactating rat mammary tissue were investigated by exposing them to agents that increase their cyclic AMP content in the presence or absence of insulin. The dose-dependent inhibition of lipogenesis by theophylline in acini isolated from fed rats was highly correlated with the induced increases in acinar cyclic AMP content. Cyclic AMP of acini from 24 h-starved lactating rats was more sensitive in its response to theophylline than that in acini from fed animals. Neither forskolin nor a mixture of isoprenaline and Ro 7-2956 were able significantly to change either the rate of lipogenesis or the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in acini from fed rats when added to incubations in vitro, in spite of the large increases in cyclic AMP concentration produced by these agents. Insulin was without effect on the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and on either the basal or isoprenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP content of acini. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the rate of lipogenesis and the cyclic AMP content in mammary acini can vary independently of one another and of the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
Project description:The role of cyclic AMP in acute regulation of the metabolism of mammary tissue in the lactating rat was examined by measuring the activity ratio of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) and by examining the properties of this enzyme in its two major isoenzymic forms. Isoenzyme II is the major form in soluble extracts of rat mammary tissue. A-kinase activity ratio in such extracts is unaffected by starvation of the lactating rat. Treatment of the intact rat with isoprenaline, or addition of isoprenaline to incubations in vitro of mammary acini, resulted in a major increase in the activity ratio of A-kinase. These treatments equally affected isoenzymes I and II. The treatment in vitro lead to a rapid depletion of A-kinase as subsequently measured in extracts of acini. The degree of activation of the enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase and glycogen phosphorylase in extracts of mammary tissue and of acini was assessed as a function of these treatments. The increased activation of A-kinase induced by isoprenaline was unaccompanied by significant changes in the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in acini, although we previously showed that this agent activates acetyl-CoA carboxylase in intact mammary tissue. Contrastingly, isoprenaline-induced enhancement of A-kinase activity was accompanied by an increase in the activity ratio of phosphorylase in acini. These results indicate that: (a) a normal response of expressed A-kinase activity to cyclic AMP operates in mammary acini and mammary tissue from lactating rats; (b) rapid modulation of the total amount of soluble A-kinase is mediated in mammary epithelial cells by cyclic AMP; (c) phosphorylase, an ultimate target of the protein phosphorylation cascade initiated by A-kinase, is activated in acini under conditions where A-kinase activity is enhanced; and (d) mechanisms other than that of the A-kinase phosphorylation/inhibition model for acetyl-CoA carboxylase regulation must operate in mammary tissue preparations and in vivo to account for the response of this enzyme to enhanced A-kinase activity.
Project description:A technique is described for the non-recirculating perfusion of inguinal/abdominal mammary tissue in situ in anaesthetized lactating rats. Tissue viability was maintained, without resort to infusion of vasoactive chemicals which may also be effectors of cellular metabolism, for at least 90 min. Total tissue adenine nucleotides (per mg of DNA) were somewhat decreased in perfused relative to non-perfused mammary tissue. DNA content (per g wet wt. of tissue) was diminished after 90 min of perfusion to approx. 65% of its value in control tissue. Adenylate energy-charge ratios were lower in perfused tissue in the absence of hormones than in control tissue. They were increased to control values by the presence of either insulin or isoprenaline in the perfusate. No changes occurred in flow rate of the perfusate that might account for these increases. In mammary tissue perfused without addition of hormones, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activities were similar to those measured in control tissue samples, although activity-ratio measurements implied some increase in the phosphorylation of this enzyme. Insulin or isoprenaline increased the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, especially when this was measured at low concentrations of citrate. Confirming conclusions from previous experiments with mammary acini and explant preparations, insulin activated acetyl-CoA carboxylase in mammary tissue, but inhibition of its activity was not mediated by cyclic AMP.
Project description:Feeding lactating rats on high-fat cheese crackers in addition to laboratory chow increased the dietary intake of fat from 2 to 20% of the total weight of food eaten and decreased mammary-gland lipogenesis in vivo by approx. 50%. This lipogenic inhibition was also observed in isolated mammary acini, where it was accompanied by decreased glucose uptake. These inhibitions were completely reversed by incubation with insulin. Insulin had no effect on the rate of glucose transport into acini, nor on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity as estimated by the accumulation of pyruvate and lactate, suggesting that these are not the sites of lipogenic inhibition. Insulin stimulated the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into lipid in acini from high-fat-fed rats. In the presence of alpha-cyanohydroxycinnamate, a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and with glucose as the sole substrate, neither [1-14C]glucose incorporation into lipid nor glucose uptake were stimulated by insulin. Insulin did stimulate the incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into lipid in the presence of alpha-cyanohydroxycinnamate, and this was accompanied by an increase in glucose uptake by the acini. This indicated that increased glucose uptake was secondary to the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin, which therefore must occur via activation of a step in the pathway distal to mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Insulin stimulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity measured in crude extracts of acini from high-fat-fed rats, restoring it to values close to those of chow-fed controls. The effects of insulin on acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and lipogenesis were not antagonized by adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP.
Project description:The kinetic parameters and phosphorylation state of acetyl-CoA carboxylase were analysed after purification of the enzyme by avidin--Sepharose chromatography from extracts of isolated adipocytes treated with glucagon or adrenaline. The results provide evidence that the mechanism of inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes treated with glucagon [Zammit & Corstorphine (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 783-788] involves increased phosphorylation of the enzyme. Hormone treatment had effects on the kinetic parameters of the enzyme similar to those of phosphorylation of the enzyme in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Glucagon treatment of adipocytes led to increased phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the same chymotryptic peptide as that containing the major site phosphorylated on the enzyme by purified cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro [Munday & Hardie (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 141, 617-627]. The dose--response curves for inhibition of enzyme activity and increased phosphorylation of the enzyme were very similar, with half-maximal effects occurring at concentrations of glucagon (0.5-1 nM) which are close to the physiological range. In general, the patterns of increased 32P-labelling of chymotryptic peptides induced by glucagon or adrenaline were similar, although there were quantitative differences between the effects of the two hormones on individual peptides. The results are discussed in terms of the possible roles of cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent protein kinases in the regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue.
Project description:Superose 6 chromatography was used to separate rapidly the polymeric and dimeric forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. With preparations of acetyl-CoA carboxylase purified by Sepharose-avidin chromatography, it is shown that citrate promotes polymerization and that the extent of polymerization is diminished, but not eliminated, after phosphorylation by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. After exposure of rat epididymal adipose tissue to insulin, evidence was obtained for a marked increase in polymerization. The polymeric form, which was active in the absence of citrate, exhibited increased phosphorylation, particularly on a tryptic peptide designated the I-peptide in an earlier study [Brownsey & Denton (1982) Biochem. J. 202, 77-86]. In contrast, in tissue exposed to the beta-agonist isoprenaline, most of the phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase appeared to be in the dimeric form if chromatography was carried out in the absence of citrate, whereas in the presence of citrate the degree of polymerization was diminished.
Project description:The cyclic AMP content of acini, freshly prepared from mammary tissue of lactating rats, was measured during incubation in vitro. Neither adrenergic agonists nor cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors alone caused a change of more than 2-fold in the basal cyclic AMP content of acini. Together, however, these agents provoked increases of around 20-fold in acini cyclic AMP content. Forskolin caused similar effects. The relative potency of adrenergic agonists in increasing cyclic AMP in acini, together with the ability of selective antagonists to oppose such rises, indicated that beta 2-adrenergic receptors were involved in mediating the effects. Receptor-binding experiments using [3H]dihydroalprenolol and selective beta-antagonists confirmed the predominant presence of beta 2-adrenergic receptors on acini membranes and on membranes prepared from purified mammary secretory epithelial cells. These results elucidate some previous findings [Robson, Clegg & Zammit (1984) Biochem. J. 217, 743-749; Williamson, Munday, Jones, Roberts & Ramsey (1983) Adv. Enzyme Regul. 21, 135-145], questioning the role of cyclic AMP in the regulation of lipogenesis in mammary acini.
Project description:Insulin stimulates lipogenesis by 100% for 5 h by a covalent modulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and by 200% for 24 h by increasing malic enzyme and fatty acid synthase enzymic activities in brown-adipocyte primary cultures. At short times, noradrenaline and isoprenaline decrease lipogenesis. However, phenylephrine and glucagon have no effect. At long times, dexamethasone inhibits lipogenesis. This effect is precluded in the presence of insulin. Progesterone and tri-iodothyronine, alone or in the presence of insulin, produce a stimulation of the rates of lipogenesis.
Project description:1. The effect of preincubation of extracts of lactating rat mammary gland with ATP, Mg2+ and micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ on the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was studied. 2. Both Mg2+ and Ca2+ activated the enzyme. Activation with Mg2+ (5 mM) was larger than that with Ca2+ (calculated free Ca2+ concentration = 20-50 microM), but the activity decreased after reaching a peak. The activation obtained with Ca2+ was stable for up to 180 min. 3. Incubation with Ca2+ and Mg2+ together resulted in an activation that was slightly higher than that with Mg2+ only and was stable (compare the results for Ca2+ alone). 4. Preincubation in the absence of Mg2+, but not in the absence of Ca2+, resulted in the impairment of subsequent activation with either Mg2+ (when preincubation was with Ca2+ alone) or Mg2+ plus Ca2+. 5. KF (50 mM) prevented the activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by Ca2+ and Mg2+. 6. MgATP2- reversed (Mg2+ + Ca2+)-mediated activation and decreased the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to about 10% of initial activity. Inhibition by ATP was unaffected by addition of cyclic AMP or cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor. 7. 32P was incorporated into acetyl-CoA carboxylase when incubations were carried out in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. Subsequent removal of ATP from the incubation medium resulted in rapid loss of 32P from acetyl-CoA carboxylase. 8. It is suggested that extracts of rat mammary gland contain endogenous protein kinase and phosphatase activities that modulate acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity through reversible phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The phosphatase activity is sensitive to both Mg2+ and micromolar concentrations of Ca2+, whereas the kinase does not appear to be cyclic AMP-dependent.
Project description:Phosphorylation of soluble proteins in rat mammary acinar cells was investigated. When phosphorylation proceeded in intact cells, in the presence of [32P]Pi, the major non-casein phosphoproteins, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were unresponsive to incubation conditions that caused major increases in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. The overall 32P specific radioactivity (c.p.m./microgram of protein) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, assessed after affinity purification of the enzyme with avidin-Sepharose, was unchanged by incubation under such conditions. Furthermore, the distribution of 32P among tryptic phosphopeptides of the enzyme, resolved by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., was not altered by cyclic AMP-increasing treatments of the acinar cells. When cytosol fractions were incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, some phosphoproteins responded to the addition of micromolar concentrations of dibutyryl cyclic AMP or cyclic AMP by undergoing an enhancement of phosphate incorporation. In these experiments in vitro, protein phosphatase activity did not make a major contribution to the net phosphorylation of individual phosphoproteins, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was not prominent among the phosphoproteins identified after short (less than 1 min) incubations of cytosols with [gamma-32P]ATP. The resistance of protein phosphorylation to variations in the cyclic AMP concentration in intact mammary epithelial cells, demonstrated by this work, is one of several mechanisms that ensure the pleiotropic refractoriness of those cells to agents which normally cause a stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in hormone-sensitive cells.
Project description:Galegine and guanidine, originally isolated from Galega officinalis, led to the development of the biguanides. The weight-reducing effects of galegine have not previously been studied and the present investigation was undertaken to determine its mechanism(s) of action.Body weight and food intake were examined in mice. Glucose uptake and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity were studied in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was examined in cell lines. The gene expression of some enzymes involved in fat metabolism was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.Galegine administered in the diet reduced body weight in mice. Pair-feeding indicated that at least part of this effect was independent of reduced food intake. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes, galegine (50 microM-3 mM) stimulated glucose uptake. Galegine (1-300 microM) also reduced isoprenaline-mediated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. Galegine (500 microM) down-regulated genes concerned with fatty acid synthesis, including fatty acid synthase and its upstream regulator SREBP. Galegine (10 microM and above) produced a concentration-dependent activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in H4IIE rat hepatoma, HEK293 human kidney cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes.Activation of AMPK can explain many of the effects of galegine, including enhanced glucose uptake and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase both inhibits fatty acid synthesis and stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and this may to contribute to the in vivo effect of galegine on body weight.