Haemosiderin-like properties of free-radical-modified ferritin.
ABSTRACT: Conjugated-Schiff's-base-type fluorescence was measured in iron-depleted samples and chloroform extracts of human spleen haemosiderin. Incubation of ferritin with liposomes and ascorbate led to the formation of compounds with similar fluorescence properties. Analysis of protein subunits by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis confirmed that ferritin was damaged in incubations with ascorbate. Since previous studies have shown that intact ferritin is resistant to proteolytic degradation, it is suggested that haemosiderin may be a product of oxidative reactions involving ferritin and lipid.
Project description:Ferritin and haemosiderin were shown, by the measurement of malondialdehyde production and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, to stimulate lipid peroxidation in liposomes. At pH 7.4 ascorbate was additionally required to achieve peroxidation; however, peroxidation occurred at pH 4.5 in the presence of iron-proteins alone. The damage was completely inhibited by the incorporation of chain-breaking antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene) into the liposomes. Metal chelators (desferrioxamine and EDTA) also completely inhibited lipid peroxidation. These and further results indicate that, at pH 4.5, even in the absence of a reducing agent, iron is released from haemosiderin and can mediate oxidative damage to a lipid membrane.
Project description:A minor electrophoretically fast component was found in ferritin from iron-loaded rat liver in addition to a major electrophoretically slow ferritin similar to that observed in control rats. The electrophoretically fast ferritin showed immunological identity with the slow component, but on electrophoresis in SDS it gave a peptide of 17.3 kDa, in contrast with the electrophoretically slow ferritin, which gave a major band corresponding to the L-subunit (20.7 kDa). Thus the electrophoretically fast ferritin resembles that reported by Massover [(1985) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 829, 377-386] in livers of mice with short-term parenteral iron overload. The electrophoretically fast ferritin had a lower iron content (2000 Fe atoms/molecule) than the electrophoretically slow ferritin (3000 Fe atoms/molecule). Removal and re-incorporation of iron was possible without effect on the electrophoretic mobility of either ferritin species. On subcellular fractionation the electrophoretically fast ferritin was enriched in pellet fractions and was the sole soluble ferritin isolated from iron-laden secondary lysosomes (siderosomes). The amount and relative proportion of the electrophoretically fast species increased with iron loading. Haemosiderin isolated from siderosomes was found to contain a peptide reactive to anti-ferritin serum and corresponding to the 17.3 kDa peptide of the electrophoretically fast ferritin species. Unlike the electrophoretically slow ferritin, the electrophoretically fast ferritin did not become significantly radioactive in a 1 h biosynthetic labelling experiment. We conclude that the minor ferritin is not, as has been suggested for mouse liver ferritin, 'a completely new species of smaller holoferritin that represents a shift in the ferritin phenotype' in response to siderosis, but a precursor of haemosiderin, in agreement with the proposal by Richter [(1984) Lab. Invest. 50, 26-35] concerning siderosomal ferritin.
Project description:Horse spleen and human spleen ferritins increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) at both pH 4.5 and pH 7.4 in reaction mixtures containing ascorbic acid and H2O2. The generation of OH is inhibited by the chelator desferrioxamine. Human spleen haemosiderin also accelerates OH generation in identical reaction mixtures, but is far less effective (on a unit iron basis) than ferritin under all reaction conditions. It is proposed that conversion of ferritin into haemosiderin in iron overload is biologically advantageous in that it decreases the ability of iron to promote oxygen-radical reactions.
Project description:Iron release from both human and horse spleen haemosiderin to desferrioxamine was substantially less than that released from ferritin samples. This finding contradicts a previous report [Kontoghiorges, Chambers & Hoffbrand (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 87-92]. Differences in phosphate content of cores and in core size between haemosiderin and ferritin did not account for the different iron-release rates. Iron released to acetate was found to stimulate lipid peroxidation in liposomes, whereas that released to stronger chelators such as citrate and desferal did not. Absorption spectra and gel-filtration studies suggest that the acetate-solubilized iron was in the form of low-molecular-mass (less than 5 kDa) ferrihydrite fragments.
Project description:The heteroaromatic chelators 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, maltol, mimosine and 2,4-dihydroxypyridine-N-oxide, have been shown to mobilize iron from human spleen haemosiderin, ferritin and also from iron(III) precipitates, all containing equal amounts of iron, at physiological pH. In the case of almost every chelator, the least-solubilized polynuclear iron form was ferritin, whereas haemosiderin was more soluble and the iron(III) precipitate the most soluble of all. Most of the chelators were more efficient than desferrioxamine at releasing iron from ferritin, but less efficient in the removal of iron from the other two polynuclear iron forms. It is suggested that the chelator differences in iron mobilization may be related to variations in the chelator molecular structure, the protein structure, iron forms and in the mechanism of iron release.
Project description:1. Ferritin and haemosiderin in diluted tissue cannot be quantitatively separated by centrifugation unless the pH is brought below 6. 2. These iron-storage substances can be separated from one another and from haemoglobin by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, when good recoveries of total tissue iron are obtained. 3. The ferritin fraction has been identified by its solubility, its appearance under the electron microscope, crystallization with Cd(2+) and the fact that it corresponds quantitatively to the heat-stable portion of the tissue non-haem iron.
Project description:Isolated haemosiderin contained iron and nitrogen in a weight ratio of 6.75, with phosphorus and no detectable haem. Considerably more iron was released from haemosiderin under acidic conditions than under neutral conditions in the presence of ascorbate, nitrilotriacetate or dithionite. Unlike the situation with ascorbate, chelators such as citrate, ADP or succinate induced the release of only some iron, with almost no pH-dependence. Dehydroascorbate (the oxidized form of ascorbate with no reducing capacity) behaved like citrate, ADP, succinate or desferal, rather than like ascorbate itself, in releasing iron. GSH had less effect on the release of iron than these chelators, but in the presence of a small amount of chelator the release of iron increased, especially under acidic conditions. Thus reduction, chelation and pH were all found to be important factors involved in the release of iron from haemosiderin. Investigation by e.p.r. of hydroxyl-radical production by the released iron showed high radical productivity at an acidic pH. However, at a physiological pH, almost no radical formation was detected, except in the presence of nitrilotriacetate. These findings suggested that, under physiological conditions, haemosiderin was not an effective iron donor and was almost not involved in radical production. Under acidic conditions, however, such as in inflammation, hypoxia and in a lysosomal milieu, it could possibly be an iron donor and is thought to be implicated in radical production and tissue damage in iron-overloaded conditions.
Project description:Haemosiderin was isolated from thalassaemic human spleens by centrifugation through concentrated KI solutions. A method for solubilizing haemosiderin was developed which leaves the iron oxyhydroxide cores and constituent polypeptides intact, facilitating further purification and analysis. Purified haemosiderin contained no detectable haem, trace amounts of carbohydrate, and iron and phosphorus in a molar ration of 6:1; much of the phosphate may be present as core-adsorbed. Several lipids were present, but it is not certain whether these are contaminants or components of the haemosiderin granules. In all preparations examined, a characteristic group of six to seven peptides of apparent Mr 12 900-17 800 were found, with a major band at Mr 14 500 and, in addition, a minor component of Mr 42 000; these peptides co-chromatographed with the cores. Negatively stained electron micrographs suggest that these peptides form an incomplete shell about the cores, consistent with the view that haemosiderin is a proteolytic product of ferritin.
Project description:This study aimed to elucidate the way in which larvae of the lamprey Geotria australis counteract the potential problems of the very high concentrations of non-haem iron they contain and thereby avoid the deleterious effects associated with iron overload in other vertebrates. Particular attention has been paid to ascertaining whether increasing concentrations of iron are accompanied by (i) change to a less readily available form of iron and (ii) an increase in the activity of those detoxifying enzymes responsible for minimizing the production of harmful hydroxyl radicals via the Haber-Weiss reaction. The mean concentrations of haemosiderin and ferritin in larval G. australis were each far higher in the nephric fold than in either the liver or intestine, but all these concentrations were much greater than those in rat liver. Since haemosiderin releases iron far more slowly than ferritin, the iron it contains is much less readily available to catalyse the Haber-Weiss reaction. It is thus relevant that (i) non-haem iron in the nephric fold occurred to a greater extent as large dense haemosiderin granules than as ferritin molecules and (ii) the proportion of iron in the form of haemosiderin rose with increasing concentration of total non-haem iron. A strong correlation was also recorded between the activity of superoxide dismutase in the nephric fold and the concentrations of total non-haem iron and its haemosiderin and ferritin components. This demonstrates that enzyme detoxification of O2.- rises with increasing amounts of iron. The exceptional iron concentrations in the nephric fold were not reflected by a greater measured activity of superoxide dismutase than that found in other tissues. However, the nephric fold was shown to contain an augmentation factor which is presumed to enhance the activity of this enzyme in vivo. The activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, which catalyse the breakdown of H2O2 to O2 and water, were each significantly correlated with the concentration of ferritin.
Project description:Ferritin-containing fractions with different degrees of iron loading were prepared. All ferritin fractions stimulated the peroxidation of bovine brain phospholipid liposomes, as measured by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material. This stimulation was increased in the presence of ascorbate. Iron salts of equivalent concentration to those of the ferritin fractions were more stimulatory to lipid peroxidation at the higher iron concentrations. None of the fractions inhibited ascorbate-dependent peroxidation in the presence of added iron salts.