Ketone-body metabolism after surgical stress or partial hepatectomy. Evidence for decreased ketogenesis and a site of control distal to carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.
ABSTRACT: Rats were subjected to laparotomy, or laparotomy and partial hepatectomy, at 0-48 h before administration of water or medium-chain-length triacylglycerol, having been starved post-operatively. Functional hepatectomies were performed at intervals after the intragastric load. Blood ketone-body concentrations after medium-chain triacylglycerol administration and/or functional hepatectomy of these rats were compared with values obtained in starved control rats. Decreased ketonaemia in response to medium-chain triacylglycerol was observed for up to 48 h after partial hepatectomy and at 1 and 2 h after laparotomy, but not at 24 or 48 h after laparotomy. Rates of ketone-body clearance after functional hepatectomy were unaffected by prior laparotomy or partial hepatectomy. Ketonaemia after medium-chain-triacylglycerol administration was only partially blocked by inhibition of CPT I (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I). The results demonstrate sustained effects of partial hepatectomy and short-term effects of surgical stress to decrease ketonaemia via inhibition of ketogenesis at site(s) distal to CPT I.
Project description:The effects of vasopressin on the metabolism of starved rats were investigated by using a constant-infusion regimen (50 pmol/kg body wt. per min, after an initial loading dose of 150 pmol/kg body wt.). 2. Blood ketone bodies decreased by 50% in 10 min, and this was accompanied by a 60% decrease in the plasma non-esterified fatty acids. 3. Blood glucose increased by 0.9 mM within 5 min and decreased to control values over the 40 min infusion. Small increases in lactate and pyruvate also occurred. 4. Plasma insulin was not increased by vasopressin infusion. 5. The net decrease in blood ketone bodies caused by vasopressin was similar when somatostatin was infused simultaneously (1 nmol/kg body wt. per min). 6. Hepatic ketone bodies were significantly decreased by vasopressin, as was the 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio. A small increase in the hepatic concentration of several glycolytic intermediates also occurred. 7. Vasopressin did not decrease the ketonaemia produced by infusions of octanoate or long-chain triacylglycerol in rats that had been pre-treated with the anti-lipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole. 8. In comparison with vasopressin, the infusion of adrenaline or glucose had much smaller effects in decreasing the ketonaemia of starvation, despite the 4-fold increase in plasma insulin, at 10 min, with the glucose infusion. 9. The primary metabolic effect of vasopressin in the starved rat appears to be that of decreased supply of non-esterified fatty acid to the liver. It is suggested that vasopressin has a direct anti-lipolytic effect in adipose tissue.
Project description:Fed or 24 h-starved rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy or sham-operation and subsequently starved for 4, 14 or 24 h. Despite high plasma fatty acid concentrations, the partially hepatectomized rats failed to respond to post-operative starvation with increased blood and liver ketone-body concentrations or to maintain the high ketone-body concentrations associated with pre-operative starvation. Hypoglycaemia and hyperlactaemia were observed within 30 min of functional hepatectomy, but not partial hepatectomy, of 24 h-starved rats, and, even after a further 24 h starvation of partially hepatectomized rats, blood glucose concentrations were only slightly decreased. The results are discussed with reference to fat oxidation and gluconeogenesis in the liver remaining after partial hepatectomy.
Project description:The administration of glucose to 48 h-starved euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats led to decreased blood concentrations of fatty acids and ketone bodies in both groups, but fatty acid concentrations were higher and ketone-body concentrations lower in the latter group. Decreased ketonaemia was not due to increased ketone-body clearance. Flux through carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 was increased, consistent with the effects of hyperthyroidism on enzyme activity demonstrated in vitro. Correlations between the concentrations of ketone bodies and long-chain acylcarnitine measured in freeze-clamped liver samples indicated that a lower proportion of the product of beta-oxidation was used for ketone-body synthesis. Citrate concentrations were unaffected by hyperthyroidism, but lipogenesis was increased. The results are discussed in relation to the factors controlling hepatic carbon flux and energy requirements after re-feeding.
Project description:During starvation for 72 h, tumour-bearing rats showed accelerated ketonaemia and marked ketonuria. Total blood [ketone bodies] were 8.53 mM and 3.34 mM in tumour-bearing and control (non-tumour-bearing) rats respectively (P less than 0.001). The [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio was 1.3 in the tumour-bearing rats, compared with 3.2 in the controls at 72 h (P less than 0.001). Blood [glucose] and hepatic [glycogen] were lower at the start of starvation in tumour-bearing rats, whereas plasma [non-esterified fatty acids] were not increased above those in the control rats during starvation. After functional hepatectomy, blood [acetoacetate], but not [3-hydroxybutyrate], decreased rapidly in tumour-bearing rats, whereas both ketone bodies decreased, and at a slower rate, in the control rats. Blood [glucose] decreased more rapidly in the hepatectomized control rats. Hepatocytes prepared from 72 h-starved tumour-bearing and control rats showed similar rates of ketogenesis from palmitate, and the distribution of [1-14C] palmitate between oxidation (ketone bodies and CO2) and esterification was also unaffected by tumour-bearing, as was the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate. The carcinoma itself showed rapid rates of glycolysis and a poor ability to metabolize ketone bodies in vitro. The results are consistent with the peripheral, normal, tissues in tumour-bearing rats having increased ketone-body and decreased glucose metabolic turnover rates.
Project description:1. Injection of adrenaline into 24 h-starved rats caused a 69% decrease in blood [ketone-body] (3-hydroxybutyrate plus acetoacetate), accompanied by a decreased [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio. Blood [glucose] and [lactate] increased, but [alanine] was unchanged. 2. Adrenaline also decreased [ketone-body] after intragastric feeding of both long- and medium-chain triacylglycerol. The latter decrease was observed after suppression of lipolysis with 5-methylpyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, indicating that the antiketogenic action of adrenaline was not dependent on the chain length of the precursor fatty acid. 3. The actions of adrenaline to decrease blood [ketone-body] and to increase blood [glucose] were not observed after administration of 3-mercaptopicolinate, an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. This suggests that these effects of the hormone are related. 4. The possible clinical significance of the results is discussed with reference to the restricted ketosis often observed after surgical or orthopaedic injury.
Project description:The effects of the ingestion of a meal on the partitioning of hepatic fatty acids between oxidation and esterification were studied in vivo for meal-fed rats. The time course for the reversal of the starved state was extremely rapid and the process was complete within 2 h, in marked contrast with the reversal of the effects of starvation in rats fed ad libitum [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 49-55]. This rapid reversal occurred in spite of the fact that, in the liver of the meal-fed animals before feeding, a similar degree of partitioning of fatty acids in favour of oxidation was observed as in 24 h-starved rats (previously fed ad libitum). This suggested that the lower degree of ketonaemia observed in meal-fed rats before a meal is not due to the inability of acylcarnitine formation to compete successfully with esterification of fatty acids to the glycerol moiety. Investigation of the possible mechanisms that could contribute towards the rapid switching-off of fatty acid oxidation revealed that this was correlated with a very rapid rise and overshoot in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, but not with any change in the activity, or sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, of the mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I). The role of these two parameters in the reversal of fasting-induced hepatic fatty acid oxidation was thus the inverse of that observed previously for refed 24 h-starved rats. The rapid increase in [malonyl-CoA] was accompanied by an immediate and complete reversion of the kinetic characteristics (Ka for citrate, expressed/total activity ratio) of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to those found in the post-meal animals, again in contrast with the time course observed in refed 24 h-starved rats [A. M. B. Moir and V. A. Zammit (1990) Biochem. J. 272, 511-517]. The rapidity with which these changes occurred was specific to the partitioning of acyl-CoA; the meal-induced diversion of glycerolipids towards phospholipid synthesis and the acute inhibition of the fractional rate of triacylglycerol secretion occurred with very similar time courses to those observed upon refeeding of 24 h-starved rats. The results confirm the central role played by differences in the dynamics of changes in hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, and CPT I sensitivity to it, in determining the route through which ingested glucose is converted into hepatic glycogen upon refeeding of starved rats which had previously been meal-fed or fed ad libitum.
Project description:1. The concentrations and total content of the nicotinamide nucleotides were measured in the livers of rats at various times after partial hepatectomy and laparotomy (sham hepatectomy) and correlated with other events in the regeneration process. 2. The NAD content and concentration in rat liver were relatively unaffected by laparotomy, but fell to a minimum, 25 and 33% below control values respectively, 24h after partial hepatectomy. NADP content and concentration were affected similarly by both laparotomy and partial hepatectomy, falling rapidly and remaining depressed for up to 48h. 3. The effect of injecting various doses of nicotinamide on the liver DNA and NAD 18h after partial hepatectomy was studied and revealed an inverse correlation between NAD content and DNA content. 4. Injections of nicotinamide at various times after partial hepatectomy revealed that the ability to synthesize NAD from nicotinamide was impaired during the first 12h, rose to a peak at 26h and fell again by 48h after partial hepatectomy. 5. The total liver activity of NAD pyrophosphorylase (EC 126.96.36.199) remained at or slightly above the initial value for 12h after partial hepatectomy and then rose continuously until 48h after operation. The activity of NMN pyrophosphorylase (EC 188.8.131.52) showed a similar pattern of change after partial hepatectomy, but was at no time greater than 5% of the activity of NAD pyrophosphorylase. 6. The results are discussed with reference to the control of NAD synthesis in rapidly dividing tissue. It is suggested that the availability of cofactors and substrates for NAD synthesis is more important as a controlling factor than the maximum enzyme activities. It is concluded that the low concentrations of nicotinamide nucleotides in rapidly dividing tissues are the result of competition between NAD synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis for common precursor and cofactors.
Project description:The concentrations of malonyl-CoA, citrate, ketone bodies and long-chain acylcarnitine were measured in freeze-clamped liver samples from fed or starved normal, partially hepatectomized or sham-operated rats. These parameters were used in conjunction with measurements of the concentration of plasma non-esterified fatty acids and the rates of hepatic lipogenesis to obtain correlations between rates of fatty acid delivery to the liver, lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies and CO2. These correlations indicated that the development of fatty liver after partial hepatectomy is due to an increased partitioning of long-chain acyl-CoA towards acylglycerol synthesis and away from acylcarnitine formation. However, this did not appear to be due to an altered relationship between hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration and acylcarnitine formation. For any concentration of long-chain acylcarnitine, the concentrations of both hepatic and blood ketone bodies were significantly lower in partially hepatectomized rats than in normal or sham-operated animals. This indicated that a lower proportion of the product of beta-oxidation was used for ketone-body formation and more for citrate synthesis in the regenerating liver, especially during the first 24 h after resection. This inference was supported by the changes in hepatic citrate concentrations observed. The high rates of lipogenesis that occurred in the liver remnant were accompanied by an altered relationship between lipogenic rate and hepatic malonyl-CoA concentration, such that much lower concentrations of malonyl-CoA were associated with any given rate of lipogenesis. These adaptations are discussed in relation to the requirements by the remnant for high rates of energy formation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle during the first 24 h after resection, and the possibility that cycling between fatty acid oxidation and synthesis may occur to a greater degree in regenerating liver.
Project description:In the suckling newborn rat, blood ketone bodies begin to increase slowly 4h after birth and then rise sharply between 12 and 16h, whereas the major increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and liver carnitine occurs during the first 2h of life, parallel with the onset of suckling. In the starved newborn rat, which shows no increase in liver carnitine unless it is fed with a carnitine solution, the developmental pattern of the ketogenic capacity (tested by feeding a triacylglycerol emulsion, which increases plasma non-esterified fatty acids by 3-fold) is the same as in the suckling animal. This suggests that the increases in plasma non-esterified fatty acids and liver carnitine seen 2h after birth in the suckling animal are not the predominant factors inducing the switch-on of ketogenesis. Injection of butyrate to starved newborn pups resulted in a pattern of blood ketone bodies which was similar to that found after administration of triacylglycerols, but, at all time points studied, the hyperketonaemia was more pronounced with butyrate. It is suggested that, even if the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria is a rate-limiting step, it is not the only factor controlling ketogenesis after birth in the rat. As in the adult rat, there is a reciprocal correlation between the liver glycogen content and the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood.
Project description:The relationships between the increase in blood ketone-body concentrations and several parameters that can potentially influence the rate of hepatic fatty acid oxidation were studied during progressive starvation (up to 24 h) in the rat in order to discover whether the sensitivity of mitochondrial overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) to malonyl-CoA plays an important part in determining the intrahepatic potential for fatty acid oxidation during the onset of ketogenic conditions. A rapid increase in blood ketone-body concentration occurred between 12 and 16 h of starvation, several hours after the marked fall in hepatic malonyl-CoA and in serum insulin concentrations and doubling of plasma non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Consequently, both the changes in hepatic malonyl-CoA and serum NEFA preceded the increase in blood ketone-body concentration by several hours. The maximal activity of CPT I increased gradually throughout the 24 h period of starvation, but the increases did not become significant before 18 h of starvation. By contrast, the sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA and the increase in blood ketone-body concentration followed an identical time course, demonstrating the central importance of this parameter in determining the ketogenic response of the liver to the onset of the starved state.