Demonstration of RNA polymerase multiplicity in Trypanosoma brucei. Characterization and purification of alpha-amanitin-resistant and -sensitive enzymes.
ABSTRACT: We have isolated, characterized and substantially purified two distinct RNA polymerase activities from the flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. RNA polymerases from this organism were resolved poorly on DEAE-Sephadex, but could be separated with CM-Sephadex. One form was totally resistant to alpha-amanitin, whereas the second was 50% inhibited by 10-20 micrograms of the drug/ml. The enzymes had different salt optima, but both were of high Mr (greater than 480,000) and demonstrated the template preference: poly[d(A-T)] greater than denatured DNA greater than native DNA, and both were more active with Mn2+ than with Mg2+. The amanitin-resistant enzyme, polymerase R, was partially purified by chromatography on CM-Sephadex, DEAE-Sephadex and heparin-Sepharose. This enzyme was very labile, and activity yields were around 9%; after purification, one or two protein bands could be discerned after electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions, but about 20 polypeptides were resolved on denaturing gels, including a major component (not thought to be part of the enzyme) of Mr 65,000. Polymerase S, sensitive to low alpha-amanitin concentrations, was more extensively purified, with an 18% recovery, and yielded a single major band with two minor ones after native gel electrophoresis. Analysis under denaturing conditions permitted a possible subunit structure for this enzyme to be ascribed.
Project description:Hydroxymethylbilane synthase from human erythrocytes was purified 47,000-fold to greater than 95% homogeneity and 7.5% yield by a simple and rapid procedure using heat treatment (80 degrees C, in the presence of proteinase inhibitors, to convert one of two chromatographically separable forms into the other), DEAE-cellulose and Cibacron Blue F3G-A-Sepharose chromatographies and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purified enzyme was similar to the enzyme purified from other species in showing hyperbolic dependence of velocity on substrate concentration, a non-linear progress curve for uroporphyrinogen appearance, and was monomeric, having an Mr of 44,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and h.p.l.c. and an Mr of 45,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a sharp pH profile for Vmax, and various folates were shown to accelerate neither the enzymic formation of hydroxymethylbilane nor ring-closure of hydroxymethylbilane.
Project description:A procedure is described for the purification of the alpha-amanitin-sensitive DNA-dependent RNA polymerase [EC 22.214.171.124] from wheat germ. Solubilization of the enzyme activity was achieved by sonication of a crude extract in a high-salt buffer. Purification involved precipitation with protamine sulphate and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and phosphocellulose, and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Under denaturing conditions the enzyme dissociated into five polypeptides with molecular weights and molar ratios of 220000 (0.9), 170000 (0.1), 140000 (1.0), 45000 (0.2), and 40000 (0.4). Approx. 1mg of purified RNA polymerase was obtained as a routine from 100g of starting material.
Project description:1. The high-activity form of aminolaevulinate synthetase has been prepared from extracts of semi-anaerobically grown cells of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, which were allowed to become activated in air. Specific activity was 130 000--170 000 nmol of aminolaevulinate/h per mg of protein at 37 degree C. 2. Enzyme fraction Ia prepared on DEAE-Sephadex was a mixture of four active enzymes, pI5.55, 5.45, 5.35 and 5.2, when prepared in either Tris or phosphate buffers and when extracts were activated by air or by cystine trisulphide. 3. The enzyme was further purified by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in imidazole/veronal buffer, pH 7.6, followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and concentration with DEAE-Sephadex. 4. The most active enzyme, pI 5.55, ran as a single protein band, mol.wt. 49 000, in sodium dodecyl sulphate and 2-mercaptoethanol. The apparent molecular weight under non-denaturing conditions was 62 000--68 000 on Sephadex G-100 or G-200, pH 7.5, and on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, pH 8.5, at enzyme concentrations below 10 000 units/ml, i.e. less than 60 microgram of protein/ml, and the enzyme was mainly monomeric. 5. The enzyme was homogeneous by gel disc electrophoresis at pH 8.9 and 7.6, but a slightly more diffuse band of protein was obtained during electrophoresis in glycine buffer, pH 7.4. 6. Enzyme samples possessed an intrinsic yellow fluorescence when viewed under u.v. light and this fluorescence coincided exactly with enzymic activity on gel electrophoresis. Fluorescence maxima were 420 nm (excitation) and 495 nm (emission). 7. Radioactive 35S-labelled enzyme had 14 atoms of sulphur/mol of protein (or/40 leucine residues) of which 5--6 residues were cyst(e)ine and 8--9 residues were methionine. 8. Mo carbohydrate was detected apart from glucose, which prevented accurate determination of tryptophan with methanesulphonic acid and tryptamine.
Project description:Dihydropteridine reductase (EC 126.96.36.199) was purified from human liver obtained at autopsy by a three-step chromatographic procedure with the use of (1) a naphthoquinone affinity adsorbent, (2) DEAE-Sephadex and (3) CM-Sephadex. The enzyme was typically purified 1000-fold with a yield of 25%. It gave a single band on non-denaturing and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and showed one spot on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 50000 by sedimentation-equilibrium analysis and 47500 by gel filtration. On sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, a single subunit with mol.wt. 26000 was observed. A complex of dihydropteridine reductase with NADH was observed on gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be pH 7.0. Amino acid analysis showed a residue composition similar to that seen for the sheep and bovine liver enzymes. The enzyme showed anomalous migration in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A Ferguson plot indicated that this behaviour is due to a low net charge/size ratio of the enzyme under the electrophoretic conditions used. The kinetic properties of the enzyme with tetrahydrobiopterin, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine, NADH and NADPH are compared, and the effects of pH, temperature and a number of different compounds on catalytic activity are presented.
Project description:The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A was purified 3322-fold to a specific activity of 150 mumol/min per mg. The purification involved (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose and DEAE-Sepharose, gel filtrations on Sephadex G-200 at pH 7.4 and 5, and a new preparative gel-electrophoresis technique. The homogeneous enzyme is a glycoprotein containing 20% carbohydrate. The purified enzyme has Mr about 120 000 and it contains subunits of Mr 63 000. The pig endometrial arylsulphatase A shows many properties in common with those of arylsulphatases A purified from other sources. The similarities include their low isoelectric points, the anomalous time-activity relationships, multi-pH optima, inhibition by SO3(2-), SO4(2-), phosphate ions, metal ions and nucleoside phosphates, pH- and ionic-strength-dependent polymerization and amino acid composition.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidases A and B were purified to homogeneity from human placenta. In the initial step of purification, the enzymes were adsorbed on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and eluted from the column with alpha-methyl D-mannosides. Subsequent purification steps included DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, QAE-Sephadex [diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl)aminoethyl-Sephadex] column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and preparative disc polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by another QAE-Sephadex chromatography for the hexosaminidase A preparation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, calcium phosphate gel chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex chromatography and CM-cellulose chromatography for the hexosaminidase B preparation. The purified preparations, particularly hexosaminidase A, had significantly higher specific enzyme activities than previously reported. The preparations moved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as single protein bands, which also stained for enzyme activity. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation indicated homogenous dispersion of the enzymes, and the molecular weight was estimated as about 110000 for both enzymes. Complete amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the two isoenzymes were determined, and, in contrast with previous suggestions, no sialic acid was found in the enzymes.
Project description:1. In the presence of Ca2+, a 5.3-S 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (EC 188.8.131.52) from bovine ventricle was isolated and purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and DEAE-cellulose and Affi-Gel Blue chromatography. The enzyme activity was enriched 800-fold by these procedures. 2. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation, gel filtration and non-denaturing polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis resolved a single enzyme species with an Mr of 89 000. 3. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme demonstrated a prominent protein band at Mr 59000 and a minor band of Mr 28000. Calmodulin was not detected. 4. The hydrolysis of micromolar concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) but not 3':5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) was stimulated by calmodulin. 5. Anomalous biphasic kinetics plots were observed for both the catalysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP hydrolysis. Kinetic plots became linear in the presence of calmodulin. 6. After several months of storage at -20 degrees C, the 5.3-S enzyme was transformed into a 6.2-S cyclic GMP-specific enzyme and a 4.4-S non-specific form.
Project description:Alkaline phosphatase from human liver was purified to homogeneity. The purification procedure included solubilization with butanol, fractionation with acetone, and chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. Purity was established by standard and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the protein was determined to be 4.0. Sephadex-gel filtration gave a mol.wt. of 146000, although a higher value was obtained in the presence of 100mM-NaC1. The subunit mol.wt. 76700, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Neuraminidase treatment resulted in two enzyme-activity bands on isoelectric-focused gels with isoelectric points of 6.6 and 6.8. The desialylated enzyme gave only one protein band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with a subunit molecular weight indistinguishable from that of the non-neuraminidase-treated protein. The desialylated enzyme was more readily denatured by sodium dodecyl sulphate in the presence of mercaptoethanol than was the native enzyme.
Project description:An enzyme catalysing the O-methylation of isobutyraldoxime by S-adenosyl-L-methionine was isolated from Pseudomonas sp. N.C.I.B. 11652. The enzyme was purified 220-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and chromatography on calcium phosphate gel. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a narrow pH optimum at 10.25, required thiol-protecting agents for activity and was rapidly denatured at temperatures above 35 degrees C. The Km values for isobutyraldoxime and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were respectively 0.24 mM and 0.15 mM. Studies on substrate specificity indicated that attack was mainly restricted to oximes of C4-C6 aldehydes, with preference being shown for those with branching in the 2- or 3-position. Ketoximes were not substrates for the enzyme. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 gave an Mr of 84 000 for the intact enzyme, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated an Mr of 37 500, suggesting the presence of two subunits in the intact enzyme. S-Adenosylhomocysteine was a powerful competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine, with a Ki of 0.027 mM. The enzyme was also susceptible to inhibition by thiol-blocking reagents and heavy-metal ions. Mg2+ was not required for maximum activity.
Project description:L-asparaginase was extracted from Erwinia carotovora and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation (60-70%), Sephadex G-100, CM cellulose, and DEAE sephadex chromatography. The apparent Mr of enzyme under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions was 150?kDa and 37 ± 0.5?kDa, respectively. L-asparaginase activity was studied in presence of thiols, namely, L-cystine (Cys), L-methionine (Met), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Kinetic parameters in presence of thiols (10-400 ?M) showed an increase in V(max) values (2000, 2223, 2380, 2500, and control 1666.7??moles mg(-1)min(-1)) and a decrease in K(m) values (0.086, 0.076, 0.062, 0.055 and control 0.098?mM) indicating nonessential mode of activation. K(A) values displayed propensity to bind thiols. A decrease in V(max)/K(m) ratio in concentration plots showed inverse relationship between free thiol groups (NAC and GSH) and bound thiol group (Cys and Met). Enzyme activity was enhanced in presence of thiol protecting reagents like dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and GSH, but inhibited by p-chloromercurybenzoate (PCMB) and iodoacetamide (IA).