Properties and distribution of the protein inhibitor (Mr 17,000) of protein kinase C.
ABSTRACT: Ca2+-dependent hydrophobic-interaction chromatography is a powerful tool for the identification and isolation of a variety of Ca2+-binding proteins which expose a hydrophobic site(s) in the presence of Ca2+ [Gopalakrishna & Anderson (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 104, 830-836; Walsh, Valentine, Ngai, Carruthers & Hollenberg (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 117-127; McDonald & Walsh (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 559-567]. Using this approach, we isolated two potent and specific protein inhibitors of protein kinase C, of 17 kDa [McDonald & Walsh (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 559-567] and 12 kDa [McDonald & Walsh (1986) Biochem. Soc. Trans. 14, 585-586]. Although these inhibitors were purified by Ca2+-dependent hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and exhibit properties similar to those of calmodulin and related Ca2+-binding proteins, we were unable to demonstrate high-affinity Ca2+ binding to these inhibitors, using equilibrium dialysis. Protein kinase C exhibited half-maximal activity at 0.6 microM-Ca2+ in the presence of phospholipid and diacylglycerol, and complete inhibition by both inhibitors was observed over the range of Ca2+ concentrations examined (10 nM-10 microM). These observations suggest that the inhibitory action of these proteins does not require Ca2+. The inclusion of proteinase inhibitors during isolation of the kinase C inhibitors, as well as two-dimensional peptide mapping and amino acid analysis of the isolated proteins, suggested that the 12 kDa inhibitor is a proteolytic fragment of the 17 kDa protein which is generated during purification. Antibodies raised in rabbits against the bovine brain 17 kDa inhibitor were shown to be specific by Western immunoblotting and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and were used to study the tissue and species distribution of this protein. The inhibitor was found to be present in several bovine, murine, avian and human tissues, consistent with a role in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions involving the widely distributed protein kinase C.
Project description:Recent reports have shown that there exists in mammalian brain a number of heat-stable Ca2(+)-binding proteins that are distinct from calmodulin [McDonald & Walsh (1985) Biochem. J. 232, 559-567]. We have attempted to characterize equivalent Ca2(+)-binding proteins from Drosophila. Affigel-phenothiazine chromatography, which can be used to purify calmodulin and other Ca2(+)-binding proteins, allowed the identification of a possible heat-stable 23 kDa Ca2(+)-binding protein. A purification procedure for this protein has been devised. Purified 23 kDa protein shows characteristics typical of a Ca2(+)-binding protein; there is a mobility shift on SDS/polyacrylamide gels in the presence of EGTA, and Western blotting, followed by the use of the 45Ca2+ overlay technique, confirms that the 23 kDa protein does bind Ca2+. 45Ca2+ binding studies indicate that this protein binds 1 mol of Ca2+/mol of protein, with Kd 1.9 microM. A single band with pI 5.2 is obtained on isoelectric focusing. Analysis of Western blots of Drosophila tissues probed with antibodies to the Ca2(+)-binding protein indicates that it has a widespread distribution, but is absent from muscle tissue. The antibodies also cross-react with a protein of identical molecular mass in extracts of sheep brain. The possible similarity between this Drosophila Ca2(+)-binding protein and mammalian proteins is discussed, and comparison is made between this Drosophila protein and other Ca2(+)-binding proteins purified from vertebrates.
Project description:Caldesmon, an actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, is a protein serine/threonine kinase capable of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation [Scott-Woo & Walsh (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 463-472]. Phosphorylation nullifies the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of smooth-muscle myosin [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have characterized the kinase activity of caldesmon of chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Autophosphorylation requires Ca2+/calmodulin, but is unaffected by other second messengers (Ca2+/phospholipid/diacylglycerol, cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP), and is inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists chlorpromazine and compound 48/80, with 50% inhibition at 39.8 microM and 12.0 ng/ml respectively. Half-maximal activation of autophosphorylation occurs at 60-80 nM-Ca2+ and 0.14 microM-calmodulin, and maximal activity at 0.14-0.18 microM-Ca2+ and 1 microM-calmodulin; activation is gradually lost at higher Ca2+ and calmodulin concentrations. Autophosphorylation is pH-dependent, with maximal activity over the range pH 7-9, and requires free Mg2+ in addition to the MgATP2- substrate. The Km for ATP is 15.6 +/- 4.1 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and kinase activity is inhibited by increasing ionic strength [half-maximal inhibition at I = 0.094 +/- 0.009 M (mean +/- S.D., n = 4)]. Autophosphorylation does not affect the rate of hydrolysis of caldesmon (free or bound to calmodulin) by alpha-chymotrypsin. However, a slight difference in peptides generated from phospho- and dephospho-forms of caldesmon is observed. The binding of phospho- or dephospho-caldesmon to F-actin protects the protein against chymotryptic digestion, but does not alter the pattern of peptide generation. Characterization of proteolytic fragments of caldesmon generated by alpha-chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease enables localization of the phosphorylation sites and the kinase active site within the caldesmon molecule.
Project description:We have previously described the use of Ca2+-dependent hydrophobic-interaction chromatography to isolate the Ca2+ + phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) and a novel heat-stable 21 000-Mr Ca2+-binding protein from bovine brain [Walsh, Valentine, Ngai, Carruthers & Hollenberg (1984) Biochem. J. 224, 117-127]. The procedure described for purification of the 21 000-Mr calciprotein to electrophoretic homogeneity has been modified to permit the large-scale isolation of this Ca2+-binding protein, enabling further structural and functional characterization. The 21 000-Mr calciprotein was shown by equilibrium dialysis to bind approx. 1 mol of Ca2+/mol, with apparent Kd approx. 1 microM. The modified large-scale purification procedure revealed three additional, previously unidentified, Ca2+-binding proteins of Mr 17 000, 18 400 and 26 000. The 17 000-Mr and 18 400-Mr Ca2+-binding proteins are heat-stable, whereas the 26 000-Mr Ca2+-binding protein is heat-labile. Use of the transblot/45CaCl2 overlay technique [Maruyama, Mikawa & Ebashi (1984) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 95, 511-519] suggests that the 18 400-Mr and 21 000-Mr Ca2+-binding proteins are high-affinity Ca2+-binding proteins, whereas the 17 000-Mr Ca2+-binding protein has a relatively low affinity for Ca2+. Consistent with this observation, the 18 400-Mr and 21 000-Mr Ca2+-binding proteins exhibit a Ca2+-dependent mobility shift on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, whereas the 17 000-Mr Ca2+-binding protein does not. The amino acid compositions of the 17 000-Mr, 18 400-Mr and 21 000-Mr Ca2+-binding proteins show some similarities to each other and to calmodulin and other members of the calmodulin superfamily; however, they are clearly distinct and novel calciproteins. In functional terms, none of the 17 000-Mr, 18 400-Mr or 21 000-Mr Ca2+-binding proteins activates either cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase or myosin light-chain kinase, both calmodulin-activated enzymes. However, the 17 000-Mr Ca2+-binding protein is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C. It may therefore serve to regulate the activity of this important enzyme at elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Caldesmon, a major actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, has been implicated in regulation of the contractile state of smooth muscle. The isolated protein can be phosphorylated by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation blocks inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase by caldesmon [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have examined the phosphorylation of caldesmon in more detail. Several lines of evidence indicate that caldesmon itself is a kinase and the reaction is an intermolecular autophosphorylation: (1) caldesmon (141 kDa) and a 93 kDa proteolytic fragment of caldesmon can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography: both retain caldesmon kinase activity, which is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent; (2) chymotryptic digestion of caldesmon generates a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent form of caldesmon kinase; (3) caldesmon purified to electrophoretic homogeneity retains caldesmon kinase activity, and elution of enzymic activity from a fast-performance-liquid-chromatography ion-exchange column correlates with caldesmon of Mr 141,000; (4) caldesmon is photoaffinity-labelled with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP; labelling is inhibited by ATP, GTP and CTP, indicating a lack of nucleotide specificity; (5) caldesmon binds tightly to Affi-Gel Blue resin, which recognizes proteins having a dinucleotide fold. Autophosphorylation of caldesmon occurs predominantly on serine residues (83.3%), with some threonine (16.7%) and no tyrosine phosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is site-specific: 98% of the phosphate incorporated is recovered in a 26 kDa chymotryptic peptide. Complete tryptic/chymotryptic digestion of this phosphopeptide followed by h.p.l.c. indicates three major phosphorylation sites. Caldesmon exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity: apart from autophosphorylation, brain synapsin I is the only good substrate among many potential substrates examined. These observations indicate that caldesmon may regulate its own function (inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Furthermore, caldesmon may regulate other cellular processes, e.g. neurotransmitter release, through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of other proteins such as synapsin I.
Project description:In spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaf extracts, three protein kinases (PKI, PKII and PKIII) were identified each of which phosphorylated spinach nitrate reductase on serine-543, and inactivated the enzyme in the presence of nitrate reductase inhibitor, 14-3-3. PKIII was also very active in phosphorylating and inactivating Arabidopsis (Landsberg erecta) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMGR1). PKI and PKII phosphorylated HMGR1 more slowly than PKIII, compared with their relative rates of phosphorylation of nitrate reductase. HMGR1 identical with those that are seen after phosphorylation of serine-577 by the sucrose non-fermenting (SNF1)-like PK, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Co A reductase kinase A (HRK-A), from cauliflower [Dale, Arró, Becerra, Morrice, Boronat, Hardie and Ferrer (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 506-513]. PKI was Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the absence of protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors, and largely Ca2+-dependent when prepared in the presence of PP inhibitors (NaF and EGTA). The Ca2+-independent portion of PKI was inactivated by either PP2A or PP2C, while the Ca2+-dependent portion of PKI became increasingly activated during storage, which we presume was mimicking the effect of an unidentified PP. These findings indicate that PK1 is regulated by two functionally distinct phosphorylations. PKI had a molecular mass of 45 kDa on gel filtration and was active towards substrate peptides that terminated at the +2 residue from the phosphorylation site, whereas PKIII was inactive towards these peptides. PKII was Ca2+-stimulated under all conditions tested. PKIII was Ca2+-indepdented, inactivated by PP2A or PP2C, had a requirement for a hydrophobic residue in the +4 position of peptide substrates, had a molecular mass by gel filtration of approximately 140 kDa, and an antibody against the rye SNF1-related PK (RKIN1) recognized a 58 kDa subunit in fractions containing PKIII. These properties of PKIII are identical with those reported previously for the SNF1-like enzyme, HRK-A. Our results indicate a considerable complexity of kinase cascades mediating the regulation of assimilatory and biosynthetic pathways in response to environmental stimuli in plants.
Project description:Calponin, a thin-filament-associated protein implicated in the regulation of smooth-muscle contraction, is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II [Winder and Walsh (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 10148-10155] and dephosphorylated by a type 2A protein phosphatase [Winder, Pato and Walsh (1992) Biochem. J. 286, 197-203]. Unphosphorylated calponin binds to actin and inhibits the actin-activated myosin MgATPase; these properties are lost on phosphorylation. Although both serine and threonine residues in calponin are phosphorylated, the major site of phosphorylation by either kinase is Ser-175. Calponin also undergoes phosphorylation when bound to actin in synthetic thin filaments, in a reconstituted actomyosin system, in washed myofibrils and in tissue extracts; this results in dissociation of calponin from actin. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping indicates that the same sites are phosphorylated in the bound as in the isolated protein. Toad stomach calponin exists in at least three isoforms which differ in charge but exhibit the same molecular mass on SDS/PAGE. In a toad stomach extract, all three isoforms are phosphorylated by protein kinase C or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II as shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (non-equilibrium pH-gradient gel electrophoresis and SDS/PAGE). Calponin phosphorylation also occurs in intact toad stomach smooth-muscle strips metabolically labelled with 32Pi and stimulated to contract with carbachol. These results support the hypothesis that calponin may be regulated in vivo by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation.
Project description:Caldesmon phosphatase was identified in chicken gizzard smooth muscle by using as substrates caldesmon phosphorylated at different sites by protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and cdc2 kinase. Most (approximately 90%) of the phosphatase activity was recovered in the cytosolic fraction. Gel filtration after (NH4)2SO4 fractionation of the cytosolic fraction revealed a single major peak of phosphatase activity which coeluted with calponin phosphatase [Winder, Pato and Walsh (1992) Biochem. J. 286, 197-203] and myosin LC20 phosphatase. Further purification of caldesmon phosphatase was achieved by sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel, omega-amino-octyl-agarose, aminopropyl-agarose and thiophosphorylated myosin LC20-Sepharose. A single peak of caldesmon phosphatase activity was detected at each step of the purification. The purified phosphatase was identified as SMP-I [Pato and Adelstein (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6535-6538] by subunit composition (three subunits, of 60, 55 and 38 kDa) and Western blotting using antibodies against the holoenzyme which recognize all three subunits and antibodies specific for the 38 kDa catalytic subunit. SMP-I is a type 2A protein phosphatase [Pato, Adelstein, Crouch, Safer, Ingebritsen and Cohen (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 283-287; Winder et al. (1992), cited above]. Consistent with the conclusion that SMP-I is the major caldesmon phosphatase of smooth muscle, purified SMP-I from turkey gizzard dephosphorylated all three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon, whereas SMP-II, -III and -IV were relatively ineffective. Kinetic analysis of dephosphorylation by chicken gizzard SMP-I of the three phosphorylated caldesmon species and calponin phosphorylated by protein kinase C indicates that calponin is a significantly better substrate of SMP-I than are any of the three phosphorylated forms of caldesmon. We therefore suggest that caldesmon phosphorylation in vivo can be maintained after kinase inactivation due to slow dephosphorylation by SMP-I, whereas calponin and myosin are rapidly dephosphorylated by SMP-I and SMP-III/SMP-IV respectively. This may have important functional consequences in terms of the contractile properties of smooth muscle.
Project description:The 160 and 150 kDa proteins of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are phosphorylated endogenously. The phosphorylation of both proteins has a marked requirement for Ca2+. Half-maximal and maximal phosphorylation was obtained at about 1 nM- and 1 microM-Ca2+ respectively, and a Hill coefficient of about 0.5 was calculated. The phosphorylation is also dependent on NaF as an inhibitor of the SR phosphoprotein phosphatase. The phosphorylation of these proteins is very rapid, and maximal phosphorylation is achieved in less than 15 s. The phosphorylation of the 160 kDa and 150 kDa polypeptides is completely inhibited by 5 mM-MgCl2 and by 75 microM-LaCl3, by very low concentrations of different detergents, and by preincubation of the SR for 2 min at 60 degrees C. The inhibition by Mg2+ is due to stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, thereby decreasing ATP concentration. Different phosphorylated peptides were obtained by digestion with protease V8 of the 160 kDa and 150 kDa protein bands, suggesting that the 160 kDa and 150 kDa proteins are distinct. The two phosphorylated proteins are present in different fractions and preparations of SR, with or without [3H]PN200-110 binding capacity. These and other results suggest that the phosphorylated SR proteins are distinct from the alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel of the T-system membranes. Different inhibitors and activators of protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase have no effect on the endogenous phosphorylation of both polypeptides, suggesting that the phosphorylation is regulated solely by Ca2+. A possible regulatory function for this phosphorylation system is described in the accompanying paper [Gechtman. Orr & Shoshan-Barmatz (1991) Biochem. J. 276.97-102].
Project description:Previously reported results of equilibrium-partition experiments on the interaction of aldolase with actin-containing filaments [Walsh, Winzor, Clarke, Masters & Morton (1980) Biochem. J. 186, 89-98] have been subjected to a more rigorous theoretical analysis involving consideration of the consequences of cross-linking interactions between enzyme and filament. The experimental results obtained with F-actin-tropomyosin are best described by a model with one binding site per heptameric repeat unit of filament and a value of 39000 M-1 for the site binding constant, k. Similar analyses of the influence of Ca2+ on aldolase binding to F-actin--tropomyosin--troponin substantiate the existence of two equivalent binding sites (k = 14900 M-1) for the enzyme on each repeat unit of the thin filament. The Ca2+-sensitivity of this interaction reflects either a decrease in the strength of aldolase binding to these two sites (k = 8200 M-1) or the elimination of one site.
Project description:Electron micrographs of the paracrystals formed when fructose bisphosphate aldolase (EC 126.96.36.199) is added to actin-containing filaments were analysed by computer methods so that ultrastructural changes could be correlated with the various stoicheiometries of binding determined in the preceding paper [Walsh, Winzor, Clarke, Masters & Morton (1980) Biochem. J. 186, 89-98]. Paracrystals formed with aldolase and either F-actin or F-actin-tropomyosin have a single light transverse band every 38 nm, which is due to aldolase molecules cross-linking the filaments. In contrast, the paracrystals formed between aldolase and F-actin-tropomyosin-troponin filaments show two transverse bands every 38 nm: a major band, interpreted as aldolase binding to troponin, and a minor band, interpreted as aldolase cross-linking the filaments. The intensity of the minor band varies with Ca2+ concentration, being greatest when the Ca2+ concentration is low. A model for the different paracrystal structures which relates the various patterns and binding stoicheiometries to structural changes in the actin-containing filaments is proposed.