Does a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPase contribute to hepatic microsomal calcium uptake?
ABSTRACT: Solubilization of microsomal proteins followed by calmodulin affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of two distinct Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPases (Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPases), one being insensitive to calmodulin (ATPase-1), the other being stimulated about 5-fold by calmodulin (ATPase-2). ATPase-2 accounts for only 8% of total microsomal Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase-activity. ATPase-1 and -2 can also be distinguished by different pH optima, different sensitivity towards inhibition by vanadate and LaCl3, and different apparent Mr values of the phosphoenzyme intermediates (115,000 and 150,000 for ATPase-1 and ATPase-2 respectively). ATPase-1 from liver co-migrated with Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase from rat skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas ATPase-2 from liver co-migrated with calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase derived from rat skeletal-muscle sarcolemma. After separation of parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase of Mr 150,000 was found only in the non-parenchymal cells. The kinetic parameters of ATPase-2 and the similarity of the apparent Mr of its phosphoenzyme intermediate to that of skeletal-muscle sarcolemma Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase makes it likely that the calmodulin-sensitive Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase found in rat liver microsomal fractions reflects a contamination with plasma membranes (possibly from non-parenchymal cells) rather than a true location in the endoplasmic reticulum of parenchymal liver cells.
Project description:The hepatic microsomal Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent ATPase phosphoenzyme intermediates were distinguished by using the chelators EGTA and CDTA (trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid). The Ca2+-ATPase intermediate is a hydroxylamine-labile base-labile 125 000-Mr phosphoprotein. The Mg2+-ATPase intermediate is a hydroxylamine-stable base-stable 30 000-Mr phosphoprotein. This enzyme intermediate probably reflects the large basal ATPase activity of hepatic microsomal fraction. It is dependent on Mg2+, since formation of the phosphoenzyme is abolished in the presence of CDTA. Under these conditions, the basal ATPase activity is dramatically decreased. These data demonstrate two separate and distinct enzymes which are responsible for the two ATPase activities of hepatic microsomal fraction. Furthermore, these data indicate that more meaningful data about the microsomal Ca2+-ATPase might be obtained if the free ion concentrations are controlled with CDTA.
Project description:1. The heavy microsomal fraction from rat liver apparently has very little Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity, although it has an active, ATP-driven Ca2+ accumulation system. 2. The addition of ionophore A23187 to the ATPase assay, to allow continuous Ca2+ recycling during the assay time, reveals the presence of a substantial Ca2+-stimulated ATPase with Vmax. 160 nmol of Pi/10 min per mg of protein and Km for Ca2+ 0.19 microM. 3. The Ca2+-stimulated ATPase, but not the basal Mg2+-stimulated ATPase, is potently inhibited by orthovanadate. Both the Ca2+-stimulated ATPase and the vanadate inhibition are enhanced by the presence of Mg2+. 4. Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity is not responsive to calmodulin or the calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine.
Project description:The Ca2+ uptake and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase of the porcine coronary-artery smooth-muscle microsomal fraction ('microsomes') are only slightly stimulated by calmodulin. The Ca2+ uptake after 2 min in the absence of oxalate, corrected for the ATP-independent binding, increased by a factor of 1.44, whereas the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase is stimulated 1.39 times. These findings contrast with the effect observed in human erythrocyte 'inside-out' microsomes. In these vesicles calmodulin increases the Ca2+ uptake after 20 min in an oxalate-free medium and the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase respectively by a factor of 3.82 and 6.18. The magnitude of the calmodulin stimulation of the Ca2+ transport in coronary-artery microsomes is similar to that observed in heart microsomes.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody (2B3) directed against the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase from pig stomach smooth muscle was prepared. This antibody reacts with a 130,000-Mr protein that co-migrates on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase purified from smooth muscle by calmodulin affinity chromatography. The antibody causes partial inhibition of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membranes from pig stomach smooth muscle, in pig erythrocytes and human erythrocytes. It appears to be directed against a specific functionally important site of the plasmalemmal Ca2+-transport ATPase and acts as a competitive inhibitor of ATP binding. Binding of the antibody does not change the Km of the ATPase for Ca2+ and its inhibitory effect is not altered by the presence of calmodulin. No inhibition of (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity or of the oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake was observed in a pig smooth-muscle vesicle preparation enriched in endoplasmic reticulum. These results confirm the existence in smooth muscle of two different types of Ca2+-transport ATPase: a calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase located in the plasma membrane and a second one confined to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:The gel-overlay technique with 125I-labelled calmodulin allowed the detection of several calmodulin-binding proteins of Mr 280 000, 150 000, 97 000, 56 000, 35 000 and 24 000 in canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. Only two calmodulin-binding proteins could be identified unambiguously. Among them, the 97 000-Mr protein that undergoes phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin, is likely to be glycogen phosphorylase. In contrast, the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase did not appear to bind calmodulin under our experimental conditions. The second known calmodulin target is dephosphophospholamban, which migrates with an apparent Mr of 24 000. The dimeric as well as the monomeric form of phospholamban was found to bind calmodulin. Phospholamban shifts the apparent Kd of erythrocyte (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase for calmodulin, suggesting thus a tight binding of calmodulin to the proteolipid. Interestingly enough, phospholamban phosphorylation by either the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase or the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phospholamban kinase was found to inhibit calmodulin binding.
Project description:(CaMg)ATPase [(Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase] was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of the smooth muscle of the pig stomach (antrum). Membranes were solubilized with deoxycholate, followed by removal of the detergent by dialysis. The purified (CaMg)ATPase has a specific activity (at 37 degrees C) of 157 +/- 12.1 (7)nmol.min-1.mg-1 of protein, and it is stimulated by calmodulin to 255 +/- 20.9 (7)nmol.min.mg-1. This purification of the (CaMg)ATPase resulted in an increase of the specific activity by approx. 18-fold and in a recovery of the total enzyme activity of 55% compared with the microsomal fraction. The partially purified (CaMg)ATPase still contains some Mg2+-and (Na+ + K+)-dependent ATPase activities, but their specific activities are increased relatively less than that of the (CaMg)ATPase. The ratios of the (CaMg)ATPase to Mg2+- and (Na+ + K+)-dependent ATPase activities increase from respectively 0.14 and 0.81 in the crude microsomal fraction to 1.39 and 9.07 in the purified preparation. During removal of the deoxycholate by dialysis, vesicles were reconstituted which were capable of ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport.
Project description:A Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+- and Mg2+-requiring ATPase) was purified from a synaptic plasma-membrane fraction of rat brain. This enzyme had properties similar to those of plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases from other organs: its splitting of ATP was dependent on both Ca2+ and Mg2+, it bound in a Ca2+-dependent fashion to calmodulin-Sepharose and it cross-reacted with specific antibodies raised against human erythrocyte-membrane Ca2+-ATPase. It had an apparent Mr of 138 000, similar to those of plasma-membrane ATPases from human erythrocyte and from dog heart sarcolemma. Previous high-Ca2+-affinity ATPases observed in brain had Mr 100 000; in at least one case, such an ATPase probably represented a different type of enzyme, derived from coated vesicles.
Project description:Antibodies directed against the purified calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase [(Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase] from pig erythrocytes and from smooth muscle of pig stomach (antral part) were raised in rabbits. Both the IgGs against the erythrocyte (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase and against the smooth-muscle (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase inhibited the activity of the purified calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase from smooth muscle. Up to 85% of the total (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in a preparation of KCl-extracted smooth-muscle membranes was inhibited by these antibodies. The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity and the Ca2+ uptake in a plasma-membrane-enriched fraction from this smooth muscle were inhibited to the same extent, whereas in an endoplasmic-reticulum-enriched membrane fraction the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity was inhibited by only 25% and no effect was observed on the oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake. This supports the hypothesis that, in pig stomach smooth muscle, two separate types of Ca2+-transport ATPase exist: a calmodulin-binding ATPase located in the plasma membrane and a calmodulin-independent one present in the endoplasmic reticulum. The antibodies did not affect the stimulation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity by calmodulin.
Project description:The activities of Mg2+-ATPase (Mg2+-activated ATPase), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase have been determined in microsomes (microsomal fractions) obtained from rat myometrium under different hormonal conditions. Animals were either ovariectomized and treated for a prolonged period of time with 17 beta-oestradiol or progesterone, or myometria were obtained at day 21 of pregnancy. In each case the endometrium was carefully removed. The Mg2+-ATPase consists of two components: an inactivating labile component and a second constant component. The rate of ATP hydrolysis by the labile component of the Mg2+-ATPase declines exponentially as a function of time after adding the membranes to the assay medium; this inactivation is caused by the presence of ATP in the medium. This ATPase activity inhibited by ATP is catalysed by a labile enzyme and hence it gradually diminishes within a few hours, even when the microsomes are kept on ice. This labile component has the highest activity in microsomes from pregnant rats, a lower activity in progesterone-treated rats, and the lowest in 17 beta-oestradiol-treated rats. This component of the Mg2+-ATPase is not affected by 90 nM-oxytocin. The constant component of the Mg2+-ATPase must be ascribed to a different enzyme, which, in contrast with the labile component, is very stable and not affected by the hormonal status of the animal. This constant component of the Mg2+-ATPase is inhibited both by Ca2+-calmodulin, and by oxytocin in microsomes from pregnant and from progesterone-treated animals, whereas such inhibition does not occur in microsomes from 17 beta-oestradiol-treated animals. The activity of the (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase is not dependent on the hormonal status of the animal. Myometrial microsomes present an ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport, irrespective of the hormonal condition, but only in microsomes obtained from rats treated with 17 beta-oestradiol, can a (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase activity be demonstrated. This activity can be stimulated by calmodulin.
Project description:Denervation of rat skeletal muscle produces after 14 days a decrease in Ca2+ uptake of a heterogeneous population of sarcoplasmic-reticulum vesicles, when measured in the presence of oxalate. The Mg2+-dependent ATPase (Ca2+-independent) activity increased after the same period and the Ca2+ + Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity decreased. Concomitant with these changes, there was an increase in vesicle size and calcium content. The observations are discussed in terms of changes in altered membrane structure, manifested in the shift of the equilibrium of the ATPase from an enzyme involved in calcium transport to a phosphoenzyme giving rise to an increase in the Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity.