Characterization of the basic glutathione S-transferase B1 and B2 subunits from human liver.
ABSTRACT: The basic glutathione S-transferases in human liver are composed of at least two immunochemically distinct polypeptides, designated B1 and B2. These subunits exist as homodimers, but can hybridize to form the B1B2 heterodimer [Stockman, Beckett & Hayes (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 457-465]. Although these basic glutathione S-transferases possess similar catalytic properties, the B2 subunit exhibits significantly greater selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase activity than subunit B1. The use of the ligands haematin, tributyltin acetate and Bromosulphophthalein as inhibitors of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-GSH-conjugating activity clearly discriminate between the B1 and B2 subunits and should help facilitate their identification. Peptide mapping experiments showed that B1 and B2 are structurally distinct, but related, subunits; subunit B1 yielded 43 tryptic peptides, seven of which were unique, whereas subunit B2 yielded 40 tryptic peptides, four of which were unique.
Project description:The Alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in human liver are composed of polypeptides of Mr 25,900. These enzymes are dimeric, and two immunochemically distinct subunits, B1 and B2, have been described that combine to form GSTs B1B1, B1B2 and B2B2 [Stockman, Beckett & Hayes (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 457-465]. Gradient affinity elution from GSH-Sepharose has been used to resolve the three Alpha class GSTs, and this method has been applied to demonstrate marked inter-individual differences in the hepatic content of GSTs B1B1, B1B2 and B2B2. The B1 and B2 subunits can be resolved by reverse-phase h.p.l.c., and their elution positions suggest that they are equivalent to the alpha chi and alpha y h.p.l.c. peaks described by Ketterer and his colleagues [Ostlund Farrants, Meyer, Coles, Southan, Aitken, Johnson & Ketterer (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 423-428]. The B1 and B2 subunits have now been cleaved with CNBr and the fragments subjected to automated amino acid sequence analysis. The sequence data show that B1 and B2 subunits do not arise from post-translational modification, as had been previously believed for the hepatic Alpha class GSTs, but are instead the products of separate genes; B1 and B2 subunits were found to contain different amino acid residues at positions 88, 110, 111, 112, 116, 124 and 127. The relationship between the B1 and B2 subunits and the cloned GTH1 and GTH2 cDNA sequences [Rhoads, Zarlengo & Tu (1987) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 145, 474-481] is discussed.
Project description:The purification of a hybrid glutathione S-transferase (B1 B2) from human liver is described. This enzyme has an isoelectric point of 8.75 and the B1 and B2 subunits are distinguishable immunologically and are ionically distinct. Hybridization experiments demonstrated that B1 B1 and B2 B2 could be resolved by CM-cellulose chromatography and have pI values of 8.9 and 8.4 respectively. Transferase B1 B2, and the two homodimers from which it is formed, are electrophoretically and immunochemically distinct from the neutral enzyme (transferase mu) and two acidic enzymes (transferases rho and lambda). Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis demonstrated that B1 and B2 both have an Mr of 26 000, whereas, in contrast, transferase mu comprises subunits of Mr 27 000 and transferases rho and lambda both comprise subunits of Mr 24 500. Antisera raised against B1 or B2 monomers did not cross-react with the neutral or acidic glutathione S-transferases. The identity of transferase B1 B2 with glutathione S-transferase delta prepared by the method of Kamisaka, Habig, Ketley, Arias & Jakoby [(1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 60, 153-161] has been demonstrated, as well as its relationship to other previously described transferases.
Project description:The biosynthesis of the basement-membrane glycoprotein laminin in the mouse teratocarcinoma cell line PFHR9 was studied by immunoelectron microscopy and pulse-chase experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. By immunoelectron microscopy, most of the protein was found to be aggregated on the outer cell surface. Cytoplasmic stainings were rare and were located next to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Sequential immunoprecipitations of cell extracts with a monoclonal antibody (4C12) sensitive to the laminin native conformation and with a polyclonal antibody enables laminin, the B1 subunit and a 410 kDa molecule to be distinguished. Most of the laminin is of the A(B1B2) type, and the 410 kDa molecule appears to be a B1B2 heterodimer. The assembly of laminin from subunits is completed in less than 1 h, and B chains are incorporated via the formation of the B heterodimers. The B2 and A chains are not found as free forms, so their levels appear to be the rate-limiting factors for the assembly of the dimers and laminin respectively. The formation of an uncross-linked A(B1B2) complex as a short-lived intermediate in the biosynthetic process is possible. Together with immunoelectron microscopy, the present study suggests that the protein is rapidly exported after assembly to accumulate on the outer side of the cell membrane. The biosynthesis of laminin in the PFHR9 cell line appears to be similar to that in other matrix-producing cell lines.
Project description:A novel hepatic enzyme, glutathione S-transferase K, is described that, unlike previously characterized transferases, possesses little affinity for S-hexylglutathione-Sepharose 6B but can be isolated because it binds to a glutathione affinity matrix. A purification scheme for this new enzyme was devised, with the use of DEAE-cellulose, S-hexylglutathione-Sepharose 6B, glutathione-Sepharose 6B and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The final hydroxyapatite step results in the elution of three chromatographically interconvertible forms, K1, K2 and K3. The purified protein has an isoelectric point of 6.1 and comprises subunits that are designated Yk (Mr 25,000); during sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, it migrates marginally faster than the Ya subunit but slower than the pulmonary Yf monomer (Mr 24,500). Transferase K displays catalytic, immunochemical and physical properties that are distinct from those of other liver transferases. Tryptic peptide maps suggest that transferase K is a homodimer, or comprises closely homologous subunits. The tryptic fingerprints also demonstrate that, although transferase K is structurally separate from previously described hepatic forms, a limited sequence homology exists between the Yk, Ya and Yc polypeptides. These structural data are in accord with the immunochemical results presented in the accompanying paper [Hayes & Mantle (1986) Biochem. J. 233, 779-788].
Project description:Non-reducing and reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of laminin synthesized in parietal endoderm-like F9 cells demonstrated that only AB1B2 complex goes through intracellular traffic for oligosaccharide side-chain processing and secretion. Glycosylation was not necessary for subunit assembly. Assembly was suggested to proceed through B1B2 to AB1B2. Among the pools of monomer subunits, the B2 pool was smallest.
Project description:Antisera raised against fusion proteins consisting of murine laminin B1 and B2 subunit sequences fused to the C-terminus of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase were tested for their subunit specificity on Western blots of deglycosylated murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) laminin. The antisera raised against B2 subunit sequences (anti-XLB2.1 and anti-XLB2.2) bound only to the EHS laminin B2 subunit. One of the antisera raised against B1 subunit sequences (anti-XLB1.2) was specific for the B1 subunit, whereas two others (anti-XLB1.1 and anti-XLB1.3) cross-reacted with the EHS laminin B2 subunit. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin was shown to bind specifically to the A subunit of deglycosylated EHS laminin on Western blots. These reagents were used to identify the homologous subunits in rat parietal-yolk-sac laminin and human placental laminin. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the B1 and B2 subunits of the rat laminin, and these were similar in size to the murine EHS B subunits. Human placental laminin gave bands of 400, 340, 230, 190 and 180 kDa on reducing SDS/PAGE. The anti-(fusion protein) antisera identified the 230 and 190 kDa bands as the B1 and B2 subunits respectively. Gold-labelled heparin-albumin bound to the 400, 340 and 190 kDa bands of human placental laminin and so did not unambiguously identify a single A subunit. The human placental laminin may contain a mixture of isoforms, with alternative subunits substituting for the A subunit.
Project description:In the kidney, final urinary acidification is achieved by V-ATPases expressed in type A intercalated cells. The B1 subunit of the V-ATPase is required for maximal urinary acidification, while the role of the homologous B2 subunit is less clear. Here we examined the effect of acute acid/alkali loading in humans on B1 and B2 subunit abundance in urinary exosomes in normal individuals and of acid loading in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Specificities of B1 and B2 subunit antibodies were verified by yeast heterologously expressing human B1 and B2 subunits, and murine wild-type and B1-deleted kidney lysates. Acute ammonium chloride loading elicited systemic acidemia, a drop in urinary pH, and increased urinary ammonium excretion. Nadir urinary pH was achieved at four to five hours, and exosomal B1 abundance was significantly increased at two through six hours after ammonium chloride loading. After acute equimolar sodium bicarbonate loading, blood and urinary pH rose rapidly, with a concomitant reduction of exosomal B1 abundance within two hours, which remained lower throughout the test. In contrast, no change in exosomal B2 abundance was found following acid or alkali loading. In patients with inherited or acquired distal RTA, the urinary B1 subunit was extremely low or undetectable and did not respond to acid loading in urine, whereas no change in B2 subunit was found. Thus, both B1 and B2 subunits of the V-ATPase are detectable in human urinary exosomes, and acid and alkali loading or distal RTA cause changes in the B1 but not B2 subunit abundance in urinary exosomes.
Project description:Inhibitors of rat and human Alpha- and Mu-class glutathione S-transferases that effectively inhibit the glutathione (GSH) conjugation of bromosulphophthalein in the rat liver cytosolic fraction, isolated rat hepatocytes and in the rat liver in vivo have been developed. The GSH analogue (R)-5-carboxy-2-gamma-(S)-glutamylamino-N-hexylpentamide [Adang, Brussee, van der Gen and Mulder (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 830-836] was used as the lead compound. To obtain more potent inhibitors, it was modified by replacement of the N-hexyl moiety by N-2-heptyl and by esterification of the 5-carboxy group with ethyl and dodecyl groups. In isolated hepatocytes, the branched N-2-heptyl derivatives were stronger inhibitors of GSH conjugation of bromosulphophthalein than the N-hexyl derivatives. The ethyl ester compounds were more efficient than the corresponding unesterified derivatives. The dodecyl ester of the N-2-heptyl analogue was the most effective inhibitor in isolated hepatocytes, but was relatively toxic in vivo. However, the corresponding ethyl ester was a potent in vivo inhibitor: GSH conjugation of bromosulphophthalein (as assessed by biliary excretion of the conjugate) was decreased by 70% after administration of a dose of 200 mumol/kg. The isoenzyme specificity of the inhibitors towards purified rat and human glutathione S-transferases was also examined. The unesterified compounds were more potent than the esterified analogues, and inhibited Alpha- and Mu-class isoenzymes of both rat and human glutathione S-transferase (Ki range 1-40 microM). Other GSH-dependent enzymes, i.e. GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptide, were not inhibited. Thus (R)-5-ethyloxycarbonyl-2-gamma-(S)-glutamylamino-N-2-hept ylpentamide, the in vivo inhibitor of GSH conjugation, may be useful in helping to assess the role of the Alpha and Mu classes of glutathione S-transferases in cellular biochemistry, physiology and pathology.
Project description:Two immunologically distinct types of 22000-Mr subunits are present in rat lung glutathione S-transferases. One of these subunits is probably similar to Ya subunits of rat liver glutathione S-transferases, whereas the other subunit Ya' is immunologically distinct. Glutathione S-transferase II (pI7.2) of rat lung is a heterodimer (YaYa') of these subunits, and glutathione S-transferase VI (pI4.8) of rat lung is a homodimer of Ya' subunits. On hybridization in vitro of the subunits of glutathione S-transferase II of rat lung three active dimers having pI values 9.4, 7.2 and 4.8 are obtained. Immunological properties and substrate specificities indicate that the hybridized enzymes having pI7.2 and 4.8 correspond to glutathione S-transferases II and VI of rat lung respectively.
Project description:A novel cytosolic Alpha class glutathione S-transferase (GST) that is not normally expressed in mouse liver was found to be markedly induced (at least 20-fold) by the anti-carcinogenic compound butylated hydroxyanisole. This enzyme (designated GST Ya1 Ya1) did not bind to either the S-hexylglutathione-Sepharose or the glutathione-Sepharose affinity matrices, and purification was achieved by using bromosulphophthalein-glutathione-Sepharose. The purified isoenzyme, which comprises subunits of Mr 25,600, was characterized, and its catalytic, electrophoretic, immunochemical and structural properties are documented. GST Ya1 Ya1 was shown to be distinct from the Alpha class GST that is expressed in normal mouse liver and is composed of 25,800-Mr subunits; the Alpha class isoenzyme that is constitutively expressed in the liver is now designated GST Ya3 Ya3. Hepatic concentrations of GST Ya3 Ya3 were not significantly affected when mice were treated with butylated hydroxyanisole. Both Pi class GST (subunit Mr 24,800) and Mu class GST (subunit Mr 26,400) from female mouse liver were induced by dietary butylated hydroxyanisole. By contrast, hepatic concentrations of microsomal GST (subunit Mr 17,300) were unaffected.