Structural relationships between human erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma and abnormal sialoglycoproteins found in certain rare human erythrocyte variants lacking the Gerbich blood-group antigen(s).
ABSTRACT: The human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma are important for the maintenance of the discoid shape of the normal erythrocyte. In this paper we show that the human erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma (hereafter called beta and gamma) are structurally related. Rabbit antisera produced against purified beta and beta 1 and rendered specific to the cytoplasmic portion of these proteins also react with the cytoplasmic portion of gamma. Some human anti-Gerbich (Ge) sera react with the extracellular portion of both beta and gamma. This reactivity is shown to be directed towards a common epitope on beta and gamma. However, most anti-Ge sera do not react with beta, but react with an extracellular epitope only present on gamma. All individuals who lack the Ge antigens lack beta and gamma. In some cases abnormal sialoglycoproteins are present in the erythrocytes, and these are shown to be structurally related to beta and gamma. Rabbit antisera raised against the purified abnormal sialoglycoprotein from a Ge-negative erythrocyte type reacted with the cytoplasmic portion of both beta and gamma. Unlike normal beta and gamma, the abnormal sialoglycoproteins found in Ge-negative erythrocytes migrate as a diffuse band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Studies using endoglycosidases suggest that the diffuse nature of these bands results from carbohydrate heterogeneity and that the abnormal sialoglycoproteins contain N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides with repeating lactosamine units. Such polylactosamine chains are not present on normal beta or gamma.
Project description:Membranes from erythrocytes with a new Gerbich (Ge)-negative phenotype (Leach phenotype), as well as those from two other Ge-negative phenotypes, were examined. Whereas cells of the Leach phenotype apparently lack three minor sialoglycoproteins (beta, beta 1 and gamma), the membranes of Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes apparently lack beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins but contain additional diffusely migrating components of apparent Mr 30 500-34 500 and 32 500-36 500 respectively. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the abnormal components of both Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes reacted with two monoclonal antibodies, BRIC 4 and BRIC 10. These antibodies have been shown to react with sialoglycoproteins beta and beta 1 in normal erythrocytes. Cytoskeletal preparations from Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocyte membranes contained the abnormal components. In contrast with cells of the Leach phenotype, which are elliptocytic, Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ were of normal shape, despite their apparent lack of beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins. It seems likely that the abnormal components in these cells contribute to their normal shape. Ovalocytic erythrocytes were shown to incorporate more radioactivity in the sialoglycoprotein-beta 1 region than normal erythrocytes after labelling by the periodate/NaB3H4 technique. It is suggested that abnormal components in Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes result from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over at meiosis between the genes giving rise to beta-, beta 1- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:We have studied the erythrocytes of two individuals (P. L. and K. W.) who lack the Gerbich (Ge) blood-group antigen. The erythrocytes of P. L. and K. W. were not reactive with two monoclonal antibodies (NBTS/BRIC 4 and NBTS/BRIC 10) which reacted with normal erythrocytes. The membranes of P. L. and K. W. erythrocytes appeared to lack three minor sialoglycoproteins (beta, beta 1 and gamma). These three minor sialoglycoproteins were found to be associated with the cytoskeletons of normal erythrocytes. Approx. 10% of the erythrocytes of P. L. and K. W. were frankly elliptocytic. We suggest that one or more of the minor sialoglycoproteins may play a part in maintaining the discoid shape of the human erythrocyte.
Project description:We have isolated almost full-length cDNA clones corresponding to human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins alpha (glycophorin A) and delta (glycophorin B). The predicted amino acid sequence of delta differs at two amino acid residues from the sequence determined by peptide sequencing. The sialoglycoprotein delta clone we have isolated contains an interrupting sequence within the region that gives rise to the cleaved N-terminal leader sequence for the protein and represents a product that is unlikely to be inserted into the erythrocyte membrane. Comparison of the cDNA sequences of alpha and delta shows very strong homology at the DNA level within the coding regions. The two mRNA sequences are closely related and differ by a number of clearly defined insertions and deletions.
Project description:1. We have studied the inherited changes occurring in the sialoglycoproteins of membranes from erythrocytes of type Miltenberger Class III (Mi.III), Miltenberger Class IV (Mi.IV) and Miltenberger Class V (Mi.V) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and lactoperoxidase radioiodination. 2. Mi.III erythrocytes lack the normal blood-group-Ss-active sialoglycoprotein but contain an unusual s-active sialoglycoprotein of higher apparent molecular weight. A similar abnormal S-active sialoglycoprotein appears to occur in Mi.IV erythrocytes. 3. The Mi.V condition is associated with the hemizygous absence of both the normal blood-group-MN-active sialoglycoprotein and the normal Ss-active sialoglycorprotein. However, a new sialoglycoprotein component is present in these cells that has properties characteristic of both the MN-active and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins. 4. Our results suggest that the new sialoglycorportein present in Mi.V erythrocytes is a hybrid of the normal MN sialoglycoprotein and an s-active sialoglycoprotein that has properties similar to the s-active sialoglycoprotein found in Mi.III erythrocytes. We suggest that the unusual Mi.V sialoglycoprotein is derived from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over between the genes for the MN- and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins in a manner similar to that which gives rise to haemoglobin Lepore. 5. Further studies of S-s-erythrocytes confirm that these cells lack normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein, but contain an unusual component that shows some of the properties of the normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 6. Analysis of erythrocytes of type Mk/Mi.III confirms that, in addition to the known hemizygous lack of the MN-active sialoglycoprotein, the Mk condition is also associated with a loss of the Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 7. In order to facilitate discussion of the complex changes that occur in these variant erythrocytes, a new unified nomenclature is used for the erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins.
Project description:We have studied the DNA of individuals who express an altered sialoglycoprotein beta on their red cells by using Southern blotting with sialoglycoprotein-beta cDNA probes. Individuals of the Leach phenotype do not express any beta (sialoglycoprotein beta) or gamma (sialoglycoprotein gamma) on their red cells, and we show that about 7 kb of DNA, including the 3' end of the beta gene, is deleted in this DNA. Any protein product of this gene is likely to lack the membrane-associating domain of beta. We have also examined the DNA of two types of other individuals (Yus-type and Gerbich-type) who have red cells that lack beta and gamma, but contain abnormal sialoglycoproteins related to beta. These two types of DNA contain different internal deletions of about 6 kb in the beta gene. We suggest that these deletions result from the presence of two different sets of internal homology in the beta gene, and on this basis we propose structures for the abnormal Yus-type and Gerbich-type sialoglycoproteins which are consistent with the other evidence that is available. We provide evidence that beta and gamma are products of the same gene and suggest a possible mechanism for the origin of gamma based on leaky initiation of translation of beta mRNA.
Project description:The role of sialic acid in the gel-filtration behaviour of sialoglycoproteins was investigated by using the separated isoenzymes of purified human liver alpha-L-fucosidase and several other well-known sialic acid-containing glycoproteins (fetuin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, thyroglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin). For each glycoprotein studied, gel filtration of its desialylated derivative gave an apparent molecular weights much less than that expected just from removal of sialic acid. For the lower-molecular-weight glycoproteins (fetuin and alpha1-acid glyocprotein), gel filtration of the sialylated molecules led to apparent molecular weights much larger than the known values. The data indicate that gel filtration cannot be used for accurately determining the molecular weights of at least some sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:1. A new human erythrocyte variant (Ph) is described. The variant contains an unusual sialic acid-rich glycoprotein in addition to the blood-group-MN([unk])- and blood-group-Ss(delta)-active sialoglycoproteins found in normal erythrocytes. 2. The unusual component Ph has an apparent mol.wt. of 32000 on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The Ph component is not degraded during trypsin treatment of intact erythrocytes. 3. The Ph component was labelled by lacto-peroxidase-mediated radioiodination of intact erythrocytes and was found to be present in amounts approximately equimolar to alpha-sialoglycoprotein in the variant erythrocytes. 4. The Ph component had receptors for the lectins from Maclura aurantiaca (osage orange) and Triticum vulgaris (wheat-germ), but lacked a receptor for the Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean) lectin, suggesting that it carries only O-linked oligosaccharides. 5. The presence of the Ph component in these erythrocytes does not correspond to any of the known blood-group-MNSs-related antigens examined. 6. We suggest that this component may be a hybrid polypeptide containing the N-terminal portion derived from normal delta-sialoglycoprotein, and the C-terminal portion from normal alpha-sialoglycoprotein, in a manner similar to the anti-Lepore haemoglobin.
Project description:Previous research has shown that glycolytic enzymes (GEs) exist as multienzyme complexes on the inner surface of human erythrocyte membranes. Because GE binding sites have been mapped to sequences on the membrane protein, band 3, that are not conserved in other mammalian homologs, the question arose whether GEs can organize into complexes on other mammalian erythrocyte membranes. To address this, murine erythrocytes were stained with antibodies to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase and analyzed by confocal microscopy. GEs were found to localize to the membrane in oxygenated erythrocytes but redistributed to the cytoplasm upon deoxygenation, as seen in human erythrocytes. To identify membrane proteins involved in GE assembly, erythrocytes from mice lacking each of the major erythrocyte membrane proteins were examined for GE localization. GEs from band 3 knockout mice were not membrane associated but distributed throughout the cytoplasm, regardless of erythrocyte oxygenation state. In contrast, erythrocytes from mice lacking alpha-spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.2, protein 4.1, beta-adducin, or dematin headpiece exhibited GEs bound to the membrane. These data suggest that oxygenation-dependent assembly of GEs on the membrane could be a general phenomenon of mammalian erythrocytes and that stability of these interactions depends primarily on band 3.
Project description:1. Immunoprecipitation of periodate/NaB3H4-labelled human erythrocytes using anti-Wrightb (Wrb) monoclonal antibodies showed that these antibodies specifically react with the major erythrocyte sialoglycoprotein alpha (glycophorin A). 2. Similar experiments on erythrocytes from the only known individual lacking the Wrb antigen but with otherwise normal sialoglycoproteins did not result in the immunoprecipitation of any sialoglycoprotein. 3. We suggest that the Wrb antigen is located on an alpha-helical region between residues 55 and 70 of sialoglycoprotein alpha.