A monoclonal antibody to the phosphorylated form of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Definition of the phosphopeptide epitope.
ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibody PH7 has specificity for the phosphorylated form of the human liver phenylalanine hydroxylase and negligible reactivity towards the dephosphorylated form of the native enzyme by enzyme-linked immunoassay. PH7 binds specifically to the phosphorylated form of the liver enzyme after SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose. Competitive blocking assays have been applied in conjunction with reversed-phase h.p.l.c. of purified tryptic fragments of human liver phenylalanine hydroxylase to localize the epitope. The major immunoreactive tryptic peptide cross-reacting with PH7 had an amino acid analysis corresponding to the first 41 amino acids of the human liver phenylalanine hydroxylase sequence and included the serine residue that is thought to be the phosphorylation site. The monoclonal antibody recognized the phosphorylated form of the synthetic decapeptide corresponding to the local phosphorylation-site sequence Gly-Leu-Gly-Arg-Lys-Leu-Ser(P)-Asp-Phe-Gly, but not the dephosphodecapeptide. Thermolysin digestion of the peptide demonstrated the monoclonal antibody bound to the pentapeptide Leu-Ser(P)-Asp-Phe-Gly. Monoclonal antibody PH7 recognized the phosphodecapeptide at concentrations 10(3)-fold higher than with phenylalanine hydroxylase, compared with 10(4)-10(7)-fold higher for other phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins. The results demonstrate that monoclonal antibody PH7 has specificity for the phosphorylated form of phenylalanine hydroxylase at the phosphorylation site.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody (PH 7), which recognizes the phosphorylated form of phenylalanine hydroxylase from human liver, has been used for the analysis of the enzyme in crude cell extracts from rat. In immunoblot analyses of rat liver cell extracts, the extent of binding of PH 7 closely correlates with the phosphorylation state of phenylalanine hydroxylase, as judged by [32P]Pi incorporation. These observations have made possible the rapid non-radioactive quantification of hormonal effects on phenylalanine hydroxylase phosphorylation state. In particular, the glucagon-dependent phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase in liver cells was investigated. Epidermal growth factor was shown to modulate this process. In addition, this technique was used to demonstrate, for the first time, that dibutyryl cyclic AMP, unlike the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, stimulates the phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase in isolated kidney tubules from rat.
Project description:The phosphorylation of human phenylalanine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was studied using recombinant enzyme expressed as a fusion protein in the pMAL system of Escherichia coli. Using the target sequence of the restriction protease enterokinase (Asp4-Lys) as the linker peptide, 100% full-length human phenylalanine hydroxylase was obtained on protease cleavage. The fusion protein and human phenylalanine hydroxylase were both phosphorylated at Ser-16 with a stoichiometry of 1 mol of Pi/mol of subunit. The rate of phosphorylation of human phenylalanine hydroxylase was inhibited about 40% by the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and this inhibition was completely prevented by the simultaneous presence of L-phenylalanine (i.e. at turnover conditions). Phosphorylated enzyme revealed a 1.6-fold higher specific activity than the non-phosphorylated enzyme form, and it also required a lower concentration of L-Phe for substrate activation. Pre-incubation with L-Phe increased the specific activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase 2- to 4-fold, L-Phe acting with positive cooperativity. Thus, the basic catalytic and regulatory properties of recombinant human phenylalanine hydroxylase, as well as those observed for the enzyme as a fusion protein, are similar to those previously reported for the rat liver enzyme. When the target sequence of the restriction protease factor Xa (Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg) was used as the linker between maltose-binding protein and human phenylalanine hydroxylase, cleavage of the fusion protein gave a mixture of full-length hydroxylase and a truncated form of the enzyme lacking the 13 N-terminal residues. Interestingly, phosphorylation of the fusion protein, before exposure to factor Xa, almost completely protected against secondary cleavage by this restriction protease at Arg-13 of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody directed against monkey liver phenylalanine hydroxylase was produced by using a rat-myeloma--rat-spleen-cell-fusion system. This antibody showed the interesting property of increasing mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase activity more than 2-fold. Perhaps monoclonal antibodies with this effect on other enzyme or proteins could be developed.
Project description:Application of the technique of myeloma--spleen-cell fusion [Kohler & Milstein (1975) Nature (London) 256, 495--497] has allowed the isolation of a cell colony that produced a monoclonal antibody against monkey liver phenylalanine hydroxylase. The antibody exhibited cross-reactivity against hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase from other mammalian species, including human, rat and mouse. Cross-reactivity was established by (a) enzyme-inhibition assay, (b) double-immunodiffusion reaction, and (c) two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitate. The various properties of the monoclonal antibody and its use in the study of mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase are presented.
Project description:Phenylalanine hydroxylase purified from rat liver shows positive co-operativity in response to variations in phenylalanine concentration when assayed with the naturally occurring cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. In addition, preincubation of phenylalanine hydroxylase with phenylalanine results in a substantial activation of the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent activity of the enzyme. The monoclonal antibody PH-1 binds to phenylalanine hydroxylase only after the enzyme has been preincubated with phenylalanine and is therefore assumed to recognize a conformational epitope associated with substrate-level activation of the hydroxylase. Under these conditions, PH-1 inhibits the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase; however, at maximal binding of PH-1 the enzyme is still 2-3 fold activated relative to the native enzyme. The inhibition by PH-1 is non-competitive with respect to tetrahydropterin cofactor. This suggests that PH-1 does not bind to an epitope at the active site of the hydroxylase. Upon maximal binding of PH-1, the positive co-operativity normally expressed by phenylalanine hydroxylase with respect to variations in phenylalanine concentration is abolished. The monoclonal antibody may therefore interact with phenylalanine hydroxylase at or near the regulatory or activator-binding site for phenylalanine on the enzyme molecule.
Project description:PH8 monoclonal antibody has previously been shown to react with all three aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, being particularly useful for immunohistochemical staining of brain tissue [Haan, Jennings, Cuello, Nakata, Chow, Kushinsky, Brittingham & Cotton (1987) Brain Res. 426, 19-27]. Western-blot analysis of liver extracts showed that PH8 reacted with phenylalanine hydroxylase from a wide range of vertebrate species. The epitope for antibody PH8 has been localized to the human phenylalanine hydroxylase sequence between amino acid residues 139 and 155. This highly conserved region of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases has 11 out of 17 amino acids identical in phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase.
Project description:An analysis of the effect of eleven monoclonal antibodies on the functional characteristics of monkey liver phenylalanine hydroxylase is presented. These eleven antibodies have been found to react with eight distinct regions on the phenylalanine hydroxylase protein. PH1 antibody inhibits enzyme activity, is dependent on phenylalanine for its binding, and appears to be related to structural changes occurring during phenylalanine activation of the enzyme activity. PH2 and PH3 antibodies stimulate enzyme activity, their binding is inhibited by lysolecithin and this group apparently is recognizing structures involved in lysolecithin activation of the enzyme activity. PH5, PH10, PH12 and PH6 recognise sites on phenylalanine hydroxylase affected by lysolecithin activation.
Project description:Four monoclonal antibodies to phenylalanine hydroxylase are described. Two are inhibitory (PH alpha 1-1 and PH alpha 2-1-1 antibodies), one is stimulatory (B5-1 antibody) and one has no effect on enzyme activity (PH alpha 3-0 antibody). Their properties are compared. Two antibodies (PH alpha 1-1 and B5-1 antibodies) bind primate and rodent phenylalanine hydroxylase, whereas the other two (PH alpha 2-1-1 and PH alpha 3-0 antibodies) bind only the primate enzyme. The binding of PH alpha 1-1 antibody to phenylalanine hydroxylase is dependent on substrate phenylalanine, whereas the binding of the others is not influenced by phenylalanine. Affinity adsorbents prepared from the four antibodies purified phenylalanine hydroxylase substantially (greater than 80% purity) in one step, except for a PH alpha 3-0 antibody--Sepharose column, which behaved anomalously. Two previous publications described the isolation and preliminary characterization of B5 and PH alpha 1-1 antibodies. PH alpha 2-1-1 and PH alpha 3-0 antibodies are reported for the first time.
Project description:The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes the hydroxylation of excess phenylalanine in the liver to tyrosine. The enzyme is regulated allosterically by phenylalanine and by phosphorylation of Ser16. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry has been used to gain insight into any structural change upon phosphorylation. Peptides in both the catalytic and regulatory domains show increased deuterium incorporation into the phosphorylated protein. Deuterium is incorporated into fewer peptides than when the enzyme is activated by phenylalanine, and the incorporation is slower. This establishes that the conformational change upon phosphorylation of phenylalanine hydroxylase is different from and less extensive than that upon phenylalanine activation.
Project description:The known amino acid sequences at the two sites on phosphorylase kinase that are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were extended. The sequences of 42 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the alpha-subunit and of 14 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the beta-subunit were shown to be: alpha-subunit Phe-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ile-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Glx-Pro-Asx-Gly-Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Asp-Leu-Met-Ser-Pro-Ser-Phe-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-Thr-Ser-Val-Phe(Ser,Pro,Gly)His-Thr-Ser-Lys; beta-subunit, Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Ser(P)-VALIle-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Leu-Lys. The sites on histone H2B which are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro were identified as serine-36 and serine-32. The amino acid sequence in this region is: Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Ser32(P)-Arg-Lys-Glu-Ser36(P)-Tyr-Ser-Val-Tyr-Val- [Iwai, K., Ishikawa, K. & Hayashi, H. (1970) Nature (London) 226, 1056-1058]. Serine-36 was phosphorylated at 50% of the rate at which the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase was phosphorylated, and it was phosphorylated 6-7-fold more rapidly than was serine-32. The amino acid sequences when compared with those at the phosphorylation sites of other physiological substrates suggest that the presence of two adjacent basic amino acids on the N-terminal side of the susceptible serine residue may be critical for specific substrate recognition in vivo.