Kinetic studies on the reaction catalysed by phosphofructokinase from Trypanosoma brucei.
ABSTRACT: The steady-state kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei were studied at pH 6.7. In the presence of 50 mM-potassium phosphate buffer, the apparent co-operativity with respect to fructose 6-phosphate and the non-linear relationship between initial velocity and enzyme concentration, which were found when the enzyme was assayed in 50 mM-imidazole buffer [Cronin & Tipton (1985) Biochem. J. 227, 113-124], are not evident. Studies on the variations of the initial rate with changing concentrations of MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate, the product inhibition by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and the effects of the alternative substrate ITP were consistent with an ordered reaction pathway, in which MgATP binds to the enzyme before fructose 6-phosphate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is the first product to dissociate from the ternary complex.
Project description:The mechanism of rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase was investigated by measurement of fluxes, isotope trapping and steady-state velocities at pH8 in triethanolamine/HCl buffer with 4 mM free Mg2+. Most observations were made at I0.2. The ratio Flux of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate----fructose 6-phosphate/Flux of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate----ATP at zero ATP concentration increased hyperbolically from unity to about 3.2 as the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate was increased. Similarly, the ratio Flux of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate----ATP/Flux of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate----fructose 6-phosphate at zero fructose 6-phosphate concentration increased from unity to about 1.4 as the concentration of ATP was increased. The addition of substrates must therefore be random, whatever the other aspects of the reaction. Further, from the plateau values of the ratios, it follows that the substrates dissociate very infrequently from the ternary complex and that at a low substrate concentration 72% of the reaction follows the pathway in which ATP adds first to the enzyme. Isotope-trapping studies with [32P]ATP confirmed that ATP can bind first to the enzyme in rate-limiting step and that dissociation of ATP from the ternary complex is slow in relation to the forward reaction. No isotope trapping of [U-14C]-fructose 6-phosphate could be demonstrated. The ratios Flux of ATP----fructose 1,6-bisphosphate/Flux of ATP----ADP measured at zero ADP concentration and the reciprocal of the ratio measured at zero fructose 1,6-bisphosphate concentration did not differ significantly from unity. Calculated values for these ratios based on the kinetics of the reverse reaction and assuming ordered dissociations of products or a ping-pong mechanism gave values very significantly greater than unity. These findings exclude an ordered dissociation or a substantial contribution from a ping-pong mechanism, and it is concluded that the reaction is sequential and that dissociation of products is random. Rate constants were calculated for the steps in the enzyme reaction. The results indicate a considerable degree of co-operativity in the binding between the two substrates. The observations on phosphofructokinase are discussed in relation to methods of measurement and interpretation of flux ratios and in relation to the mechanism of other kinase enzymes.
Project description:Systematic deletions and point mutations in the C-terminal extension of mammalian PFK (phosphofructokinase) led us to identify Leu-767 and Glu-768 of the M-type isoform (PFK-M) as the motifs responsible for the role of this region in inhibition by MgATP. These amino acids are the only residues of the C-terminus that are conserved in all mammalian isoforms, and were found to have a similar function in the C-type isoenzyme. Both residues in PFK-C and Leu-767 in PFK-M were also observed to be critical for inhibition by citrate, which is synergistic with that by MgATP. Binding studies utilizing titration of intrinsic protein fluorescence indicated that the C-terminal part of the enzyme participates in the signal transduction route from the MgATP inhibitory site to the catalytic site, but does not contribute to the binding of this inhibitor, whereas it is essential for the binding of citrate. Mutations of the identified structural motifs did not alter either the action of other allosteric effectors that also interact with MgATP, such as the inhibitor phosphoenolpyruvate and the strong activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, or the co-operative effect of fructose 6-phosphate. The latter data provide evidence that activation by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and fructose 6-phosphate co-operativity are not linked to the same allosteric transition as that mediating inhibition by MgATP.
Project description:Pig spleen phosphofructokinase has been purified 800-fold with a yield of 17%. Two isoenzymes that appear to be kinetically identical can be separated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. In common with the enzyme from other mammalian sources, the spleen enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.2. At pH 7.0 it displays sigmoidal kinetics with respect to fructose 6-phosphate concentration but its co-operative behaviour is very dependent on pH, protein concentration and the concentration of MgATP. MgGTP and MgITP can replace MgATP as phosphate donors but, unlike MgATP, these nucleotides do not cause significant inhibition. Mn2+ and Co2+ (as the metal ion-ATP complexes) act as cofactors and in the free form are far more inhibitory than free Mg2+. The spleen enzyme responds to a wide variety of potential effector molecules: ADP, AMP, cyclic AMP, aspartate, NH4+, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate and Pi all act as either activators or protectors, whereas Mg-ATP, Mg2+, citrate, phosphoenol-pyruvate and the phosphoglucerates are inhibitors.
Project description:An assay was developed for phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) using capillary electrophoresis (CE). In the glycolytic pathway, this enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step from fructose-6-phosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine triphosphate (Mg-ATP) to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and magnesium-bound adenosine diphosphate (Mg-ADP). This enzyme has recently become a research target because of the importance of glycolysis in cancer and obesity. The CE assay for PFK-1 is based on the separation and detection by ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 260 nm of Mg-ATP and Mg-ADP. The separation was enhanced by the addition of Mg²? to the separation buffer. Inhibition studies of PFK-1 by aurintricarboxylic acid and palmitoyl coenzyme A were also performed. An IC?? value was determined for aurintricarboxylic acid, and this value matched values in the literature obtained using coupled spectrophotometric assays. This assay for PFK-1 directly monitors the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and the CE separation reduces the potential of spectral interference by inhibitors.
Project description:The involvement of Mg2+ ions in the reaction catalysed by phosphofructokinase from Trypanosoma brucei was studied. The true substrate for the enzyme was shown to be the MgATP2-complex, and free Mg2+ ions are also required for enzyme activity. At concentrations of MgATP2- of 2.92 mM and greater, and a fructose 6-phosphate concentration of 1 mM and in the presence of EDTA as a Mg2+ buffer, the Km value for Mg2+ was determined to be 294 +/- 18 microM. Neither MgATP nor free ATP is an inhibitor of the enzyme, although apparent inhibition by the latter can be observed as a consequence of the decrease in free Mg2+ by chelation.
Project description:Freshly purified spinach chloroplast fructose bisphosphatase is powerfully inhibited by inorganic phosphate competitively with respect to its substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The concentrations of phosphate and substrate in the chloroplast stroma are such that the enzyme in this form could not operate at a significant rate in vivo. Incubation of the enzyme with dithiothreitol for 24 h decreases the Km for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate from 0.8 to 0.033 mM, decreases the Km for Mg2+ from 9 to 2 mM and substantially alleviates inhibition by inorganic phosphate. The physiological significance of thiol activation of the enzyme is discussed.
Project description:1. To investigate the mechanism of the reversible inactivation of pig spleen phosphofructokinase by ATP, the effect of order of addition of reactants (substrates, effectors and enzyme solution) was studied by preincubating the enzyme before assay with various combinations of its substrates and effectors. 2. Preincubation of the enzyme with MgATP or ATP at pH7.0 before addition of fructose 6-phosphate caused a rapid and much greater inhibition of activity than that observed when the reaction (carried out at identical substrate concentrations) was initiated with enzyme. 3. The rapid inhibition caused by preincubation with ATP, together with the sigmoidal response to fructose 6-phosphate and activation by AMP, were all blocked by prior photo-oxidation of the enzyme with Methylene Blue, which selectively destroys the inhibitory binding site for ATP [Ahlfors & Mansour (1969) J. Biol. Chem.244, 1247-1251]. 4. Fructose 6-phosphate, but not Mg(2+), protected phosphofructokinase from inhibition during preincubation with ATP in a manner that was sigmoidally dependent on the fructose 6-phosphate concentration. 5. Mg(2+), by protecting the enzyme from the inhibitory effect of preincubation at low pH (7.0) and by preventing its activation during preincubation with fructose 6-phosphate, demonstrated both a weak activating effect in the absence of the other substrates and a stronger inhibitory effect in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate. 6. Positive effectors (K(+), NH(4) (+), AMP and aspartate) protected the enzyme from inhibition during preincubation with MgATP in proportion to their potency as activators, but citrate potentiated the ATP inhibition. P(i) significantly slowed the inactivation process without itself acting as a positive effector. 7. The non-linear dependence of the initial rate of the unmodified enzyme on protein concentration (associated with increased positive homotropic co-operativity to fructose 6-phosphate) was intensified by preincubation with ATP and abolished by photo-oxidation. 8. The results are interpreted in terms of an association-dissociation model which postulates that protonation, at low pH, of a photo-oxidation-sensitive inhibitory site for ATP allows more rapid dissociation of an active tetramer to an inactive dimeric species.
Project description:Phosphofructokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei brucei was purified to homogeneity by using a three-step procedure that may be performed within 1 day. Proteolysis, which removes a fragment of Mr approx. 2000, may occur during the purification, but this can be prevented by including antipain, an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, in the buffers during the purification. The subunits of the enzyme appear to be identical in size, with an Mr of 49 000. The Mr of the native enzyme was estimated to be approx. 220 000, suggesting a tetrameric structure. Kinetic studies showed the activity to depend hyperbolically on the concentration of ATP but sigmoidally on the concentration of fructose 6-phosphate. Although cyclic AMP, AMP and ADP stimulated the enzyme activity at low concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate, the last two nucleotides were inhibitory at high concentrations of this substrate. Phosphoenolpyruvate behaved as an allosteric inhibitor of the phosphofructokinase. Citrate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and Pi did not influence significantly the activity of the enzyme.
Project description:1. Pyruvate kinase purified from the hepatopancrease of Carcinus maenas exhibited sigmoidal saturation kinetics with respect to the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate in the absence of the allosteric activator fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, but normal hyperbolic saturation was seen in the presence of this activator. The activation appears to be the result of a decrease in the s0.5 (phosphoenolpyruvate) and not to a change in Vmax. 2. In the presence of ADP and ATP at a constant nucleotide-pool size the results indicate that phosphoenolpyruvate co-operativity is lost on increasing the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. 3. Paralleling this change is the observation that the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate activation became less at the [ATP]/[ATP] ratio was increased. This was due to the enzyme exhibiting a near-maximal activity in the absence of activator. 4. L-Alanine inhibited the enzyme, but homotropic co-operative interactions were only seen with a cruder (1000000g supernatant) enzyme preparation. The inhibition by alanine could be overcome by increasing the concentration of either phosphoenolpyruvate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, although increasing the L-alanine concentration did not appear to be able to reverse the activation by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. 5. In the presence of a low concentration of phosphoenolpyruvate, increasing the concentration of the product, ATP, caused an initial increase in enzyme activity, followed by an inhibitory phase. In the presence of either fructose 1,6-bisphosphate or L-alanine only inhibition was seen. 6. The inhibition by ATP could not be completely reversed by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
Project description:Phosphofructokinase (EC 126.96.36.199) from a citric acid-producing strain of Aspergillus niger was partially purified by the application of affinity chromatography on Blue Dextran--Sepharose and the use of fructose 6-phosphate and glycerol as stabilizers in the working buffer. The resulting preparation was still impure, but free of enzyme activities interfering with kinetic investigations. Kinetic studies showed that the enzyme exhibits high co-operativity with fructose 6-phosphate, but shows Michaelis--Menten kinetics with ATP, which inhibits at concentrations higher than those for maximal activity. Citrate and phosphoenolpyruvate inhibit the enzyme; citrate increases the substrate (fructose 6-phosphate) concentration for half-maximal velocity, [S]0.5, and the Hill coefficient, h. The inhibition by citrate is counteracted by NH4+, AMP and phosphate. Among univalent cations tested only NH4+ activates by decreasing the [S]0.5 for fructose 6-phosphate and h, but has no effect on Vmax. AMP and ADP activate at low and inhibit at high concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate, thereby decreasing the [S]0.5 for fructose 6-phosphate. Phosphate has no effect in the absence of citrate. The results indicate that phosphofructokinase from A. niger is a distinct species of this enzyme, with some properties similar to those of the yeast enzyme and in some other properties resembling the mammalian enzyme. The results of determinations of activity at substrate and effector concentrations resembling the conditions that occur in vivo support the hypothesis that the apparent insensitivity of the enzyme to citrate during the accumulation of citric acid in the fungus is due to counteraction of citrate inhibition by NH4+.