Stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis by thrombin in membranes from human fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: One of the earliest actions of thrombin in fibroblasts is stimulation of a phospholipase C (PLC) that hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. In membranes prepared from WI-38 human lung fibroblasts, thrombin activated an inositol-lipid-specific PLC that hydrolysed [32P]PIP2 and [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP) to [32P]IP3 and [32P]inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) respectively. Degradation of [32P]phosphatidylinositol was not detected. PLC activation by thrombin was dependent on GTP, and was completely inhibited by a 15-fold excess of the non-hydrolysable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). Neither ATP nor cytosol was required. Guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) also stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, and this activation was inhibited by GDP[S]. Stimulation of PLC by either thrombin or p[NH]ppG was dependent on Ca2+. Activation by thrombin required Ca2+ concentrations between 1 and 100 nM, whereas stimulation of PLC activity by GTP required concentrations of Ca2+ above 100 nM. Thus the mitogen thrombin increased the sensitivity of PLC to concentrations of free Ca2+ similar to those found in quiescent fibroblasts. Under identical conditions, another mitogen, platelet-derived growth factor, did not stimulate polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. It is concluded that an early post-receptor effect of thrombin is the activation of a Ca2+- and GTP-dependent membrane-associated PLC that specifically cleaves PIP2 and PIP. This result suggests that the cell-surface receptor for thrombin is coupled to a polyphosphoinositide-specific PLC by a GTP-binding protein that regulates PLC activity by increasing its sensitivity to Ca2+.
Project description:Addition of 10 micron-ADP to washed rabbit platelets caused platelet shape change and aggregation without release of the contents of the amine-storage granules, and caused a transient decrease (8.8% at 10 s) in the amount of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). By 20 s the decrease in PIP2 was no longer apparent, but by 60 s the amount of PIP2 was again decreased. Addition of thrombin (1 unit/ml), which causes platelet shape change, aggregation and the release of the contents of the amine-storage granules, caused a decrease in the amount of PIP2 (8.0% at 10 s); at 60 s the amount of PIP2 was not significantly different from that in controls. In platelets prelabelled with [3H]glycerol, the specific radioactivity of PIP2 was increased at 10 s in ADP-stimulated platelets, and unchanged in thrombin-stimulated platelets. In platelets prelabelled with [3H]inositol and incubated with 20 mM-Li+ to inhibit the degradation of the inositol phosphates to inositol, there was no increase in the labelling of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) upon stimulation with ADP. In contrast, stimulation with thrombin caused a significant increase in the labelling of IP3 at 10 s. These differences in the changes in polyphosphoinositide metabolism in ADP- and thrombin-stimulated platelets are consistent with the hypothesis that the decrease in PIP2 in ADP-stimulated platelets may be due not to degradation of PIP2 by phospholipase C, but rather to a shift in the equilibrium between PIP2 and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP). Increases in the labelling of phosphatidic acid at 10 s and of inositol bisphosphate and inositol phosphate after 20 s are consistent with phospholipase C being stimulated through some other mechanism that leads to the degradation of PIP and phosphatidylinositol; one possibility is that ADP causes an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+.
Project description:At low concentrations of Mg2+, incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in plasma membranes isolated from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes was enhanced 2-4-fold by the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Polyamines had no effects on inositol phospholipid phosphorylation at high concentrations of Mg2+. At 1 mM-Mg2+, [32P]PIP2 synthesis was maximally enhanced by 2 mM-spermine and 5 mM-spermidine, whereas putrescine only slightly enhanced synthesis. Spermine decreased the EC50 (concn. for half-maximal activity) for Mg2+ in [32P]PIP2 synthesis from 5 mM to 0.5 mM. Spermine did not modulate the Km for ATP for [32P]PIP or [32P]PIP2 synthesis. Spermine also decreased the EC50 for PI in [32P]PIP synthesis. In contrast, spermine elevated the apparent Vmax, without affecting the EC50 for PIP, for [32P]PIP2 synthesis. Spermine and spermidine also inhibited the hydrolysis of [32P]PIP2 by phosphomonoesterase activity. Therefore polyamines appear to activate inositol phospholipid kinases by eliminating the requirements for super-physiological concentrations of Mg2+. Polyamine-mediated inhibition of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis would serve to potentiate further their abilities to promote the accumulation of polyphosphoinositides in biological systems.
Project description:The non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway plays important roles in embryonic development, tissue formation and diseases. However, it is unclear how the Wnt ligand-stimulated, G protein-coupled receptor Frizzled activates phospholipases for calcium release. Here, we report that the zebrafish/human phosphatidylinositol transfer protein Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to transduce Wnt signals from Frizzled to phospholipase C (PLC). Depletion of sec14l3 attenuates Wnt/Ca2+ responsive activity and causes convergent and extension (CE) defects in zebrafish embryos. Biochemical analyses in mammalian cells indicate that Sec14l3-GDP forms complex with Frizzled and Dishevelled; Wnt ligand binding of Frizzled induces translocation of Sec14l3 to the plasma membrane; and then Sec14l3-GTP binds to and activates phospholipase C?4a (Plc?4a); subsequently, Plc?4a initiates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) signaling, ultimately stimulating calcium release. Furthermore, Plc?4a can act as a GTPase-activating protein to accelerate the hydrolysis of Sec14l3-bound GTP to GDP. Our data provide a new insight into GTPase protein-coupled Wnt/Ca2+ signaling transduction.
Project description:Rabbit platelets were labelled with [3H]inositol and a membrane fraction was isolated in the presence of ATP, MgCl2 and EGTA. Incubation of samples for 10 min with 0.1 microM-Ca2+free released [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to about 2.0% of the membrane [3H]phosphoinositides. Addition of 10 microM-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) caused an additional formation of [3H]inositol phosphates equivalent to 6.6% of the [3H]phosphoinositides. A half-maximal effect was observed with 0.4 microM-GTP[S]. The [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated consisted of 10% [3H]inositol monophosphate, 88% [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]IP2) and 2% [3H]inositol trisphosphate ([3H]IP3). Omission of ATP and MgCl2 led to depletion of membrane [3H]polyphosphoinositides and marked decreases in the formation of [3H]inositol phosphates. Thrombin (2 units/ml) or GTP (4-100 microM) alone weakly stimulated [3H]IP2 formation, but together they acted synergistically to exert an effect comparable with that of 10 microM-GTP[S]. The action of thrombin was also potentiated by 0.1 microM-GTP[S]. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate not only inhibited the effects of GTP[S], GTP and GTP with thrombin, but also blocked the action of thrombin alone, suggesting that this depended on residual GTP. Incubation with either GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP decreased membrane [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate ([H]PIP) and prevented an increase in [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ([3H]PIP2) observed in controls. Addition of unlabelled IP3 to trap [3H]IP3 before it was degraded to [3H]IP2 showed that only about 20% of the additional [3H]inositol phosphates that accumulated with GTP[S] or thrombin and GTP were derived from the action of phospholipase C on [3H]PIP2. The results provide further evidence that guanine-nucleotide-binding protein mediates signal transduction between the thrombin receptor and phospholipase C, and suggest that PIP may be a major substrate of this enzyme in the platelet.
Project description:The incorporation of [32P]Pi and [3H]inositol into the inositol lipids of baby-hamster kidney cells was studied in herpes-simplex-virus-type-1(HSV-1)-infected and mock-infected cells. The infection was conducted during incorporation of, as well as after prelabelling with, the precursors. These methods were used in order to study both synthesis de novo of, and steady-state changes in, the phosphoinositides. Both with infection during labelling, and after prelabelling, we found increased [32P]- and [3H]-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and decreased [32P]- and [3H]-phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate in infected as compared with mock-infected cells, whereas no effect was observed on phosphatidylinositol. This altered inositol-lipid metabolism was (at least in the case of PIP2) not present until 3-6 h after infection and remained stable, or increased slightly, throughout the infection period. Polyphosphoinositide metabolism constitutes an important step in signal processing in many forms of cellular stimulation, and the results obtained suggest that HSV-1 infection may induce such events in our cell system.
Project description:Rat hepatocytes whose phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) had been labelled for 60 min with 32P were treated with glucagon for 10 min or phenylephrine for 2 min. Glucagon caused a 20% increase in PIP but no change in PIP2 whereas phenylephrine caused a similar increase in PIP but a 15% decrease in PIP2. Addition of both hormones together for 10 min produced a 40% increase in PIP. A crude liver mitochondrial fraction incubated with [32P]Pi and ADP incorporated label into PIP, PIP2 and phosphatidic acid. The PIP2 was shown to be in contaminating plasma membranes and PIP in both lysosomal and plasma-membrane contamination. A minor but definitely mitochondrial phospholipid, more polar than PIP2, was shown to be labelled with 32P both in vitro and in hepatocytes. The rate of 32P incorporation into PIP was faster in mitochondrial/plasma-membrane preparations from rats treated with glucagon or if 3 microM-Ca2+ and Ruthenium Red were present in the incubation buffer. Loss of 32P from membranes labelled in vitro was shown to be accompanied by formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, and was faster in preparations from glucagon-treated rats or in the presence of 3 microM-Ca2+. It is concluded that glucagon stimulates both PIP2 phosphodiesterase and phosphatidylinositol kinase activities, as does the presence of 3 microM-Ca2+. The resulting formation of IP3 may be responsible for the observed release of intracellular Ca2+ stores. The roles of a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein and phosphorylation in mediating these effects are discussed.
Project description:The effect of the GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on the polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) of rat liver was examined by using exogenous [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. GTP[S] stimulated the membrane-bound PLC up to 20-fold, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 100 nM. Stimulation was also observed with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, but not with adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. Membrane-bound PLC was entirely Ca2+-dependent, and GTP[S] produced both a decrease in the Ca2+ requirement and an increase in activity at saturating [Ca2+]. The stimulatory action of GTP[S] required millimolar Mg2+. [8-arginine]Vasopressin (100 nM) stimulated the PLC activity approx. 2-fold in the presence of 10 nM-GTP[S], but had no effect in the absence of GTP[S] or at 1 microM-GTP[S]. The hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by membrane-bound PLC was increased when the substrate was mixed with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine or various combinations of these with phosphatidylserine. With PtdIns(4,5)P2, alone or mixed with phosphatidylcholine, GTP[S] evoked little or no stimulation of the PLC activity. However, maximal stimulation by GTP[S] was observed in the presence of a 2-fold molar excess of phosphatidylserine or various combinations of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by membrane-bound PLC was also increased by GTP[S]. However, [3H]phosphatidylinositol was a poor substrate, and its hydrolysis was barely affected by GTP[S]. Cytosolic PtdIns(4,5)P2-PLC exhibited a Ca2+-dependence similar to that of the membrane-bound activity, but was unaffected by GTP[S]. It is concluded that rat liver plasma membranes possess a Ca2+-dependent polyphosphoinositide PLC that is activated by hormones and GTP analogues, depending on the Mg2+ concentration and phospholipid environment. It is proposed that GTP analogues and hormones, acting through a guanine nucleotide-binding protein, activate the enzyme mainly by lowering its Ca2+ requirement.
Project description:Both micromolar Ca2+ and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) stimulated the formation of inositol phosphates (InsPs) in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells prelabelled with [3H]inositol. The production of InsPs was potentiated by ATP. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) caused a GTP-reversible shift to higher concentrations in the Ca(2+)-concentration-response curve for the release of InsPs without changing the maximal response. GTP[S] caused a shift to lower concentrations of Ca2+ and also increased the maximal response. The effects of GTP[S] and Ca2+ were synergistic. Although as much as 80% of the InsPs were derived from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdInsP) or 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2), the amount of InsPs produced could be several times the total amount of PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 in the cells and was largely accounted for by a decrease in PtdIns. The levels of labelled PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 increased on stimulation with Ca2+, but decreased on stimulation with GTP[S] or the combination of Ca2+ and GTP[S]. Preincubation with Ca2+ and ATP amplified the subsequent GTP[S]-induced production of InsPs. ATP and its gamma-thio and beta gamma-imido analogues stimulated the formation of InsPs in intact cells. However, only ATP potentiated the responses to Ca2+ and GTP[S] in permeable cells. Our main conclusions are: (1) a GTP-binding protein participates in the Ca(2+)-induced production of InsPs by phospholipase C, and (2) ATP markedly potentiates the stimulated formation of InsPs, an effect with arises from its role in polyphosphoinositide synthesis and does not involve purinergic receptor activation in permeabilized cells. The data also suggest that the different effects of Ca2+ and GTP[S] on polyphosphoinositide synthesis probably contribute to the synergistic action of Ca2+ and GTP[S] on the generation of InsPs.
Project description:The non-hydrolysable guanine analogues guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) have been used extensively (as promoters and inhibitors respectively) to probe the importance of G-protein function. We report on the use of GDP[S] in permeabilized and intact platelets. The stimulatory analogue GTP[S] (9-60 microM) induces shape change, aggregation and 5-hydroxy[14C]-tryptamine secretion when added to saponin (12-14 micrograms/ml)-permeabilized platelets, but not to intact platelets. In line with the activation responses in permeabilized cells, GTP[S] induces an increase in [32P]-phosphatidic acid, which is indicative of phospholipase C activity. GDP[S] (greater than 400 microM) totally inhibits GTP[S] (90 microM)-stimulated phospholipase C activity and functional responses in saponized platelets. GDP[S] (1 mM) was also effective at inhibiting low-dose thrombin (0.1 unit/ml)-induced aggregation and secretion responses (without affecting shape change) in permeabilized platelets with inhibition of [32P]-phosphatidic acid formation. At higher doses of thrombin (greater than 0.5 unit/ml), both functional responses and [32P]phosphatidic acid formation are restored in the presence of GDP[S]. Studies on intact cells revealed that GDP[S] was as effective at inhibiting low-dose thrombin-induced functional responses as in the permeabilized cells, but there was no inhibition of [32P]phosphatidic acid formation, indicating that the agent is nonmembrane-penetrating. This reflected the fact that GDP[S] has additional inhibitory sites on the surface of platelets. In Fura-2-loaded cells GDP[S] inhibited thrombin-induced Ca2+ mobilization, as measured by Fura-2 fluorescence, in a dose-dependent manner. In studies with and without Ca2+ present on the outside, the effect of GDP[S] was to block Ca2+ influx. These studies indicate that, although GDP[S] is a valuable tool in studying G-protein function in permeabilized cells, it also has inhibitory activities on the surface of platelets, and one of these has been identified as an effect on the Ca2+-influx channel after agonist stimulation.
Project description:We have studied synergism between adrenaline (epinephrine) and low concentrations of thrombin in gel-filtered human platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Suspensions of platelets, which did not contain added fibrinogen, were incubated at 37 degrees C to measure changes in the levels of 32P-labelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidate (PA), aggregation and dense-granule secretion after stimulation. Adrenaline alone (3.5-4.0 microM) did not cause a change in any parameter (phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and dense-granule secretion), but markedly enhanced the thrombin-induced responses over a narrow range of thrombin concentrations (0.03-0.08 units/ml). The thrombin-induced hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C, which was measured as the formation of [32P]PA, was potentiated by adrenaline, as was the increase in the levels of [32P]PIP2 and [32P]PIP. The presence of adrenaline caused a shift to the left for the thrombin-induced changes in the phosphoinositide metabolism, without affecting the maximal levels of 32P-labelled compounds obtained. A similar shift by adrenaline in the dose-response relationship was previously demonstrated for thrombin-induced aggregation and dense-granule secretion. Also, the narrow range of concentrations of thrombin over which adrenaline potentiates thrombin-induced platelet responses is the same for changes in phosphoinositide metabolism and physiological responses (aggregation and dense-granule secretion). Our observations clearly indicate that adrenaline directly or indirectly influences thrombin-induced changes in phosphoinositide metabolism.