Uptake of N-acetylneuraminic acid by Escherichia coli K-235. Biochemical characterization of the transport system.
ABSTRACT: Kinetic measurement of the uptake of N-acetyl[4,5,6,7,8,9-14C]neuraminic acid by Escherichia coli K-235 was carried out in vivo at 37 degrees C in 0.1 M-Tris/maleate buffer, pH 7.0. Under these conditions uptake was linear for at least 30 min and the Km calculated for sialic acid was 30 microM. The transport system was osmotic-shock-sensitive and was strongly inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation [2,4-dinitrophenol (100%); NaN3 (66%]) and by the metabolic inhibitors KCN (84%) and sodium arsenate (76%). The thiol-containing compounds mercaptoethanol, glutathione, cysteine, dithiothreitol and cysteine had no significant effect on the sialic acid-transport rate, whereas the thiol-modifying reagents N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and p-chloromercuribenzoate almost completely blocked (greater than 94%) the uptake of this N-acetyl-sugar. N-Acetylglucosamine inhibited non-competitively the transport of N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas other carbohydrates (hexoses, pentoses, hexitols, hexuronic acids, disaccharides, trisaccharides) and N-acetyl-sugars or amino acid derivatives (N-acetylmannosamine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetylproline and N-acetylglutamic acid) did not have any effect. Surprisingly, L-methionine and its non-sulphur analogue L-norleucine partially blocked the transport of this sugar (50%), whereas D-methionine, D-norleucine, several L-methionine derivatives (L-methionine methyl ester, L-methionine ethyl ester, L-methionine sulphoxide) and other amino acids did not affect sialic acid uptake. The N-acetylneuraminic acid-transport system is induced by sialic acid and is strictly regulated by the carbon source used for E. coli growth, arabinose, lactose, glucose, fructose and glucosamine being the carbohydrates that cause the greatest repressions in this system. Addition of cyclic AMP to the culture broth reversed the glucose effect, indicating that the N-acetylneuraminic acid-uptake system is under catabolic regulation. Protein synthesis is not needed for sialic acid transport.
Project description:Adult male rats, under starving and normal conditions, were injected intravenously with N-acetyl[3H]mannosamine and after various time intervals the specific radioactivities of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid were determined in the liver. The specific radioactivity of free NeuAc was high even within 20s after injection; the maximum was reached between 7 and 10 min. The specific radioactivity of CMP-NeuAc showed a lag phase of approx. 1 min. Thereafter it increased quickly and rose above the specific radioactivity of free NeuAc, reaching a maximum about 20 min after injection. These results point to a channelling of the newly synthesized NeuAc molecules into a special compartment, from which they are preferentially used by the enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthetase. It is suggested that the cytosolic enzyme N-acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate phosphatase is working in concert with the nuclear localized enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. Incorporation of radioactive sialic acid into sialoglycoproteins in liver occurred 2 min after injection, and after 10 min bound radioactivity began to appear in the circulation, indicating a transport time of 8 min of sialoglycoproteins from the point of attachment of sialic acid to the point of excretion.
Project description:Many pathogenic bacteria utilise sialic acids as an energy source or use them as an external coating to evade immune detection. As such, bacteria that colonise sialylated environments deploy specific transporters to mediate import of scavenged sialic acids. Here, we report a substrate-bound 1.95 Å resolution structure and subsequent characterisation of SiaT, a sialic acid transporter from Proteus mirabilis. SiaT is a secondary active transporter of the sodium solute symporter (SSS) family, which use Na+ gradients to drive the uptake of extracellular substrates. SiaT adopts the LeuT-fold and is in an outward-open conformation in complex with the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid and two Na+ ions. One Na+ binds to the conserved Na2 site, while the second Na+ binds to a new position, termed Na3, which is conserved in many SSS family members. Functional and molecular dynamics studies validate the substrate-binding site and demonstrate that both Na+ sites regulate N-acetylneuraminic acid transport.
Project description:1. Sheep colonic mucin contains three types of sialic acids, separable from the macrostructure by mild acidic hydrolysis. These are composed chiefly of N-acetyl-and N-glycollyl-neuraminic acid in ratios between 1:1.2 and 1:3.5 for different preparations of the mucin. The third sialic acid appears to be a diacetylated neuraminic acid. 2. A particle-free enzyme preparation, obtained from sheep colonic mucosa by gentle homogenization and high-speed centrifugation, catalyses a series of reactions involving N-acylamino sugars and leading to the formation of sialic acids in vitro: (i) phosphorylation by ATP of d-glucosamine, N-acetyl-and N-glycollyl-d-glucosamine; (ii) conversion of N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate into N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate; (iii) formation of sialic acids from phosphoenolpyruvate and N-acetyl- or N-glycollyl-d-glucosamine; (iv) formation of N-acetylneuraminic acid from uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine or from N-acetylmannosamine; (v) incorporation of l-[U-(14)C]serine into the mucin by whole mucosal preparations.
Project description:The identity of a novel form of sialyl-lactose found in milk of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) was investigated. The sialyl-lactose yielded equimolar amounts of N-acetylneuraminic acid and lactose during mild acid hydrolysis but was resistant to the action of a bacterial neuraminidase. A viral neuraminidase hydrolysed it to lactose plus a form of sialic acid that reacted positively with thiobarbituric acid reagent but whose chromatographic mobility was greater than that of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Treatment with alkali converted the sialyl-lactose into a substance with the same chromatographic mobility as N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-->3)-lactose and made it susceptible to the action of bacterial neuraminidase. The sialyl-lactose contained one mol of ester (identified as acetyl), and released one mol of formaldehyde during periodate oxidation, per mol of sialic acid. It did not contain N-glycollylneuraminic acid. These results indicate that the sialyl-lactose is N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminyl-(2-->3)-lactose. Echidna milk contained, in addition, a small amount of N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-->3)-lactose.
Project description:O-Acetylation of sialic acid (Sia) modulates its recognition by sialic acid-binding proteins and plays an important role in biological and pathological processes. 9-O-Acetylation is the most common modification of sialic acid in human. However, study of O-acetylated sialoglycans is hampered due to the instability of O-acetyl group towards pH changes and sensitivity to esterases. Our previous studies demonstrated a chemical biology method to this problem by replacing the oxygen atom in the C9 ester group of sialic acid by a nitrogen to form an amide. Here, we synthesized a library of sixteen new 9-acetamido-9-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac9NAc)-containing ?2-3- and ?2-6-linked sialosides with various underlying glycans using efficient one-pot three-enzyme (OP3E) sialylation systems. Neu5Ac9NAc-containing compounds with a para-nitrophenol aglycon have been used together with their 9-O-acetyl analogs in microtiter plate-based high-throughput substrate specificity studies of nine different sialidases including those from humans and bacteria. In general, similar to 9-O-acetylation, 9-N-acetyl modification of sialic acid in the substrates lowers sialic acid-cleavage activity of most sialidases. In most cases, Neu5Ac9NAc is a good analog of 9-O-acetyl sialic acid. However, exceptions do exist. For example, 9-N- and 9-O-acetyl modifications have different effects on the sialosides cleave efficiencies of a commercially available C. perfringens sialidase as well as recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidase SpNanC and Bifidobacterium infantis sialidase BiNanH2. The mechanism for the difference awaits further investigation.
Project description:Transport of D-glucose was studied in Percoll-gradient-purified rat liver lysosomes. D-Glucose uptake had a Km of 22 mM and a t1/2 of approx. 30 s. D-Fucose, 2-deoxyglucose and methyl alpha-glucoside were the most effective competitors for uptake of D-glucose, although D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose and L-fucose also appeared to compete for uptake. L-Glucose was a poor competitor for uptake. No competition was observed with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucuronic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid, D-glucosamine or the amino acids L-glycine, L-lysine and L-proline. Uptake was unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide, dithiothreitol, KCl, NaCl, ATP/Mg or alteration of buffer pH. D-Glucose efflux from lysosomes was temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of 2.3, and was inhibited by cytochalasin B. Counter-transport could not be demonstrated. In contrast, L-fucose uptake had a Km of 65 mM and was largely unaffected by 5 M excess of neutral D-sugars. Both uptake and efflux of L-fucose were inhibited by cytochalasin B. It appears that lysosomes possess a facilitated transport system for D-glucose and perhaps other neutral D-sugars that is discrete from transport systems for acetylated and acidic sugars.
Project description:Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen and a common cause of otitis media in children and of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lipooligosaccharides, a major component of the outer membrane of H. influenzae, play an important role in microbial virulence and pathogenicity. N-Acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) can be incorporated into the lipooligosaccharides as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Although much of the pathway of sialic acid incorporation into lipooligosaccharides is understood, the transporter responsible for N-acetylneuraminic acid uptake in H. influenzae has yet to be characterized. In this paper we demonstrate that this transporter is a novel sugar transporter of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter family. In the absence of this transporter, H. influenzae cannot incorporate sialic acid into its lipooligosaccharides, making the organism unable to survive when exposed to human serum and causing reduced viability in biofilm growth.
Project description:The synthesis of <i>N</i>-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) derivatives is drawing more and more attention in glycobiology research because of the important role of sialic acids in e.?g. cancer, bacterial, and healthy cells. Chemical preparation of these carbohydrates typically relies on multistep synthetic procedures leading to low overall yields. Herein we report a continuous flow process involving <i>N</i>-acetylneuraminate lyase (NAL) immobilized on Immobead 150P (Immobead-NAL) to prepare Neu5Ac derivatives. Batch experiments with Immobead-NAL showed equal activity as the native enzyme. Moreover, by using a fivefold excess of either <i>N</i>-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or pyruvate the conversion and isolated yield of Neu5Ac were significantly improved. To further increase the efficiency of the process, a flow setup was designed providing a chemoenzymatic entry into a series of <i>N</i>-functionalized Neu5Ac derivatives in conversions of 48-82%, and showing excellent stability over 1 week of continuous use.
Project description:N-Acetylneuraminate lyases (NALs) or sialic acid aldolases catalyze the reversible aldol cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, the most common form of sialic acid) to form pyruvate and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine. Although equilibrium favors sialic acid cleavage, these enzymes can be used for high-yield chemoenzymatic synthesis of structurally diverse sialic acids in the presence of excess pyruvate. Engineering these enzymes to synthesize structurally modified natural sialic acids and their non-natural derivatives holds promise in creating novel therapeutic agents. Atomic-resolution structures of these enzymes will greatly assist in guiding mutagenic and modeling studies to engineer enzymes with altered substrate specificity. We report here the crystal structures of wild-type Pasteurella multocida N-acetylneuraminate lyase and its K164A mutant. Like other bacterial lyases, it assembles into a homotetramer with each monomer folding into a classic (?/?)? TIM barrel. Two wild-type structures were determined, in the absence of substrates, and trapped in a Schiff base intermediate between Lys164 and pyruvate, respectively. Three structures of the K164A variant were determined: one in the absence of substrates and two binary complexes with N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Both sialic acids bind to the active site in the open-chain ketone form of the monosaccharide. The structures reveal that every hydroxyl group of the linear sugars makes hydrogen bond interactions with the enzyme, and the residues that determine specificity were identified. Additionally, the structures provide some clues for explaining the natural discrimination of sialic acid substrates between the P. multocida and Escherichia coli NALs.
Project description:Mitochondrial-inner-membrane vesicles, isolated from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by titration with detergents, accumulated L-glutamine by a very efficient transport system. The vesicles lack any phosphate-activated glutaminase activity, allowing measurement of transport rates without interference by L-glutamine metabolism. The time course of the transport was linear for the first 60 s, reaching a steady state after 120 min. L-Glutamine transport showed co-operativity, with a Hill coefficient of 2.2; the kinetic parameters S0.5 and Vmax had values of 5 mM and 26 nmol/30 s per mg of protein respectively. The pH-dependence curve showed a bell shape, with a pH optimum about 8.0. The uptake of L-glutamine was not affected by the presence of a 50-fold molar excess of D-glutamine, L-cysteine, L-histidine, L-alanine, L-serine and L-leucine, whereas L-glutamate behaved as a poor inhibitor. The structural analogue L-glutamate gamma-hydroxamate (5mM) inhibited the net uptake by 68%; interestingly, other analogues (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, acivicin and L-glutamate gamma-hydrazide) were ineffective. The impermeant thiol reagent p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid (0.5mM) completely abolished the mitochondrial L-glutamine uptake; in contrast, other thiol reagents (mersalyl and N-ethylmaleimide) did not significantly affect the transport. These data confirm the existence of a specific transport system with high capacity for L-glutamine in the mitochondrial inner membrane, a step preceding the highly operative glutaminolysis in tumour cells.