Binding of aromatic isonitriles to haemoglobin and myoglobin.
ABSTRACT: A series of aromatic isonitriles were synthesized and their binding to sheep haemoglobin and horse heart myoglobin was investigated. The disubstituted ligands 2,6-dimethylphenylisonitrile and 2,6-diethylphenylisonitrile were found to bind to horse-heart myoglobin with affinities ranging from 500 to 5000 times greater than that of ethylisonitrile (4.6 x 10(-6) M) which has been the tightest binding isonitrile ligand for myoglobin thus far reported. The tight binding was not found to vary significantly with pH or temperature. An explanation for the unexpectedly high affinity is offered in terms of the electronic structure of aromatic isonitriles.
Project description:Five new antibacterial ambiguine K-O isonitriles (1-5) and eight previously described indole alkaloids were isolated from the cultured cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua (UTEX 1903) by bioassay-guided fractionation. The planar structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis including MS and 1D and 2D NMR. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the absolute stereoconfiguration of ambiguine K isonitrile. The isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against a set of bacterial targets, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Bacillus anthracis. Ambiguine K and M isonitriles showed the most potent activity against M. tuberculosis, with MIC values of 6.6 and 7.5 microM, respectively. Ambiguine A isonitrile showed the most potent activity against B. anthracis, with a MIC of 1.0 microM.
Project description:The synthesis of polypeptides on solid phase via mediation by isonitriles is described. The acyl donor is a thioacid, which presumably reacts with the isonitrile to generate a thio-formimidate carboxylate mixed anhydride intermediate. Applications of this chemistry to reiterative solid-phase peptide synthesis as well as solid-phase fragment coupling are described.
Project description:Quantum chemical calculations were used to study the reaction of carboxylic acids with isonitriles inside a resorcinarene-based self-assembled capsule. Experimentally, it has been shown that the reactions between p-tolylacetic acid and n-butyl isonitrile or isopropyl isonitrile behave differently in the presence of the capsule compared both with each other and also with their solution counterparts. Herein, the reasons for these divergent behaviors are addressed by comparing the detailed energy profiles for the reactions of the two isonitriles inside and outside the capsule. An energy decomposition analysis was conducted to quantify the different factors affecting the reactivity. The calculations reproduce the experimental findings very well. Thus, encapsulation leads to lowering of the energy barrier for the first step of the reaction, the concerted ?-addition and proton transfer, which in solution is rate-determining, and this explains the rate acceleration observed in the presence of the capsule. The barrier for the final step of the reaction, the 1,3 O?N acyl transfer, is calculated to be higher with the isopropyl substituent inside the capsule compared with n-butyl. With the isopropyl substituent, the transition state and the product of this step are significantly shorter than the preceding intermediate, and this results in energetically unfavorable empty spaces inside the capsule, which cause a higher barrier. With the n-butyl substituent, on the other hand, the carbon chain can untwine and hence uphold an appropriate guest length.
Project description:The absorption and resonance Raman spectra and the azide binding kinetics of ferric horse heart myoglobin (Mb) and mini myoglobin (a chemically truncated form of horse heart Mb containing residues 32-139) have been compared. The steady-state spectra show that an additional six-coordinated low-spin form (not present in entire horse heart Mb, which is purely six-coordinated high spin) predominates in mini Mb. The distal histidine is possibly the sixth ligand in this species. The presence of two species corresponds to a kinetic biphasicity for mini Mb that is not observed for horse heart Mb. Azide binds to horse heart Mb much more slowly than to sperm whale Mb. This difference may result from a sterically hindered distal pocket in horse heart Mb. In both cases, the rate constants level off at high azide concentrations, implying the existence of a rate-limiting step (likely referable to the dissociation of the axial sixth ligand). The faster rate constant of mini Mb is similar to that of sperm whale Mb, whereas the slower one is similar to that of entire horse heart Mb.
Project description:Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific `unusual' ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty thresholds. The binding of unusual ligands by myoglobin, leading to crystal-induced distortions, suggests that some of the conformational differences between the apo and holo structures might not be `functionally important' but rather artifacts caused by the binding of `unusual' substrate analogs. The causes of P6 symmetry in myoglobin crystals and the relationship between crystal and solution structures are also discussed.
Project description:1. Crystalline myoglobin was prepared from camel heart muscle. 2. A method was developed for the isolation of myoglobin that employs molecular-sieve chromatography. 3. Analytical chromatography of the camel myoglobin on a molecular-sieve column and on two types of ion-exchange columns gave in each case a single elution band, which accounted for better than 98% recovery and showed that the product was free from haemoglobin. 4. The iron content on a dry weight basis was 0.308%. This value corresponds to a molecular weight of 18100. 5. The spectra of acidic ferrimyoglobin, basic ferrimyoglobin and ferrimyoglobin cyanide were measured. 6. The pK(a) of the dissociation of the haem-bound water molecule in acidic ferrimyoglobin was 8.53 at 25 degrees . 7. Conclusions are drawn about the charge on the surface of the camel ferrimyoglobin molecule as compared with horse and sperm-whale ferrimyoglobins.
Project description:Recent developments in the use of isonitriles to furnish secondary and tertiary amide bond formations have been applied to a novel total synthesis of the important cyclic polypeptide cyclosporine A. Specifically, the disclosed synthetic route demonstrates the utility of microwave-mediated carboxylic acid isonitrile couplings, thioacid isonitrile couplings at ambient temperature, and isonitrile-mediated couplings of carboxylic acids and thioacids with amines to form challenging amide bonds.
Project description:The complexes of horse myoglobin (Mb) with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and with the cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and decyltrimethylammonium bromide (DeTAB), have been studied by a combination of surface tension measurements and optical spectroscopy, including heme absorption and aromatic amino acid fluorescence. SDS interacts in a monomeric form with Mb, which suggests the existence of a specific binding site for SDS, and induces the formation of a hexacoordinated Mb heme, possibly involving the distal histidine. Fluorescence spectra display an increase of tryptophan emission. Both effects point to an increased protein flexibility. SDS micelles induce both the appearance of two more heme species, one of which has the features of free heme, and protein unfolding. Mb/CTAC complexes display a very different behavior. CTAC monomers have no effect on the absorption spectra, and only a slight effect on the fluorescence spectra, whereas the formation of CTAC aggregates on the protein strongly affects both absorption and fluorescence. Mb/DeTAB complexes behave in a very similar way as Mb/CTAC complexes. The surface activity of the different Mb/surfactant complexes, as well as the interactions between the surfactants and Mb, are discussed on the basis of their structural properties.
Project description:Myoglobin, a critical protein responsible for meat color, has been shown insusceptible to digestion. The underlying mechanism is not clear. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the structural properties of myoglobin are associated with its insusceptibility to digestion using spectroscopic and computational techniques. Myoglobin was degraded by only 7.03% by pepsin and 33.00% by pancreatin. The structure of myoglobin still maintained ?-helix after the two-step digestion, with the exposure of some aromatic residues. In addition, molecular dynamics modeling suggested that hydrophobic amino acid residues (Phe 111, Leu 10, Ala 115, Pro 116) in pepsin and polar amino acid residues (Tyr 146, Thr 95) in myoglobin were found in the proximity of binding sites, which could result in the low digestibility of myoglobin. Our findings provide a new insight into the underlying mechanisms on the difficulty in digestion of myoglobin.
Project description:A facile method for the quick discovery and quantification of isonitrile compounds from microbial cultures was established based on the isonitrile-tetrazine click reaction. This method was successfully applied to the rediscovery of diisonitrile antibotic SF2768 from an unknown strain <i>Streptomyces tsukubensis</i>. Finally, an <i>in situ</i> reduction further enabled bioorthogonal ligation of primary and secondary isonitriles for the first time.