Iron release from haemosiderin and production of iron-catalysed hydroxyl radicals in vitro.
ABSTRACT: Isolated haemosiderin contained iron and nitrogen in a weight ratio of 6.75, with phosphorus and no detectable haem. Considerably more iron was released from haemosiderin under acidic conditions than under neutral conditions in the presence of ascorbate, nitrilotriacetate or dithionite. Unlike the situation with ascorbate, chelators such as citrate, ADP or succinate induced the release of only some iron, with almost no pH-dependence. Dehydroascorbate (the oxidized form of ascorbate with no reducing capacity) behaved like citrate, ADP, succinate or desferal, rather than like ascorbate itself, in releasing iron. GSH had less effect on the release of iron than these chelators, but in the presence of a small amount of chelator the release of iron increased, especially under acidic conditions. Thus reduction, chelation and pH were all found to be important factors involved in the release of iron from haemosiderin. Investigation by e.p.r. of hydroxyl-radical production by the released iron showed high radical productivity at an acidic pH. However, at a physiological pH, almost no radical formation was detected, except in the presence of nitrilotriacetate. These findings suggested that, under physiological conditions, haemosiderin was not an effective iron donor and was almost not involved in radical production. Under acidic conditions, however, such as in inflammation, hypoxia and in a lysosomal milieu, it could possibly be an iron donor and is thought to be implicated in radical production and tissue damage in iron-overloaded conditions.
Project description:Ferritin and haemosiderin were shown, by the measurement of malondialdehyde production and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, to stimulate lipid peroxidation in liposomes. At pH 7.4 ascorbate was additionally required to achieve peroxidation; however, peroxidation occurred at pH 4.5 in the presence of iron-proteins alone. The damage was completely inhibited by the incorporation of chain-breaking antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene) into the liposomes. Metal chelators (desferrioxamine and EDTA) also completely inhibited lipid peroxidation. These and further results indicate that, at pH 4.5, even in the absence of a reducing agent, iron is released from haemosiderin and can mediate oxidative damage to a lipid membrane.
Project description:The heteroaromatic chelators 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, maltol, mimosine and 2,4-dihydroxypyridine-N-oxide, have been shown to mobilize iron from human spleen haemosiderin, ferritin and also from iron(III) precipitates, all containing equal amounts of iron, at physiological pH. In the case of almost every chelator, the least-solubilized polynuclear iron form was ferritin, whereas haemosiderin was more soluble and the iron(III) precipitate the most soluble of all. Most of the chelators were more efficient than desferrioxamine at releasing iron from ferritin, but less efficient in the removal of iron from the other two polynuclear iron forms. It is suggested that the chelator differences in iron mobilization may be related to variations in the chelator molecular structure, the protein structure, iron forms and in the mechanism of iron release.
Project description:Horse spleen and human spleen ferritins increase the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) at both pH 4.5 and pH 7.4 in reaction mixtures containing ascorbic acid and H2O2. The generation of OH is inhibited by the chelator desferrioxamine. Human spleen haemosiderin also accelerates OH generation in identical reaction mixtures, but is far less effective (on a unit iron basis) than ferritin under all reaction conditions. It is proposed that conversion of ferritin into haemosiderin in iron overload is biologically advantageous in that it decreases the ability of iron to promote oxygen-radical reactions.
Project description:Iron release from both human and horse spleen haemosiderin to desferrioxamine was substantially less than that released from ferritin samples. This finding contradicts a previous report [Kontoghiorges, Chambers & Hoffbrand (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 87-92]. Differences in phosphate content of cores and in core size between haemosiderin and ferritin did not account for the different iron-release rates. Iron released to acetate was found to stimulate lipid peroxidation in liposomes, whereas that released to stronger chelators such as citrate and desferal did not. Absorption spectra and gel-filtration studies suggest that the acetate-solubilized iron was in the form of low-molecular-mass (less than 5 kDa) ferrihydrite fragments.
Project description:We have investigated the effect in solution of synthetic carrier ampholytes on the saturation of human serum transferrin. By spectrophotometric titrations of human serum transferrin with various Fe3+-carrier ampholyte solutions, we demonstrated that under these conditions carrier ampholytes behave as typical chelators, their binding curves being very similar to that obtained with disodium nitrilotriacetate. On performing titration experiments at three different pH values, carrier ampholytes act like nitrilotriacetate at pH 7.5, but the former are more effective iron donors at pH 8.4 and worse iron donors at pH 5.2. Spectrophotometric titrations of isolated C-terminal and N-terminal fragments obtained from human serum transferrin by thermolysin cleavage show no differences between them, and no differences with respect to the whole protein except that they contain half the number of binding sites. In order to determine a site-specificity of iron in the presence of ampholytes, the classical urea/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis technique was adopted. Under saturating conditions carrier ampholyte solutions act mostly on the C-terminal site, whereas desaturating agents remove iron preferentially from the N-terminal site. Our findings support the hypothesis that Ampholine may chelate Fe3+ as well as many other compounds.
Project description:Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to induce toxicity in a wide range of cancer cell lines. Pharmacological ascorbate in animal models has shown promise for use in cancer treatment. At pharmacological concentrations the oxidation of ascorbate produces a high flux of H2O2 via the formation of ascorbate radical (Asc(•-)). The rate of oxidation of ascorbate is principally a function of the level of catalytically active metals. Iron in cell culture media contributes significantly to the rate of H2O2 generation. We hypothesized that increasing intracellular iron would enhance ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity and that iron chelators could modulate the catalytic efficiency with respect to ascorbate oxidation. Treatment of cells with the iron-chelators deferoxamine (DFO) or dipyridyl (DPD) in the presence of 2mM ascorbate decreased the flux of H2O2 generated by pharmacological ascorbate and reversed ascorbate-induced toxicity. Conversely, increasing the level of intracellular iron by preincubating cells with Fe-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) increased ascorbate toxicity and decreased clonogenic survival. These findings indicate that redox metal metals, e.g., Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), have an important role in ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity. Approaches that increase catalytic iron could potentially enhance the cytotoxicity of pharmacological ascorbate in vivo.
Project description:Conjugated-Schiff's-base-type fluorescence was measured in iron-depleted samples and chloroform extracts of human spleen haemosiderin. Incubation of ferritin with liposomes and ascorbate led to the formation of compounds with similar fluorescence properties. Analysis of protein subunits by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis confirmed that ferritin was damaged in incubations with ascorbate. Since previous studies have shown that intact ferritin is resistant to proteolytic degradation, it is suggested that haemosiderin may be a product of oxidative reactions involving ferritin and lipid.
Project description:The iron chelators desferrioxamine (DFO), 1,2-dimethyl(L1)-, 1-ethyl-2-methyl(L1NEt)- and 1-propyl-2-methyl(L1NPr)-3-hydroxypyrid-4-ones inhibited rat aortic prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis in vitro (rank order of potency: DFO greater than L1 greater than L1NEt greater than L1NPr) when stimulated with adrenaline, arachidonate and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The inhibitory action of the chelators was blocked by Fe3+ and Al3+ and reversed by washing and H2O2, but not by ascorbate. These data suggest that iron chelators inhibit prostanoid synthesis in intact tissue through the removal or binding of Fe3+ linked to cyclo-oxygenase. These iron chelators may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of inflammatory and other diseases via two mechanisms: (1) the inhibition of pro-inflammatory prostanoid synthesis and (2) the inhibition of toxic-free-radical generation by cyclo-oxygenase.
Project description:A study was made of the interaction of plasma ascorbate and ascorbate free radical (AFR) with exogenously added iron. The quantitative determination of AFR has the advantage that transient increases in ascorbate oxidation can be directly monitored by e.p.r. spectroscopy. An AFR signal was found in the plasma of all donors and was unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase and the strong iron chelator deferoxamine. These findings and the rapid decrease in AFR under a nitrogen atmosphere suggest that plasma AFR is probably a result of air auto-oxidation. Iron loading of plasma did not affect the intensity of the AFR signal until the iron concentration approached or exceeded the plasma latent iron-binding capacity. In iron-overloaded plasma, the intensity of the AFR signal increased to about 10 times the normal level before decreasing rapidly to undetectable levels after 15-20 min. Determination of plasma ascorbate showed that the disappearance of AFR was due to a complete loss of the vitamin. When 50 microM-ascorbate was loaded with iron in iso-osmotic phosphate buffer there was an increase in the AFR signal, independent of the iron concentration, which was stable at least for 15 min. Thus the rate of ascorbate loss in the iso-osmotic phosphate buffer was considerably lower than in iron-overloaded plasma. The addition of different iron chelators produced comparable effects on the intensity of the AFR signal in both iron-overloaded plasma and ascorbate solution. These results suggest that the characteristic behaviour of plasma AFR after iron loading is due to its specific iron-binding capacity and to plasma ferroxidase activity. The ferroxidase activity of plasma is important to promote the transfer of Fe2+ into transferrin without a transient ascorbate oxidation. Spin-trapping studies with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone revealed that iron-overloaded plasma was unable to produce spin-trap adducts even in the presence of 50-300 microM-hydrogen peroxide or 100 microM-azide. Evidence of OH. radical formation was obtained only after the addition of EDTA. Therefore, iron-overloaded plasma itself does not produce a Fenton reaction and, if ascorbate does indeed have a free-radical-mediated pro-oxidant role, it is not detectable in plasma by spin-trapping experiments.
Project description:A putative operon encoding an uncharacterized ferrous iron transport (FtrABCD) system was previously identified in cDNA microarray studies. In growth studies using buffered medium at pH values ranging from pH?6.0 to 7.6, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica FtrABCD system mutants showed dramatic reductions in growth yields under iron-restricted conditions at pH?6.0, but had no growth defects at pH?7.6. Supplementation of culture medium with 2?mM ascorbate reductant was inhibitory to alcaligin siderophore-dependent growth at pH?7.6, but had a neglible effect on FtrABCD system-dependent iron assimilation at pH?6.0 consistent with its predicted specificity for ferrous iron. Unlike Bordetella siderophore-dependent and haem iron transport systems, and in agreement with its hypothesized role in transport of inorganic iron from periplasm to cytoplasm, FtrABCD system function did not require the TonB energy transduction complex. Gene fusion analysis revealed that ftrABCD promoter activity was maximal under iron-restricted growth conditions at acidic pH. The pH of human airway surface fluids ranges from pH?5.5 to 7.9, and the FtrABCD system may supply ferrous iron necessary for Bordetella growth in acidic host microenvironments in which siderophores are ineffective for iron retrieval.